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HAROLD W. FAIRBANKS, Geography JOHN F. WOODHULL, Physical Science 




Volume I, 1905 

Published by 

M. A. BIGELOW, Managing Editor 

525 West 120TH Street 




Press of 

Thf. new Era Printing Company 

Lancamer, Pa 




Vol. I JANUARY, 1905 No. 1 


In introducing this, the first number of The Nature-Study 
Review, it stems necessary to define the limits of the field which 
the journal will attempt to cover, because the term nature-study 
in the descriptive part of the title may be so variously understood 
at the present time. The different interpretations of nature-study 
for schools will be presented and discussed in this and later num- 
bers of the journal ; but here it may be said, without defense, that 
the aims and plans of the editorial committee are based upon an 
interpretation of nature-study in its literal and widest sense as 
including all phases, physical as well as biological, of studies of • 
natural objects and processes in elementary schools. It is evident ) 
that from this general point of view Mature-study includes all the 
" natural-science " studies of the lower school : the natural his- 
tory of plants and animals (nature-study in its common and most 
limited sense), school-gardening and the closely allied elementary 
agriculture, elementary physical science, the physical side of geog- | 
raphy, and physiology and hygiene with special reference to the ; 
human body. With all these phases of nature-study, and espe- 
cially with their relations to each other in elementary-school edu- 
cation considered as a whole, The Review will deal. 

Nature-study interpreted in such a wide sense must obviously 
draw its materials from the fields of the several sciences, and the S 
working out of the problems must be through the united efforts of 
experts in the fields of biology, geography, physics and chemistry, 
agriculture, and education. Recognizing this need of cooperation 
from several points of view, it was decided as part of the initial 
plan for this journal that the editorial committee and the board 

2 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i. jan. 1905 

of advisers and collaborators should be representative of all the 
sciences whose fields are involved in elementary education. More- 
over, while nature-study is primarily an educational movement 
for the lower schools, it also affects the science work of the 
higher schools, and therefore should be considered from the 
combined viewpoints of professional educators with practical ac- 
quaintance with the problems of the elementary schools and of 
university men who are primarily interested in nature-study as a 
preliminary phase of science-teaching. For this reason represen- 
tatives of both schools and colleges are interested in the develop- 
ment of the new journal. Finally, the wide geographical distribu- 
tion of the nearly seventy members of the editorial board insures 
that the journal will be entirely independent of local interests and 
free to become representative of nature-study in all parts of Amer- 
ica, the center of the movement ; and it is hoped that those inter- 
ested in nature-study in all the States and in Canada will have a 
personal interest in the development of the journal as though it 
were the official organ of an American association of nature-study 
teachers. M. A. B. 




[Editorial Note. — The extensive correspondence connected 
with the founding of The Nature-Study Review showed that in 
the minds of representative men of science and education there is 
great variation in the interpretation of what nature-study is sup- 
posed to be or should be. In fact, there were found eminent pro- 
fessors who were so firmly convinced that nature-study is simply 
a dangerous fad that they counseled against attempting to give 
the subject recognition in a special journal. But all this diver- 
gence of opinion should be not in the least discouraging, for the 
various opinions are simply outgrowths of the different local prac- 
tices in the teaching of nature-study. Thus far nature-study in 
the United States has been developed in more or less local centres 
where leaders have by personal contact established their individual 


schemes of nature-study. Hence it has come about that nature- 
study is understood to mean: (i) elementary agriculture; (2) 
simple object lessons on plants and animals ; (3) informal teaching 
about natural things seen by pupils, for the sake of developing 
interest and habits of observing; (4) serious elementary biology 
and physical science ; (5) popular picnics in the woods ; (6) senti- 
mental talks and reading about plants and animals ; (7) " teaching 
children to love Nature " — these and all their possible combina- 
tions and probably still other points of view are found in the cur- 
rent interpretation and practice of nature-study in the United 
States. Such variation is not surprising, for the natural processes 
and materials with which nature-study in any form has to deal are 
extremely variable in their distribution, and therefore so far as 
facts are concerned the nature-study in one locality can not be the 
same as that in another. From a Maine forest to a wheat field 
in the Dakotas is a transition to quite a different world ; but in 
spite of the difference in materials available for study it seems 
reasonable to believe that educationally the study of the objects of 
the immediate environment ought to lead the Maine and the 
Dakota pupils to the same essential result. In other words, if 
nature-study is anything more than local manifestations of a 
widely distributed fad, there ought to be found some fundamental 
principles concerning whose educational and scientific value there 
will be general agreement. The science of biology is taught in 
the colleges on the basis of materials locally available, and yet 
there is such general understanding and agreement regarding the 
fundamental principles that in all essentials of a general biological 
education the students of the Australian colleges have equal ad- 
vantages with their contemporaries in England, Germany, and 
America. The situation with regard to nature-study is exactly 
parallel. There is need of agreement and uniformity concerning 
the fundamental principles by which the teaching about any par- 
ticular natural object or process may be guided. In search of 
such agreement it is necessary, first of all. that the conflicting 
views as to what nature-stud}' is in education should be brought 
together for comparison and discussion. This will be attempted 
in The Nature-Study Review ; and we open the discussion 
of fundamental questions by presenting this month a series of 
brief papers which attempt to point out the differences between 
nature-study and natural science — two terms which are commonly 
regarded as quite synonymous.] 

THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

Berkeley, Cal. 

In attempting to frame a definition of nature-study I may be 
undertaking something which cannot be accomplished to the satis- 
faction of every one, and yet all will agree, I think, that the sub- 
ject must be more sharply and clearly stated if we would have it 
productive of the most good in our schools. One has only to 
look over the literature of nature-study to see how varied are the 
standpoints of different teachers with reference to the subject. 

Some teachers hold that the chief object of nature-study or 
science, for they use the terms interchangeably, is the acquisition 
of facts, and consequently fill the course of study with a mass of 
materials which are to be studied in a scientific manner. Other 
teachers hold that the subject is valuable chiefly for its training 
of the mind and senses, and for its power to arouse an interest 
in and love for the world about us. With the first class the sub- 
ject-matter and its manner of presentation are all important, with 
the second class the subject-matter is considered immaterial as 
long as the desired training of the senses is brought about. The 
extremes of these two schools are far apart, and represent radi- 
cally different standpoints, but there are many intermediate views 

The term nature-study, it seems to me, may be appropriately 
used for all that direct observation and study of natural phe- 
nomena which belongs within the province of the elementary 
school. Nature-study has to do with the raw materials of science, 
but it is not science as that term should be used. It is not even 
elementary science, if by science we mean the coordinating, ar- 
ranging, and systematizing of the facts of nature. Facts will be 
acquired but that is not the main object. 

Nature-study differs from the older system of " object teach- 
ing " in dealing more directly with phenomena in their natural re- 
lations, less with isolated " objects." Nature-study is less formal 
and the cultivation of language and expression is incidental. 
There must be some system in any properly arranged course of 
nature-study, but not an inflexible one. The teacher should be 
permitted to emphasize those aspects of nature with which he is 
most familiar, and the work should be further determined by the 
physical environment of the school. 


For the first four years of school, that is, throughout the pri- 
mal'}- period, nature-study and geography are practically identical. 
Theoretically, however, we may distinguish " home lore " from a 
geographic treatment of the home and its surroundings. Above 
the fourth grade nature-study and geography diverge in practice, 
although to make the most of both subjects, lessons in one should 
be arranged as far as possible with reference to lessons in the 

Nature-study calls for action on the part of the pupil. He 
should discover the meaning of facts for himself, and not ordi- 
narily go to the teacher or to books. His own experience should 
form the basis of what he acquires. 

There should be a gradual shifting of emphasis in nature-study 
throughout the elementary school. The distinction between na- 
ture-study and science is most marked in the lower grades. Here 
the emphasis is laid upon the side of interest, upon the training 
of the mind and senses, and the materials studied should be from 
the home environment. In the more advanced portion of the 
course, although the subject should still be developed from the 
side of interest, there must come an increasing use of the reason- 
ing powers, and a greater value attached to the choice and use 
of material. 

With the beginning of the secondary-school period method is 
more exact, there is a deeper inquiry into causes and relations, 
and we may be said to have reached the scientific study of nature. 

There is no break in the development of the powers of the child 
between the kindergarten and the college, and the lessons in 
nature-study, beginning with the home region, must be graded to 
suit the expanding capacities. Nature-study must blend into 
science study with no break between school periods. 

The pupil should come to the secondary school with a keen 
interest in the study and observation of natural phenomena, and 
if the work in the latter school is not too ambitious, he does not 
have to unlearn upon reaching the college a mass of pseudo- 
science taught him when he was too immature to comprehend it 

Nature-study should give primarily that training which the sav- 
age child acquires, but should carry it much farther. The savage 
child acquires an untechnical knowledge of wood-craft, of the 
habits and characteristics of the birds and animals, of the signs 

6 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1.905 

of storm, and of the dangers which lurk about him. Experience 
sharpens his senses and gives him a working knowledge, which 
although not consciously reasoned out, or systematized in any 
way, yet serves him in time of need. 

The children of civilized races are shut away in too many in- 
stances from a free contact with nature ; their needs are so pro- 
vided for and dangers guarded against, that they grow up with 
undeveloped capacities and in almost total ignorance of the world 
of nature. How much more they would make of their surround- 
ings, and how much more these surroundings would heighten their 
interest and zest in life if they were able to appreciate them in 
even a very simple way. 

Nature-study should lead the child back to this natural intimacy 
with nature and to delight in her company. This cannot be done 
by feeding him upon courses of study made up of scientifically 
arranged facts, but by fitting him in a broad way through the 
exercise of his observational and reasoning powers so that he not 
only takes pleasure in the world around him but is able to use 
it more fully to his material advantage. 



Clark University 

" I doubt not but ye shall have more ado to drive our dullest and laziest 
youth, our stocks and stubs from the infinite desire of such a happy nur- 
ture, than we have now to hale and drag our choicest and hopefullest wits 
to that asinine feast of sow-thistles and brambles which is commonly set 
before them, as all the food and entertainment of their tenderest age." 
— John Milton, "Tractate on Education," p. 8. 

There is a suggestive analogy between eating and learning. In 
the one process food is built into the bodily life, in the other truth 
is assimilated to the mental life. Both functions are equipped 
with a complicated set of organs and both require a certain 
amount of effort or work. " Dc gustibus 11011 est disputandum " ; 
and still it is interesting to inquire why it is that eating or learn- 
ing some things is pleasurable and wholesome, while learning or 
eating something else may be distasteful and injurious. In gen- 
eral, if the physical appetite is sharp enough, the taking of food, 
however plain, is agreeable ; and, if food is not to be had, I sup- 
pose a Digger Indian may derive some satisfaction from eating 


clay. In general, too, it is difficult to induce children to eat any- 
thing" that is distinctly distasteful to them, and under conditions 
of normal health and appetite this is not necessary, their natural 
tastes and desires being our safest guide. We do not think of 
feeding non-nutritious substances for the sake of " strengthen- 
ing " the stomach ; although the experiment has been tried of 
giving a piece of sponge to a frog's stomach to see how the cells 
would react. It was found that the cells secreted vigorously but 
failed to recover their original condition as they did when sup- 
plied with food. I have little doubt that a similar calamity in the 
learning mechanism results from the effort to master subjects 
that do not prove to contain some nutriment for thought and the 
mental life. 

Science is a sort of military ration of a special few. Nature- 
study should be the daily bread of all alike. The attempt to force 
the arm}' ration on the children of the country under the name 
of " elementary science," or often mistakenly called nature-study, 
has resulted in no end of misunderstanding and confusion. 

In attempting to answer the question, " What is nature-study 
as distinguished from elementary science," it must be understood 
that this discussion deals solely with the biological side : i. e., 
What is nature-study of animals and plants as distinguished from 
technical botany and zoology. Fortunately, there are others who 
will speak for the other phases of the problem. ( )ur particular 
question thus becomes : What knowledge about animals and 
plants ought to constitute the course in nature-study for ele- 
mentary schools? 

It is easy to define botany and zoology as the scientific treat- 
ment of animals and plants in regard to structure, arrangement, 
development and classification. All attempts to introduce these 
sciences into elementary instruction had proved failures as long 
ago as Charles Dickens wrote " Hard Times," and every effort 
to force them into the curriculum since that time has only served 
to heap up the evidence against them. Finally, to escape the 
odium of the Thomas Gradgrind-Mr. McChoakumchild regime 
the very name " elementary science " had to be dropped and the 
wholesome term " nature-study " substituted ; and the gravest 
danger now confronting this new movement is that we forget the 
lessons of the past and persist in trying to teach children formal 
science adapted to maturer years. After acquaintance with a 


8 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

number of common animals and plants has been attained the value 
of scientific methods may be appreciated. 

The greatest difficulty just now in making a clear distinction 
between nature-study and science in practical teaching is con- 
cerned with the purely scientific training of the teachers. They 
have had technical biology — or botany and zoology — either in 
college or in normal schools under college educated instructors. 
They have not been given the nature-study point of view ; and 
consequently, when they are called upon to give lessons on ani- 
mals and plants, they have nothing else and hence can teach only 
college science. This situation has drawn the dreariest train of 
absurdities in its wake to be found in our whole educational sys- 
tem — " lessons "(?) in the classification of animals and plants 
the children have never seen or heard of, technical details of form 
and structure which, with the difficult terminology, are wholly 
meaningless and unrelated to any interests of either the children 
or the community. 

Nature-study, as I conceive it, is so natural and easy and so 
refreshing to teachers and pupils alike that a frequent reaction 
among teachers, I find, is : " Why, this is too good fun. You 
really do not call this work, do you?" Well, call it what you 
please, but the more freedom, spontaneity and delight there is, 
for both teacher and pupils, the better nature-study it is. These 
are just the things that will develop genuine love of nature, one 
ounce of which is worth in life-value pounds of mere acquisition 
of facts. All I ask of nature-study is that it bring the child out at 
fourteen with a genuine and abiding love of nature ; and the thing 
that has stirred me to the quick in this whole subject is the hatred 
and the consequent abuse of nature which Gradgrind methods 
develop in the child. 

In order to develop love we need not only acquaintance but inti- 
macy, and intimacy requires time. Love is active. It is the great 
motive source of action in the world. Its best definition is : " the 
desire or passion to do good to the object loved." Hence, trans- 
lated into these terms, we should have as the end result of our 
nature-study the abiding desire to do good to the nature in which 
we live. But the good in nature is set off, bounded and defined 
by the evil. A child cannot love the plants in his garden without 
pulling the weeds and destroying the insects that would harm 
them. So with trees and birds and the whole list of nature inter- 


ests. Since life itself is a struggle, wherever we raise a love we 
define a possible line of battle ; and we are all in the world to fight 
the good fight. Turn whichever way we will, it is only trifling 
to attempt to escape this conflict, and, hence, the line between the 
good and the evil in nature is essential in selecting the matter 
which we include in our course in nature-study. In other words, 
the good and the beautiful are realities upon which human life 
and interests have taken fixed and definite hold. Bring the child 
into acquaintance and intimacy with the proper things and his 
love flows out to them as naturally as water flows down hill. If 
we attempt to force upon him false relations and values, we have 
the futile task of trying to turn the stream up hill. 

Success or failure of the whole movement depends on the sub- 
ject-matter selected. If that is rich in universal human interest 
and value, we shall hear no more about " waste of time on fads " 
and " new fangled notions," and nature will be accorded its right- 
ful place as a great source of nourishment for our educational life. 


State University of Iowa 

I am asked to discuss briefly the question, What is nature-study, 
and especially to point out the distinction, if such exist, between 
nature-study and natural science as offered in the higher schools. 

The problem seems to me by no means difficult, theoretically 
at least ; in practice science-teaching in elementary courses may, 
and probably should, include the nature-study idea as incidental. 
Nature-study is simply a sympathetic attempt to bring known 
truth concerning the natural world to the attention and compre- 
hension of those who would learn. All that is offered in nature- 
study to-day will be, of course, in accordance with the principles 
of art and science ; art, in so far as it pertains to the discussion 
of the beauty of outward form, science in all that pertains to exact 
detail, whether of form, history, or underlying relationship and 
origin. In other words, real nature-study is based upon real 
science ; differing from the more formal presentation of scientific 
truth only in that it is less comprehensive, less complete, and in- 
deed holds in view a different immediate purpose. The purpose 
of the study of science is primarily the attainment of truth, of all 

IO THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

truth ; the pin-pose of nature-study is rather the development of 
sentiment or possibly the acquisition of some bit of expert infor- 
mation. If, for example, we study the deer as a matter of sci- 
ence, we seek to learn all about his structure, his relationships, 
genesis, habits, etc. ; as students of nature-study we may choose 
to ignore many of these things and think of the deer only as a 
beautiful living creature, having certain habits and relations to 
our parks and forests. But, it would not do to consider the deer 
as having horns like those of a cow, or as making in the forest 
foot-prints like those of a colt, or paths like the streets of a city. 
Nature-study when dealing with animals is real zoology ; it may 
not declare the entire body of known scientific truth in the par- 
ticular case, but at least it will in no particular contravene zoolog- 
ical fact. And so when dealing with plants ; nature-study is 
botany so far as it goes. It is not myth, it is not nonsense, nor 
childish legend, it is truth, scientifically ascertained and supported, 
truth, simply and clearly stated. 

There are, however, it would appear, very many people, even 
teachers, who so little appreciate the simple truth of science, as 
to esteem it dry and of itself uninteresting. The life-history of 
the barnacle does not appeal to such at all ; they much prefer the 
tale of the barnacle-goose. Such people will always prefer bar- 
nacle-goose stories, whether of the sixteenth century or of the 
twentieth, and for these real nature-study is out of the question. 
Unfortunately, such people still persist in believing themselves 
true nature-students and too often write volumes for the guidance 
of others. People who by actual experience know nothing about 
the natural world, by the aid of such books find themselves com- 
petent to teach nature-study, or in the language of the schedules, 
to undertake " the nature-work," and the blind go on leading the 
blind into a maze of fable and foolishness to which the history of 
education in recent times affords scarcely a parallel. Books of this 
sort are so numerous that they need not be here cited. All this 
kind of thing has served to bring the nature-study effort into 
disrepute, and many eminent men of science and of the schools 
look upon the whole matter as superficial, insincere and hence 
mischievous in the extreme. The remedy lies in the definition 
and encouragement of real nature-study, as against every fad and 
fashion whatsoever. Nature-study to be of any service at all, 
must concern itself primarily with the truth, whatever the ulti- 


mate purpose. Surely in all the splendid panorama of the living- 
world there is enough to excite our intelligent interest ; surely 
enough to arouse our warm sympathy with these forms of beauty 
and loveliness, alheit leading lowly lives, yet lives of contented- 
ness, happiness and purity, — surely in all this there is enough to 
waken the sympathy and interest of every intelligent, sentient 
soul, without metaphor, without artifice or stimulus of any sort. 
The greatest teacher of the world bade us consider the lily " how 
it grows " ; who of his followers in all the 2,000 years can solve 
the problem ? The simplest problems of nature are all about us, 
yet far-reaching to exhaust the most cunning artifice of our in- 
quiry ; but we heed them not. Look at the splendor of our 
autumn fields of corn ; where are the people in all these thousand 
schools that know the secrets of the corn ? Who knows the mean- 
ing of the sunflower, the aster, or how the chrysanthemum comes 
by its wealth of pearl and gold, and yet anon is purple? Who 
knows where the bobolink builds his nest, or why he is lost to-day 
in that swarthy swarm that marks the assembly of the blackbird 
clans all moving to the South ? Who knows the path of the wild- 
duck in his flight and why from year to year he courses back 
and forth, weaving the web of his destiny in the vaster mystery 
of terrestrial life ? Who shall teach the farmers and sportsmen 
of our country that to shoot these birds in spring is destruction, 
a barbarism that even the savage Indians were unwilling to 
commit ? 

But why shall nature-study be limited to plants and animals 
alone? Among the text-books offered nowadays, there are some 
which are much more comprehensive ; they take up in simple way 
the phenomena of the inorganic world. This is to be commended. 
Why, for instance, should our people be almost universally ignor- 
ant of the simpler facts about the stars? Primitive men, men at 
least of whose attainments their descendants are not inclined to 
boast, long ago learned to read the shifting movements of the 
planets, but there are to-day millions of men in the United States 
who know not the first thing about the nightly heavens. Is there 
any reason why an agricultural people should not find nature- 
study in the processes which concern the making and distribution 
of the soils? The simple truths of geology are everywhere patent 
not in books, not in pictures, biit in fact ; in the streets, in the 
field and garden, by the roadside, written on scratched pebbles, 

12 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i. jan. 1905 

sculptured on all the hills. Why may not such facts constitute 
the theme of genuine nature-study, to the great and never-ceasing 
profit and advantage of by far the larger part of our population ? 
But however all this may be, it still remains, that in all our 
nature-study we must take care that we so use the facts of nature 
that our children learn to judge wisely and discriminate truth 
from fancy and error, and any view or treatment of the natural 
world which is inconsistent with the known methods and facts of 
science will ever prove disastrous at the last, called by whatever 
name, nature-study or not, no matter how lofty our professed 
intentions, how noble the purpose we declare. 


North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

With the subject so broad in scope, so indefinite in administra- 
tion, so capable of variation, and withal so new, there is little 
wonder that nature-study is misunderstood by many ; that it is 
confounded with botany, zoology or geography on the one hand, 
or with agriculture and studies of the industries on the other. It 
is not surprising that attempts to define nature-study have failed, 
that written definitions are as numerous as are writers upon 
nature-study, and that conceptions of the subject are almost as 
many as are the teachers who attempt nature-study. The vast- 
ness of the subject leaves almost infinite liberty to the teacher in 
the selection of matter. Hundreds of elementary courses could 
be planned, yet not trespass upon one another. None of that 
elimination, leading to mutual agreement as to the most desirable 
topics, has yet occurred, as it has with such sciences as chemistry 
and physics. These sciences, moreover, deal with fundamentals, 
and it is a necessary consequence that one elementary course in 
a given science is much like another in the same science. The 
principles to be taught are the same, the method chiefly varies. 

Nature-study on the other hand does not deal with funda- 
mentals. It concerns itself with details. Fundamentals are few ; 
details are infinite. One of the chief differences between science 
and nature-study rests upon these facts. They are fundamental 
and they will operate to retard, if not to prohibit forever, any 
rigidity in the nature-study outline. The great variation in sub- 
ject-matter gives almost limitless plasticity to the course. 


Another fundamental distinction between science and nature- 
study is that the latter as recognized by the great majority of its 
promoters is a study of natural objects, not books. Science may 
be a study of either books or natural objects. The essence of 
science is the subject-matter. The essence of nature-study is the 
method. While the subject-matter of nature-study varies almost 
endlessly, its method is its characteristic. Vary the method be- 
yond certain limits and it is no longer nature-study. Nature- 
study and science are in these attributes distinguishable. 

Nature-study is not science, it is none of the arts. It differs 
from both in motive. Science has for its end the acquiring and 
teaching of facts, laws, or principles ; an art to do or accomplish 
or construct. Nature-study does neither primarily. It may do 
both extensively though incidentally. The function of nature- 
study is to increase interest, to awaken the power of observation, 
and to open the eyes of the child so that he may see the beauties 
of nature that abound unrecognized about him. The difference 
in motive between the sciences or arts and nature-study is there- 
fore fundamental. 

The field of nature-study is broader than that of any other 
subject in the school curriculum. The motive of nature-study 
precludes dogmatic selection of any specific subject-matter from 
this field. That subject-matter is best which in the hands of a 
given teacher with a given school and environment will arouse 
wholesome abiding interest in nature. The value of systematic 
outlines is therefore less than in the case of the information 
subjects. Outlines are valuable for their suggestiveness chiefly. 
They may become stumbling blocks if misunderstood to be rigid 

A subject so broad is capable of division and special suggestive 
nature-study courses may be devised to meet the needs of special 
conditions : agricultural for the farming- sections, strongly flavored 
with rocks for the mining regions, abounding in marine topics 
for the seaboard, and painfully elementary for the tenement dweller. 

Nature-study is now in its embryonic condition. Its future 
development must see its differentiation ; but the spirit, method 
and motive must remain or it will either abort or degenerate into 
elementary science, a possibility which no enthusiastic lover of 
nature will admit. 

14 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i. jan. 1905 



Teachers College, Columbia University 

The term nature-study has come into common use to designate 
( 1 ) various phases of teaching about nature in common schools, 
and (2) popular study of natural history outside of schools by 
either children or adults. In both these cases the term has been 
commonly limited to the biological aspect of nature, and both the 
school and popular phases of nature-study are quite similar in the 
subject-matter and in the general aims and methods of study. 
We may, therefore, discuss nature-study for elementary schools 
with the understanding that so far as general principles are con- 
cerned the discussion will apply equally well to school or popular 
nature-study as these together are contrasted with natural science 
of the high schools and colleges. 

What should be the nature-study for the elementary school, 
and what its relation to natural-science study in the higher 
schools? As the term nature-study etymologically suggests and 
as current practice indicates, the subject for the lower school deals 
with the same groups of natural materials which give the basis to 
the natural-science work of the higher schools. Is this paral- 
lelism simply another duplication in our educational system ? If 
so, such duplication requires strong defense. Or is the nature- 
study simply a translation of elementary science into " words of 
one syllable " in adaptation to the capacities of very young pupils? 
Or is nature-study in some striking respect different from the 
natural sciences of the higher schools? These are fundamental 
questions which so far in the progress of the nature-study move- 
ment have not received the general attention which they deserve. 

In the beginning of our discussion we must clearly define what 
we understand by natural science in the strict use of the word 
science. According to Karl Pearson, in his " Grammar of Sci- 
ence," " the classification of facts and the formation of absolute 
judgments upon the basis of this classification essentially sums up 
the aim and method of modern science. . . . The classification of 
facts, the recognition of their sequence and relative significance, 
is the function of science." Mivart, in his " Groundwork of 
Science," refers to science as " ordered and systematic knowl- 
edge." These agree essentially with the familiar, short and gen- 


erallv accepted definition that " science is organized knowledge," 
from which it follows that natural science is organized knowledge 
concerning natural objects and processes. Note that organiza- 
tion is the essence of this definition, as of those above. ' Science 
differs from mere knowledge by being a knowledge both of facts, 
and of their relations to each other. The mere random, hap- 
hazard accumulation of facts, then, is not science ; and the per- 
ception and conception of their natural relations to each other, the 
comprehension of these relations under general laws, and the 
organization of facts and laws into one body, the parts of which 
are seen to be subservient to each other, is Science." This clear 
and concise statement by the late Professor Joseph Payne, of Lon- 
don, in a lecture on '* True Foundation of Science-Teaching " 
(1872) will. I think, meet with the approval of all scientific men 
who use the word science in its strict sense, as distinguished from 
the loose popular usage of the word to mean simply any grouping 
of facts about natural objects and processes. 

The above definitions of science as organized knowledge may 
be well illustrated by a brief examination of the old-time natural 
history. This originally dealt with all phases of nature, but in 
the last century came to lie commonly understood as limited to 
living nature — plants and animals. For our purposes let us 
briefly consider the animal side of natural history. Historians of 
science have written that the foundations of the science of 
zooloo-v were laid in the latter half of the eighteenth century. 
This does not mean that in this century men first began to study 
and to collect facts about animals, for long before Aristotle many 
observers of animal life in its familiar forms accumulated much 
knowledge about animals, and Aristotle and later naturalists 
added great contributions. But all this mass of facts about ani- 
mals lacked, before the middle of the eighteenth century, that 
organization under principles and generalizations which is charac- 
teristic of the modern science of zoology. Zoology, then, is not 
simply the study of animals, as it is often loosely defined : but it 
is an organization of knowledge concerning animals, and the 
founding of the science in the eighteenth century was not so much 
due to discovery of numerous new facts as to comparison and 
organization of facts which had been accumulating throughout 
many centuries. And so we have come to distinguish between 
modern organized knowledge under zoology and the former tin- 

1 6 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jam. 1905 

classified accumulations of facts about animals which were then 
known as natural history. This happens to be a very appropriate 
term, for the word " history " here involves no idea of chronology, 
but was directly derived from the Greek title of Aristotle's 
work on animals in which connection the original " historia " 
meant records of investigation or information obtained by re- 
searches; from this natural history meant a record of studies of 
nature, and the phrase literally and by strict usage involved no 
idea of organization and generalization such as is understood in 
the modern natural sciences. Organization on the basis of classi- 
fication of facts and generalizations is, then, the one fundamental 
difference between the old natural history of animals and the new 
science which we know as zoology. 

I have used the history of the study of animals to illustrate the 
difference between the mere accumulation of facts about nature 
and the organization of the facts into science. In like manner 
we might find illustration in any other natural science ; as, for ex- 
ample, we might have traced the records of the old alchemists 
who built up a chemical natural history — a record of facts without 
the atomic theory and the other generalizations which have organ- 
ized the facts into the modern science of chemistry. Other illus- 
trations are unnecessary for our present purpose ; but the one 
point which must be emphasized is that the early studies of nature 
in all its phases were concerned chiefly with observing and 
accumulating facts because of man's interest in nature for its own 
sake, rather than for the sake of contributing to organized scien- 
tific knowledge for science's sake. 

This is the place where I wish to draw the distinction between 
general nature-study and natural science — two phases of the study 
of nature. Here is the difference : nature-study, which in its 
subject-matter is only a modern educational form of the old-time 
general natural history, deals with facts primarily for their own 
sake without particular regard to organization into a system ; on 
the contrary, modern natural science deals with facts primarily 
as they stand related to generalizations. Nature-study deals with 
the simple facts of nature as these are related to man's general 
interest in them ; but natural science deals with facts, both general 
and detailed, as they fit into one vast scheme of generalizations. 
In nature-study for elementary and popular education the gen- 
eral acquaintance with natural things is essential ; but in science 


we want facts which we can correlate and classify with other facts 
and so add to or illustrate principles of the science. Or putting 
the whole matter in other words, nature-study appeals to us 
aesthetically and morally — we feel the value of acquaintance with 
natural objects and processes without perhaps being able to state 
the reason why ; but natural science appeals to us intellectually 
and philosophically — we measure values of facts according to_ 
their relations in our system of knowledge. We see that the dif- 
ference is in the view-point, rather than in the materials [ but so 
far as studies of nature concern the earliest stages of education 
and popular information it is obvious that the difference is a 
fundamental one. 

We have answered our leading questions. The difference be- 
tween the nature-study of the elementary school and the natural 
science of the higher schools should not be simply one of amount 
of detail and simplicity of language, and true nature-study is quite 
different from elementary science in the strict sense, because na- 
ture-study should not deal with the introduction to formulated 
principles at which all high-school and college text-books of real 
elementary science aim directly. 

These considerations lead to the following summary by way 
of condensed definitions : Nature-study is primarily the simple 
observational study of common natural objects and processes for 
the sake of personal acquaintance with the things which appeal 
to human interest directly and independently of relations to or- 
ganized science. Xatural-science study is the close analytical and 
synthetical study of natural objects and processes primarily for 
the sake of obtaining knowledge of the general principles which 
constitute the foundations of modern sciences. 

Space here will not permit more than a statement of the propo- 
sition that all studies of natural objects and processes in the ele- 
mentary school should be nature-studies as defined in the discus- 
sion above, because true elementary science with its very founda- 
tion in classifications and generalizations is not adapted to pupils 
as voting as those in our elementary schools. This is not at all 
a radical position, for the truth is that little real elementary 
science has been successfully presented below the second year of 
high schools, most " sciences " in lower schools being simply so 
designated because the word is popularly misunderstood as mean- 
ing any study of nature. 

1 8 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. i, jan. 1905 

I fail to see any sound foundation for distinction between 
nature-study and natural science except on the basis of general- 
izations, as above discussed. With regard to methods of study, 
it is generally agreed that in nature-study, as in natural science of 
the high schools and college, actual study of the natural objects 
and processes is the one sure basis for the teaching. Of course, 
there must be some limitations of the scientific method as applied 
to nature-study ; but, as will be pointed out later, these are of 
minor significance. And with regard to materials for study, it 
must be obvious that this offers no good ground for attempting 
to draw general boundary lines. 

In conclusion, it should be said that the above emphasis upon 
organization and generalizations as the fundamental distinction 
between nature-study and natural science must not be misunder- 
stood as meaning that the writer is taking a stand for unsys- 
tematic nature-study, or for nature-study which is utterly un- 
scientific. On the contrary, it seems certain that a very complete 
organization of the studies in the schools must soon be made in 
order to make nature-study most efficient in education. But such 
educational organization is quite independent of scientific or- 
ganization upon which modern sciences are founded. Systema- 
tized nature-study may well pave the way for true science study, 
but this is an incidental result. 


Teachers College, Columbia University 

No one supposes that nature comprises only plants and ani- 
mals, yet the term nature-study has been quite generally used in 
that exclusive sense. It is certain that botanical and zoological 
nature-study are much more common than physical nature-study. 
The reason for this probably lies not in the nature of the subject 
nor in the nature of children, but rather in the fact that persons 
interested in botany and zoology have been more zealous than the 
teachers of physics and chemistry in the performance of their 
duty toward the elementary-school pupils. 

Certain it is that children are greatly interested in mechanical 
toys, in wind-mills, water-wheels, air-guns, sail-boats, steam-en- 



gines, magnets, compasses, lightning, electric batteries, bells, 
motors, mirrors, prisms, magnifying glasses, whistles, harmonicas, 
all kinds of machinery and physical phenomena in general. Will 
any one undertake to say that children are more interested in 
plants and animals than in these, or that the realm of biology 
presents simpler facts and relations than the physical world? 
While the systematic study of physical phenomena belongs to a 
later period, children from ten to fourteen years of age have an 
inextinguishable interest in them and will study them whether we 
help them or not. 

Physical nature-study deals with facts and relations in the field 
of physics and chemistry which the children of elementary-school 
age need to know for intelligent and happy living. 

Possibly teachers of physics and chemistry have been too much 
hampered by their allegiance to the inductive method. They have 
scrupulously avoided the giving of information. They have even 
refused to make use of simple and direct means of illustration. 
Other departments give information freely and thereby secure a 
strong hold upon the pupils. Why should the department which 
has the most interesting and most valuable information, informa- 
tion which has a very practical bearing upon daily life, be so 
chary of it ? This was not the attitude of Faraday, Tyndall, Clerk 
Maxwell, and of many other leaders in the field of physical 
science — past and present. But among the teachers of physics 
and chemistry in the public schools of to-day there certainly is 
greater indifference to the needs of the elementary-school pupils 
than is shown by the teachers of other departments of knowledge. 

The Nature-Study Review will welcome contributions which 
will indicate that the foregoing statements are no longer true. 
Teachers and others are invited to make this journal the channel 
for communicating their ideas on physical nature-study — its 
methods, limitations, etc. 

20 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jam. 1905 



[Editorial Note. — The following- account of the new and very inter- 
esting movement in Canada has been based upon printed matter and other 
information supplied by Dean Muldrew of Macdonald Institute.] 

Beginning" with the present school-year the nature-study move- 
ment in the rural schools of Canada will surely make great prog- 
ress, because the Macdonald Institute for teachers and the model 
rural schools will have their organizations complete and most of 
the buildings ready for work. Readers of Canadian periodicals of 
1902 will remember that in that year Sir William C. Macdonald, 
of Montreal, authorized Professor James W. Robertson, Com- 
missioner of Agriculture for the Dominion of Canada, to lay 
before the Premier of the Province of Ontario an offer of assist- 
ance to carry out a plan, submitted at the same time, for the im- 
provement of education at rural schools ; and for the establishment 
of courses of instruction and training in domestic economy or 
domestic science, at the Ontario Agricultural College. This plan 
included assistance towards: (1) The establishment of a model 
consolidated rural school in Ontario and one in each of four other 
Provinces of the Dominion. (2) Providing travelling instruc- 
tors in nature-study for groups of rural schools in Ontario and 
other Provinces. (3) Providing courses of study and training 
in nature-study for teachers in rural schools. (4) Providing 
courses of instruction and training in domestic science for young 
women from country homes, and others. 

In order to give effect to parts 3 and 4 of the above plan, the 
sum of $175,000 was offered to the Province of Ontario, on cer- 
tain conditions, in January, 1902, and was accepted by Order-in- 
Council of the Provincial Government in March of the same year. 
As a result of this magnificent gift there have been erected, as a 
department of the Ontario Agricultural College, at Guelph, the 
Macdonald Hall, a residence for women students, and the Mac- 
donald Institute, for the instruction of farmers' daughters and 
others in domestic science and domestic art, and for equipping 
teachers in nature-study, manual training, and home economics. 
By a liberal interpretation of the original agreement, the Province 
of Ontario undertakes the maintenance of these buildings, in per- 
petuity, and provides instruction in the courses suggested above, 


with considerable extensions that have been thought desirable in 
the various departments. 

Nature-study is now engaging the attention of educators at 
home and abroad, both as essential to a general education and as 
a preparation for intelligent agriculture. To equip Canadian 
teachers with the necessary knowledge and skill for making 
proper use of the simple materials furnished by nature is one of 
the aims of the Alacdonald Institute, and courses in nature-study 
and school-gardening are offered to actual teachers as a prepara- 
tion for this important branch of education. Such courses are of 
two kinds, three months' courses and full-year courses. 

It was provided by the original agreement with Sir William C. 
Macdonald that, for a period of three years, five rural teachers 
from each of the older Provinces of the Dominion should be en- 
titled to a three months' course in nature-study without payment 
of fees. At the same time a fund was provided from which such 
teachers will receive during the first year (1904-05) 5 cents per 
mile towards traveling expenses, and $25 to every approved 
teacher who has taken a full course to the satisfaction of the 
President and the Dean. It was expected that the Governments 
of the various Provinces would supplement this assistance by 
granting aid to worthy teachers wishing to take such a course. 
The expectation has been fully realized by the recent action of the 
various governments. In this way there have been offered for the 
term beginning September 13, 1904, the following scholarships for 
teachers of rural schools : Nova Scotia, 8 ; Xew Brunswick, 8 ; 
Prince Edward Island, 5 ; Quebec, 5 ; Ontario, 14, making a total 
of 40. Of this number about one-quarter will be offered to men 
receiving $75 each, and about three-quarters to women receiving 
$50 each, so that these teachers will receive from $75 to $100 each 
in addition to the mileage allowance for travelling expenses. 
Since there are no fees or other charges, except for board and 
lodging this will allow a large number of teachers to take advan- 
tage of this instruction without pecuniary cost to themselves. 
The appointments to these scholarships will be made by a com- 
mittee, acting with the Minister or Superintendent of Education 
in each of the Provinces concerned. Inquiries for further infor- 
mation, or applications for appointment, should be addressed to 
the Departments of Education of the respective provinces men- 
tioned above. 

22 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

The one-term course will aim especially to prepare teachers to 
take up nature-study with their pupils, in connection with a 
school-garden and to deal with the simpler aspects of general 
nature-study. It is open to actual teachers ; except that those not 
appointed to scholarships as above will be required to pay the 
regular fee of $10. 

In some of the Provinces a special grant is paid by the Govern- 
ment to schools which take up work of this kind, under instruc- 
tors who are properly qualified. This bonus may be divided be- 
tween the teachers and the school. In such case it is expected 
that the successful completion of the above course will be accepted 
as the teacher's qualification, and it is probable that similar regu- 
lations will be adopted in all of the Provinces. 

A more advanced course of a similar nature and extending over 
a full college year is given to teachers who wish to qualify as 
specialists in this department. Only teachers holding permanent 
professional certificates are eligible for entrance. The aim is to 
provide instructors fitted to carry on the work of nature-study 
and school-gardens in a group of rural schools, in a large consoli- 
dated school, or in an agricultural high school. 


From papers by Professor McMurry, of New York, and Professor Armstrong, 

of London 

In a paper on " Advisable Omissions from the Elementary Cur- 
riculum, and the Basis for them " (Educational Review, 27 : 
478-493. May, 1904) Professor F. M. McMurry of Teachers 
College, Columbia University, points out that the present ele- 
mentary-school curriculum is so seriously overcrowded that 
omissions are demanded. An examination of the various school 
subjects leads him to the conclusion that not one can be spared 
from the curriculum ; and omissions, then, must be confined to 
particular topics and details. 

Six standards for selecting have in the past guided choice of 
subject-matter, namely: utility, the child's ability, the child's 
interest, truth for truth's sake, harmonious development of all 
faculties, and thoroughness. From a discussion of these Dr. Mc- 

mcmurry-armstrong] CRITICISM OF NATURE-STUDY 23 

A lurry concludes that the following- propositions should hold in 
the rejection of subject-matter: (1) Whatever cannot be shown 
to have a plain relation to some real need of life, whether it be 
aesthetic, ethical, or utilitarian in the narrower sense, must be 
dropped. (2) Whatever is not reasonably within the child's com- 
prehension, likewise. (3) Whatever is unlikely to appeal to his 
interest ; unless it is positively demanded for the first very weighty 
reason. (4) Whatever topics and details are so isolated or 
irrelevant that they fail to be a part of any series or chain of 
ideas, and therefore fail to be necessary for the appreciation of 
any large point. This standard, however, not to apply to the 
three R's and spelling. 

Applying these suggestions to various subjects in the schools, 
Dr. McMurry writes as follows with special reference to nature- 
study : 

" In one of our best schools I was recently present while a 
second-grade class reached the conclusion that grasshoppers 
habitually lived in dry, sunny places, the children, when playing, 
having seen them there. They decided that the insect went under 
boards and rocks when it rained, and some related how they had 
fed some captive grasshoppers apple and water. 

" I saw a fifth grade write out a description of a dead red oak 
leaf, the paper nearest me reading as follows : Size, jy 2 inches 
long ; 4 inches widest part ; shape, somewhat oval — widest at top ; 
lobes, alternate, long pointed. 10 lobes on leaf ; indentation, 10 
indentations, rounded, deep, alternate ; petiole, short, thick, dark 
brown, mid-vein thinner near top of leaf ; veins, alternate, thin, 
not many ; color, dark brown, near mid- vein. 

' What a mass of worthless matter in such instruction ! Much 
of it so valueless that there is no pretense of reviewing it next 
day ; it is even unnecessary for examinations. Here lies probably 
the greatest waste in our instruction. Where there is no careful 
selection of details, there is only an aggregation ; chaos rules there, 
and despair is constant, because the field can never be covered. 

" The teachers are not satisfied with such haphazard work, but 
it is difficult to bring about improvement. However, the diffi- 
culty lies not in method, but in the choice of matter, and I desire 
to make three recommendations in regard to the remedy. 

" In the first place, the subject-matter in those branches that 
easily offer mere aggregations of facts, like history, geography, 

24 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW Li. i, jan. 1905 

and nature-study, should be brought under as few large headings 
as possible, just as a good lecturer is under obligations to present 
his thoughts under a few good points. . . . 

" In the second place, those subtopics should be selected in each 
branch of study that are the best types of large groups, and that 
thus give strategic positions in the field. . . . 

" In the third place, the leading questions that need to be 
answered under each type, or other topic, need to be clearly con- 
ceived in order to find a basis for selection of details. For in- 
stance, I have an extension class of 76 primary teachers — much 
above the average in ability — who agreed on 22 little points that 
they desired to teach on the cat, as a topic in nature-study. But 
until the principal questions that they had to answer in regard to 
the cat were known, to which these man}- facts might be the 
answers, their subject-matter was absolutely unorganized, and 
thev were unprepared to give the instruction. Now our main in- 
terest in cats is as pets, and if we set out to learn ( 1 ) to what ex- 
tent cats can provide for themselves, and therefore (2) to what 
extent, and how, we should take care of them as our pets, we shall 
cover all that is necessary about them. And when we desire only 
the answers to these problems, we are given a standard that allows 
the omission of the number of teeth, the color of the hair, the 
length of the tail, and fortv other facts that might consume time ; 
in short, that lets us know when we are done with the cat. So, if 
we set out to find out how grasshoppers sometimes prove injurious 
to man, and what means may be used to destroy them, we must 
discuss the food of the insect, his voracious appetite, his means of 
locomotion and quickness, his enemies (including parasites), his 
protection by mimicry, and his stages of development ; but we 
shall have no time to consider whether or not he knows enough 
to go under cover when it rains, provided he can find cover, or 
the fact that he can eat apples, since he will never get many apples 
to eat anyway. 

" Similarly, in geography, if we set out to learn what are the 
main industries that have sprung up in the Western States, with 
the causes, we shall need to consider the climate and topography, 
as the principal key to the situation, and then the mining, lumber- 
ing, agriculture, manufacturing, trade and manufacturing centers, 
etc., but we shall have no excuse for bounding all the States, learn- 
ing each capital and locating various capes, small towns, insignifi- 

mcmurry-armstrong] CRITICISM OF NATURE-STUDY 2$ 

cant mountains, etc. Above all, we shall be unwilling to drop into 
the state-treatment of our theme, which means a mere aggregation 
of facts, dry enough to cause a healthy child to long to play 
hookev, not for the pleasures anticipated, but for the pains 

" These three recommendations together call for such an organ- 
ization of subject-matter as has thus far been scarcely attempted. 
The thoroness customary — and probably justified — in the three 
R's and spelling, ignored unity of arrangement entirely ; indeed, 
was independent of it. But the thoroness proper to other studies 
presupposes organization, and is based upon it. This kind of 
thoroness requires that much attention be directed to relative 
values of perspective, and to sequence, just as in a story. 

" And such organization must be planned from the learner's 
point of view. Up to the present, however, the content of studies 
has been determined from the scientific point of view, so far as 
there was a point of view, and the love of ' truth for truth's sake ' 
has been so marked that one fact has seemed nearly as good as 
another ; hence the curriculum of the common school reveals little 
selection or pedagogical arrangement. Studies like geography 
and nature-study are little more than conglomerate masses of fact, 
showing our educational development to be still in the barbarous 
stage. Studies in the high school and college are little better. 
History, for example, is no better organized there than in the 
grades, and probably not so well. To be sure, in some subjects, 
there is a more highly developed classification, but it is not the 
classification most appropriate to the learning mind, because the 
scientist's point of view is not that of the learner ; it is rather that 
of the philosopher, who has digested his field and then arranges 
it logically, not psychologically." 

In concluding his paper Dr. McMurry admits that his sug- 
gestions set a great task, one " for the most advanced and ablest 
students of education, who are as well posted in subject-matter as 
in the principles of education itself. Even these have more than 
a life problem in such a task." But this should not keep any 
teacher or director of nature-study in any of its phases from 
making improvements by beginning to apply some of the above 
principles of selection. Probably very few experts in nature- 
study will seriously oppose Dr. McMurry's declaration that there 
is much useless nature-study teaching, and that the time has now 

26 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

come for beginning to eliminate by organizing the materials. 
Such definite criticisms are bound to be helpful, whether we accept 
them in full or not. 

Another recent criticism of nature-study as now taught in the 
United States is by Professor Henry E. Amstrong, of London, 
who visited this country last year as a member of the Moseley 
Educational Commission. In the report of that commission (pub- 
lished in London, 1904) Professor Armstrong summarizes his 
observations on nature-study in many of our leading common 
schools by the statement that " The Nature-Study lessons I wit- 
nessed, when not specifically botanical or zoological and scientific 
in character, were eminently superficial and worthless." In an- 
other place Professor Armstrong writes concerning the nature- 
study work for rural schools : ' There can be no doubt that a 
pioneer work of great importance is being done, on which it 
will be possible to build in the future. It is not possible now 
to discuss in any proper way the method of teaching adopted. 
I desire to say everything in its favor, feeling as I do that the 
object in view is all important; but I am satisfied that the work 
lacks depth and that those engaged in it are not yet aware of 
the extent to which it is possible to introduce exact method 
into such studies ; they need to be more fully acquainted with 
the practice of scientific method and with the art of discovery. 
It would be more nearly correct to speak of the movement as one 
for the promotion of Nature-love rather than as Nature-Study. 
At present it involves far too little real study and concentration 
of purpose ; which is unfortunate, as rural children particularly 
need training in exactness." 

Taking this criticism as a whole, many American educators who 
are quite familiar with our schools have expressed the opinion that 
the sweeping criticism " eminently superficial and worthless " de- 
serves fuller explanation and discussion. Professor Armstrong 
promises that when the pressure of his work allows he will write 
for The Nature-Study Review a fuller discussion of nature- 
study as he has seen the teaching in the United States ; and then 
we shall be able to consider whether we can get helpful sugges- 
tions from his criticisms. 



North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

It is never an easy task to introduce a new subject into the 
public-school curriculum. This is due in part to the want of 
training" on the part of the teacher ; to an already crowded course 
of study ; and to a constant disinclination to change from the 
old way of doing things to the new, even if the latter is better. 
The teaching of agriculture in the public schools with us has gone 
the same way as other studies that have been added from time to 
time. However, there has been a strong public sentiment in favor 
of agriculture in the schools. This sentiment did not come at 
once, but it had been before the people for a long time, so when 
any concerted action was given results quickly followed. 

The feeling is especially strong in the Southern States that agri- 
culture shall be taught in the schools. This is evidenced by the 
fact that the legislatures of Virginia, Tennessee, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana have each 
put agriculture on their required list of studies to bear the same 
importance as reading, writing, arithmetic, etc. And this has not 
been brought about by lobbying in the interest of text-book pub- 
lishers, nor because of the demand of colleges and teachers. It 
is the people's demand. Rural South sees the advantages that 
would follow if her people were trained somewhat along the lines 
they will take up in after life. She believes that it is just as im- 
portant that her young men and women know something about 
the soil as about the stars : that they have some acquaintance with 
King Cotton as well as with King Richard ; that they know about 
some of the laws concerned with plant and animal growth as well 
as the laws that had to do with the greatness of Greece and Rome. 
So the teaching of agriculture in the schools is a demand of the 
times. It is to make life fuller and richer by making the farm 
better, and the farm home more responsive. Culture will come 
just the same. Education, while perhaps more practical, will 
nevertheless be just as broad and effective. 

Xor is agriculture to be taught in a desultory way. Teachers 
are carefully preparing themselves for the work. This is seen by 
the fact that during the past summer nearly six hundred teachers 

28 THE NATURE-STUDY REl'IEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

elected agriculture and nature-study at the North Carolina College 
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. At the University of Tennes- 
see summer school over two hundred elected agriculture and 
nature-study ; and at the Hampton ( Va.) Normal and Agricultural 
Institute over five hundred teachers studied the same. It may 
be said that the same number of teachers were students in agri- 
culture at the various summer schools and teachers' institutes 
throughout the South. 

The importance of agriculture as a required study is intensified 
by giving the study a regular place in the daily school program. 
A text-book is used ; experiments are performed ; tramps to 
brooks, fields, and farms are made ; essays are written on agri- 
cultural subjects as a part of the regular work. Of course it 
will be seen that all this contributes to making the work both 
profitable and interesting to the pupil and teacher alike. While 
the work is new, the experiment now being made promises to be 
of great importance to the schools throughout the South. It is 
interesting parents in school work who have heretofore been un- 
interested in education. It is dignifying farm life, and it is 
destined to help the fields, and flocks, and herds of the South 
where the great wealth lies. 


[Editorial Note. — School-gardens have in recent years be- 
come a prominent and valuable part of the nature-study movement, 
and hence it is within the province of this journal to consider them 
as a phase of nature-study. It is not planned to publish a long 
series of descriptions of gardens which are in all essentials similar, 
and there will be no attempt at imitating the elaborate illustrated 
and detailed reports which are often published principally for local 
distribution. On the contrary, we will select for publication 
those original suggestions which seem to be applicable to any 
school-garden, and which will tend to encourage the develop- 
ment of new gardens. But we will not aim entirely at the prac- 
tical problem of making a garden which interests the pupils and 
their friends and looks attractive in photographs. So far as the 
mere practical side of gardening is concerned there are hundreds 
of successful school-gardens in the United States ; but in general 

hemenway] SCHOOL-GARDENS 29 

little effort is being made towards making the gardens of greatest 
educational value, except in the line of manual training. This 
latter alone is undoubtedly worth all the effort and is a sufficient 
justification for making school-gardens in connection with ele- 
mentary education ; but gardens are such splendid concentrations 
of natural objects, especially the living, that they surely have the 
possibilities of great educational value in discipline other than 
manual and in information which has practical, intellectual, 
aesthetic, and moral bearings. It is here, rather than in the prac- 
tical management, that we see the present problem concerning the 
school-garden movement ; and suggestions for making gardens 
most efficient educationally will be welcomed.] 


Director of the School of Horticulture 

The School of Horticulture was established in the year 1900 
as one of the Handicraft Schools of Hartford by the Rev. Francis 
Goodwin. Air. Goodwin is the founder and largely the supporter 
of the Handicraft Schools, for which he donated over one hun- 
dred acres of land in the northwestern part of the city of Hart- 
ford. School-garden work is only one of the subjects taught at 
the School of Horticulture, although it has become most widely 
known on account of the success attained in this line of work. 
Probably no school-gardens in the country are conducted on more 
simple, more systematic and at the same time more scientific prin- 
ciples than those at this school. Nevertheless, it is possible to 
get more good from a garden connected with the public schonls 
because there all the work can be correlated with other branches 
of study. 

The children come from the city in classes of about fifteen. 
They enter the class-room where each pupil receives a numbered 
note-book on which he writes his name and the name of the public 
school that he attends. In making application for a garden, the 
pupil gives his name, age, residence, parent's name and occupation, 
nationality, the public school he attends and the grade. On the 



[i, I, JAN. 1905 

first page of the note-book the pupil marks his own attendance 
and keeps a weather report. The second page is reserved for a 
diagram of the garden. On the third page the lessons begin. 
They are copied from the blackboard or given from dictation in 
clear, concise language. Packages of seeds put up in coin en- 
velopes, just enough of a kind for a row, are supplied the pupils, 
and they then pass with the instructor to the tool-room where 
each receives a numbered set of tools — a hoe, a rake, a line, and a 
weeder. With the note-books, seeds and tools the children pass 
through the observation plots to their gardens. An instructor 
is always present to show the young gardeners (many of whom 

Garden No.. 






Began ... 


Occupation - , - - ■* : — 



de. - 












Hole Bom. 







. fE — Excellent, 
g lo.-Good. 
o F.-Fair. 
[P.— Poor. 

I — Present. 
A —Absent. 
I Late. 

have never had a hoe or a rake in their hands before) how to 
carry out the instructions given in the class-room. As soon as the 
work is finished, each child takes his tools to the tool-room, cleans 
and hangs them in their proper places, returns the note-book to 
the class-room and goes home. In this way discipline is reduced 
to a minimum because the quicker pupils are not kept idly about 
while the slower ones finish their work. The girls' gardens are 
the same as the boys ; but they come in separate classes. 

All work about the individual gardens is done by the pupils, 
who become owners and have all the products of their toil. The 
third and fourth year pupils assist some in staking out their own 
gardens and selecting the crops they are to grow. The fourth 
year pupils make all their own selections and original diagrams. 
The individual gardens have gradually increased in size until now 
they are ten by thirty feet for beginners, ten by forty feet for 
second year pupils, ten by sixty feet for third year pupils, and ten 
by eighty feet for fourth year pupils. They are situated on the 




west side of a long- main walk ten feet in width. Paths five feet 
wide lead from this walk between the rows of gardens, and there 
are walks three feet wide between each garden. Corn is planted 
on the north end of each garden so that the wider walk takes the 
shadow. On the east side of the main walk are arranged observa- 
tion plots in which are grown about one hundred herbaceous and 
annual flowers and one hundred and fifty different kinds of other 
plants, including all the cereals, market garden crops, fibre plants, 
many of the legumes, forage crops, medical and pot herbs. 

The buildings at the Hartford School of Horticulture. 

The garden courses begin with the fourth year pupils in Jan- 
uary ; the third year pupils in February ; the second year pupils in 
March ; and the first year pupils about the first of May, according 
to the season. The work taken up by the advanced pupils is 
making hot-beds ; hot-bed mats of rye straw ; glazing, painting 
and repairing sash ; drawing original garden plans ; various 
methods of grafting, and making the grafting wax, cord and 
cloth ; physical analysis of soil ; study of soils and plant foods ; 
notes and practical work in taking cuttings, both hard and soft 
wood ; pruning ; spraying with insecticides and fungicides ; spad- 



[i, I, JAN. 1905 




^ ; • .5"/' 

-'.,'-' . r^. '*-' !\. <\ 

, --'*'' -i--'c -*<■'>'.' v,'" 

\ ^* 


-*▼■ *5V "1^ 


hemenway] SCHOOL-GARDENS 33 

ing ; taking up and setting out trees and shrnbs ; care of grounds — 
lawns and walks ; silk-worm culture ; mixing soil ; planting seeds ; 
potting and re-potting plants in the greenhouse and transplanting 
them in the garden. The advanced boys grow all the greenhouse 
plants for all the boys' gardens. Each year the pupils get some 
advanced work and a review of the work they have already had. 

The lessons are regularly once a week for each pupil. The time 
is so arranged that it does not interfere with public-school work 
in any way, lessons coming after school in spring and autumn. 
They continue every week during the summer. Pupils are per- 
mitted to come and work in their gardens at any time when the 
tools are not in use. 

Seeds, tools, note-books, etc., are furnished by the school, but 
a tuition fee of five dollars for the first year, seven dollars for the 
second year, ten dollars for the third year, and twelve dollars for 
the fourth year is charged the pupils. This sum, however, need 
not keep any worthy boy from having a garden, for one hun- 
dred hours' work for the school pays any boy's tuition, and 
many boys pay in this way. Several have found that in so doing 
they have not only paid for their garden, but have also fitted them- 
selves to take positions in the city. This past season several per- 
sons have applied to the school for boys to care for their gardens 
and lawns because the men the}' were hiring to do the work were 
unsatisfactory in that they did not know the difference between 
the weeds and plants. One of the second year pupils, so recom- 
mended by us, proved himself so satisfactory that the lady hiring 
him recommended him to several others until he had all his time 
engaged. At the end of the season his savings bank account was 
a great contrast to that of the boys in his school who had no 
garden and spent their time upon the street. But aside from the 
money value, the boy learned industry and acquired an interest in 
plants, which will mean much to him in future life. 

The yield of the garden should exceed the price of the tuition 
paid. It varies, of course, according to the manner in which the 
boy cares for it. One third-year garden (ten by sixty feet) 
yielded as follows : thirteen and one-half quarts shell beans ; ten 
quarts wax beans, six quarts lima beans ; fifty beets ; six cabbages ; 
forty-four ears of corn ; eighteen roots of celery ; forty-two heads 
of lettuce ; ten onions ; fifty-eight quarts Swiss chard ; six quarts 
peas ; one peck potatoes ; seventeen five-cent bunches of parsley ; 

34 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i. jax. 1905 

three hundred and fifty-nine radishes ; nine quarts spinach ; forty- 
three summer squash ; one hundred and thirty-five tomatoes ; 
thirty-eight turnips ; eleven quarts of Valentine beans ; and for 
flowers : three hundred and twenty-five nasturtiums ; one hun- 
dred and seventy-four pansies ; thirty-five snap-dragons ; one hun- 
dred and thirty-five stocks ; and six hundred and ninety verbenas. 
At the regular market price the vegetables were worth over fifteen 
dollars, without taking into consideration the flowers at all. The 
crops are so arranged that after the fourth week in the garden 
there is something to take home after every lesson. Many of the 
bovs leave some of their flowers in the gardens so as to make 
them more attractive ; and these, of course, do not show on the 
total yields of the gardens. 

As soon as the pupils have finished planting their gardens, one or 
more of the common weeds is studied at each lesson — roots, stem, 
leaves, and, if possible, the flowers and seeds. The pupils are 
taught the name of the plant and its uses (if it has any), and the 
best time and method of killing it. In the same manner the cereals, 
garden crops, and fibre plants are studied. The children are taken 
through the observation plots frequently, and the value of the 
crop, its importance in the United States, and the products and 
bi-products are explained to them. All observation plots, both 
of vegetables and flowers, are plainly labeled with the common 
names so that the children may become familiar with them. The 
Latin names are also put on most of the labels of the flower plots. 

Insects are also studied and the children are taught how to 
treat the commoner ones as well as to know them in all of their 
stages of development. In 1904 more than one thousand silk- 
worms were grown. These were watched by all classes from 
the egg to the cocoon and the adult moth. The different stages 
of development were made use of in illustrating the different stages 
which some of the smaller insects pass through. 

Besides the children's gardens, there are classes in school- 
garden work for adults. The advanced class begins in the early 
part of the winter and the students are those who have already 
taken one year's course in school-garden work, or teachers of the 
New Britain State Normal School, or teachers in Hartford public 
schools. This class studies the physical condition of the soil, 
plant foods, seeds, testing seeds, collecting seeds, germination, 
grafting of all kinds, silk culture, drafting school-garden plans, 





history of the different crops, hot-beds, fungi, etc. Each 
dividual has one garden, ten by thirty-five feet, to be cared for 
throughout the summer. 

While a great many plants grown at the school are not very 
common, an effort is made to have all classes become perfectly 
familiar with our common forms which can come into the daily 
life of every pupil. 

" The annual exhibit is for the young gardeners what the closing day was to the pupils in the old 

district schools." 

The Civic Club of the city of Hartford has from the beginning 
been much interested in the school and offers twenty-five dollars 
in prizes, which are awarded in the autumn when the exhibit is 
held. Prizes are offered for the best kept gardens in each of die 
classes, the awards being made by judges who visit the gardens 
frequently during the summer. There are also prizes for the 
produce that is grown in the boy's garden, the variety, quality, and 
arrangement at the exhibit being considered in awarding the 
prizes. There is also a hoeing contest open to all boys, prizes 

36 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, . tan. 1905 

for each class, and a spading contest open only to the third and 
fourth year hoys. The exhibit is for the young gardeners what 
the closing day was to the pupils in the old district schools. Par- 
ents, teachers and friends are all invited to be present. An effort 
is made by every gardener to have his garden in perfect condition, 
and the rivalry in arranging the produce on the tables is keen. 
The hoeing and spading contests show visitors something of what 
the boys have learned in the methods of handling tools, while the 
gardens and produce show what they have accomplished in apply- 
ing these methods. There are also at the exhibit spinning wheels 
and a hand-loom in operation, and the different fibre plants grown 
at the school — jute, cotton, flax, ramie, and hemp — are all shown 
in their various stages of development and manufacture from the 
growing product to the finished cloth. This has been explained 
to the children ; although this is the only practical demonstration 
that they have the opportunity to see. There are also exhibits of 
the handicraft courses as well as the school-gardens, which aid 
in making the school-garden exhibit not only very attractive but 
of educational value. 

What is done at the School of Horticulture can be done in 
many schools. It may not be possible to have as large gardens, 
and often it will be necessary to secure land in the public parks 
or in vacant lots. The grafting work and potting can often be 
arranged in the basement or on a table in the schoolroom, and 
the " window- garden " is the teacher's greenhouse. In it can be 
grown all of the early vegetables and flowers started for the 
gardens outside, and greater interest and enthusiasm will develop 
if the children see the plants growing day by day. Of course, 
there must be an instructor who is equal to the task. 

While we may not be able to make many farmers and gar- 
deners, we may help to make much better men and women. It is 
hoped that we may check the flow of people to the city and turn 
some back again to the country. The school-garden creates a 
love for industry, a love for the country, for nature and things 
beautiful, and makes boys and girls stronger, more intelligent, 
nobler, truer men and women. 





Suggestions from a paper by Adele M. Fielde, in Biological Bulletin 

The ants are, with perhaps the exception of bees, the most inter- 
esting insects which can easily be kept for daily observation, and 
teachers will welcome recent improvements in methods of keeping 
them in captivity under conditions which they may be easily 
observed whenever desired. Most important of improved methods 
are those recently described in Biological Bulletin (Vol. 7, No. 4, 
Sept., 1904), by Adele M. Field, of New York, who seems to 
have brought near to perfection the ant nests which she first de- 
scribed in 1900. She now has ants which have lived, without 
earth, for three years in health and contentment. 

I S 


V////////////////^~~ //////////////////a 



S ) 

( S 

y//////////////////////////////////////////////^^^^ ~~~ 

Floor plans of 2- and 3-room ant-nesls. The oblique shading represents the walls and S the sponge 

for moisture. 

The Fielde nests are made as follows : The foundation or floor 
of the nest is a pane of thick window glass ( 10 by 6 or 6 by 4 
inches). This is laid on a sheet of thick, white blotting paper; 
but the paper is not fastened to the glass. Next, a wall is built 
up about one-fourth inch from the edge of the glass (see figure). 
This wall is made by cementing (with Diamond, Major's, or other 
crockery cement) to the floor plate four glass strips about one-half 



[i, I, JAN. 1905 

inch wide and double thick, and then upon these cement four 
other strips so that the wall will be at least one-fourth inch high. 
Avoid interstices where ants might hide or escape. 

The space enclosed by the glass wall is divided by one or two 
partitions double the width of the wall, but otherwise made the 
same way. The glass strips for these partitions are cut short so 
as to leave a passageway from room to room, and this passage is 
covered with a strip of thin celluloid or mica. 

After cement is well dried, the edge of the floor plate and the 
outside of walls are covered with opaque cloth or paper, using 
some liquid glue. These edges may be painted with black enamel, 
but cloth is said to wear better. 

■ M- 


In the Fielde nests ants have lived for three years. 

There is a glass roof-pane for each room in the nest. The glass 
is thin ; extends to the middle of the partition and to the outer 
edges of the walls on which it rests ; prevents the exit of ants ; 
and permits observation of their behavior. The glass may be 
without color, or it may be a red or orange tint (such as photo- 
graphers use) that will partially exclude ultra-violet light. Ants 
perceive rays of light which are of short wave-length, and by use 
of a spectroscope, a glass rooting has been selected which renders 
the ants visible within the nest while it protects them from the 
light-rays which they instinctively shun. If such glass is used for 
roofing the nest, the ants will behave as if in darkness where they 
habitually live. 

The glass roof-panes rest upon a cushion of Turkish toweling 
which is glued to the top of the wall of the nest. This allows 
ventilation and prevents the escape of the ants. In its simplest 

fielde] ANT-NESTS 39 

form it may be made by cutting a piece of toweling tbe size of tbe 
base of the nest and then cut boles tbe size of tbe inside of the 
rooms of tbe nest (see accompanying half-tone). 

An outer roofing of blotting-paper makes tbe interior of tbe nest 
wholly dark. Tbe food-room should be light, as it represents the 
ant's outside world. 

When any room in the nest requires cleaning, it is covered with 
transparent glass, and then the ants withdraw from it with their 
young into a dark room, which mav in its turn be made light. 

The food-room is dry, and in cool weather requires attention 
but once a fortnight. Sponge-cake merged in a little honey or 
molasses, banana, apple, mashed walnut, and the muscular parts 
and larvce of insects are among the favorite edibles. Food should 
be constantly attainable in tbe nest, but it should be introduced 
in tiny morsels that it may not by decomposing vitiate the air. 

Since moisture encourages the growth of molds, no water is put 
into tbe food-room. But ants drink often, and they require a 
humid atmosphere. All other rooms than that alloted to their 
food are made humid by laying a flake of sponge on tbe floor and 
keeping the sponge saturated with clean water dropped twice a 
week from a pipette. The sponges are kept clean by weekly 
washing and immersion in hot water. Sponges of fine tough 
texture render best service, as they offer no apertures where ants 
may conceal their eggs. The flake of sponge should be so thin as 
to permit the ants to pass between it and the glass roof-pane. 

The completed nest is less than half an inch in its interior 
height, and does not exceed three-fourths of an inch in its exterior 
height. A low-power lens is easily focused upon the ants within 
the nest. 

In order to stock a nest with an ant colony, wild nests are dug 
up and the ants captured are carried, along with some soil, in jars 
whose mouths are covered with gauze cloth. Tbe ants and soil 
are then scattered over an " island " made by floating a board on 
water, or better, by grooving a channel around the edge of a thick 
board and filling this moat with water which temporarily confines 
the ants. A piece of glass covered by opaque paper is suspended 
slightly above the surface of the board. Tbe ants soon gather 
their young underneath the darkened glass, and some of them 
may be easily scooped, without any soil, into tbe nest. Or a nest 

40 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

may be placed on the " island " and the cover left open so that 
the ants may get into the darkened rooms. 

Instead of the " island " above described, some collectors make, 
on a table, a stockade of dry plaster of Paris which, like water, 
confines the ants until they collect beneath the darkened glass. 

In transporting the nest it is advisable to tie the covers with 
tapes or rubber bands. Miss Fielde has carried her nests on long 
railroad journeys, placing them on shelves in a portable wooden 

These improved ant-nests are so simple in construction and make 
keeping the insects so easy that they deserve a trial in schools, 
and this review is made because it seems probable that we have 
here a valuable suggestion for nature-study work. At a later time 
we hope to present some suggestions as to studies of ants which 
may be made by pupils in the school. 


American Natural History. By W. T. Hornaday, Director of 
the New York Zoological Park. N. Y., Scribner's Sons. 1904. 
Pp. 440, (about 7 by 10 inches), illustrated. $3.50. 

This new " foundation of useful knowledge of the higher ani- 
mals of North America " supplies a long-felt want for a one- 
volume work devoted to the natural history of American verte- 
brate animals. With the exception of some interesting foreign 
types (e. g., the kangaroo) introduced simply to complete sys- 
tematic surveys of groups, this is strictly a book of American 
backboned animals. One may examine the book in vain for de- 
scriptions of animals such as the lion, zebra, giraffe, tiger, and 
elephant, and other familiar representatives of the Old World ; 
but the woodchuck, bison, raccoon, opossum, moose, and the 
others of the long list of peculiar American types are in promi- 
nence, and concerning them there is the kind of information which 
the general reader requires of a reference work in natural history. 

This book is intended to give the teacher and general reader 
that information which will fill the " wide and deep chasm " be- 
tween the scientific " zoology " of the colleges and universities and 
the nature-study books of the grammar grades. We infer that 


the author would limit high-school teaching to natural history ar- 
ranged on a foundation of classification, for he holds that " Sys- 
tem is the only master-key by which the doors of Animate Nature 
can he unlocked " — a statement with which a very large number 
of teachers will decidedly disagree. 

The book begins with the highest of the mammals and ends 
with the lowest of the fishes, an order of study which the author 
considers most interesting" to beginners. The illustrations are 
excellent and very attractive. There are 227 original drawings, 
116 photographs, and many maps and charts. By special arrange- 
ment with the publishers we are able to reprint in an advertising 
page a sample illustration, one which is also full of interest apart 
from its connection with the book. 

Summarizing its good points, the reviewer is led to say that the 
" American Natural History " is, in all essential respects, an ex- 
cellent and intensely interesting book ; and it will surely fill an im- 
portant place in private, public and school libraries. It will long 
be the popular reading and reference book on American animals ; 
and it deserves a reign of popularity such as in the last half of the 
last century was given the books by the late J. G. Wood, the Eng- 
lish naturalist, who did more than any other to popularize animal 
natural history in Britain and wherever the English language is 
read. M. A. B. 

How to Know the Butterflies. By John Henry Comstock and 
Anna Botsford Comstock. X. Y., Appleton & Co. 1904. Pp.311 
(5/4 by 8 in.), 45 colored plates and 50 figures in text. $2.25 net. 

This addition to the already long list of books on butterflies will 
be welcomed because it aims primarily to help the beginner in the 
study of these insects. This is done by means of excellent illustra- 
tions of common butterflies without a confusing array of figures 
of foreign species, by giving brief but sufficiently full descriptions, 
and by recording only the more important facts about the life-his- 

Part I of the book is a general account of relationships, struc- 
ture, metamorphosis, the life of butterflies, and methods of col- 
lecting. Part II deals with the classification of butterflies of ten 
prominent families and their leading sub-divisions. There are 
tables without technical terminology so that the beginner's way 
to the name of a family is a quite easy one ; and the descriptions 

42 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

and illustrations in the chapters devoted to families will in most 
cases make the determination of the species a pleasurable task. 
The forty-five full-page plates are so life-like that even an ele- 
mentary pupil could easily identify most common butterflies. 

While the book is intended for use in the eastern half of the 
United States, the wide range of many species and the general 
chapters will make the book valuable in the far western states. 

The book seems to the reviewer to be just what is needed by the 
one who studies entomology for recreation and by the teacher 
who conducts lessons on butterflies in connection with nature- 
study of the schools. M. A. B. 



Department of Agriculture Publications. Of interest to teach- 
ers of nature-study, particularly to those who deal with the agri- 
cultural phase, are many pamphlets issued by the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture during the year 1904. The popular series of 
Farmers' Bulletins (free upon application to the Secretary of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C.) has been extended by adding 
Numbers 185 to 205. Of these the following are of most general 
interest: No. 185, " Beautifying the Home Grounds," gives useful 
suggestions regarding the selection, planting, and cultivation of 
trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants suitable for home 
grounds. No. 188, "Weeds Used in Medicine," contains inter- 
esting information, with illustrations, concerning about 25 of our 
very common weeds. No. 191, "The Cotton Bollworm," will in- 
terest teachers in the South. No. 195, " Annual Flowering 
Plants," deals with the cultivation and uses of a large number of 
easily cultivated annuals. Its primary purpose is to aid in the 
home-gardening of the farmer, but it is of great value to all who 
are interested in school-gardens. No. 196, " Usefulness of the 
American Toad," deals with the life-history, habits, food, enemies, 
and economic relations of this animal which is so interesting to 
nature-study classes. No. 198, " Strawberries," deals with the 
story of the origin, the varieties, and the cultivation of the garden 
strawberry. No. 199 is on " Corn Growing." No. 200 deals 
with 'Turkeys: Standard Breeds and Management." 


In addition to these new bulletins many earlier ones are again 
available as reprints. 

Pamphlets on Birds. The following pamphlets have been re- 
printed for free distribution by the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture : " Meadow Lark and Baltimore Oriole " and " Four Com- 
mon Birds" (1895 Yearbook), "Blue Jay" (1896 Yearbook), 
" Food of Nestling Birds " (1900), " Economic Value of the Bob- 
white " (1903). 

Hampton Nature-Study Leaflets. This useful series of leaflets 
has during this year been extended by the following: No. 13, 
" Arbor Day Suggestions," by Rossa B. Cooley ; No. 14, " Winged 
Pollen Carriers," by Mrs. Comstock ; and No. 15, " School Gar- 
dening." Also, for children there is a leaflet on " How to know 
the trees by their bark," by Julia Ellen Rogers. All these leaflets 
are well illustrated. It is announced that, owing to a decrease of 
funds, the free distribution of leaflets must cease and they will be 
sold at 25 cents per dozen to Southern teachers and 50 cents to 
subscribers elsewhere. 

Illinois Leaflets on Agriculture. No. 41 (Jan. 1904) in the 
series of agricultural leaflets for supplementary reading written 
by the professors of the College of Agriculture, University of 
Illinois, discusses in simple language the improvement of animals 
and plants by careful selection. This, like the earlier leaflets, con- 
sists of eight pages, 5^ x 7 inches. The leaflets may be obtained 
in lots of ten or more, assorted as desired, at one cent a copy, from 
the publisher, C. M. Parker, Taylorville, 111. 

Massachusetts Nature Leaflets. The State Board of Agricul- 
ture has during 1904 published the following new leaflets : No. 
20, " Massachusetts Weeds," and No. 21, " Potato Rots," by Dr. 
Geo. E. Stone; Nos. 22-25, by C. H. Forbush, contain hints for 
outdoor bird study — No. 22, " How to Identify Birds," No. 23, 
' How to find Birds," No. 24, " How to Approach Birds," and 
No. 25, " How to Attract Birds." 


( Many of those published during 1904 will receive more extended notice 


Nature Study with Common Things. By Marion H. Carter. N. Y., 
American Book Co. 1904. Pp. 150. 60 cents. 

44 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. i, jan. 1905 

How Nature Study Should be Taught. By E. F. Bigelow. N. Y.. 
Hinds, Noble & Eldredge. 1904. Pp. 203, illustrated. $1.00. 

Nature-Study Lessons. By M. W. Crawford, William Scott, John 
Dearness, and W. H. Elliott. Introduction by E. F. Bigelow. N. Y., 
Hinds, Noble & Eldredge. 1904. Pp. 194. 75 cents. 

The Teaching of Biology in the Secondary School. By F. E. Lloyd 
(Botany) and M. A. Bigelow (Zoology). N. Y., Longmans, Green & Co. 
1904. Pp. 490. $1.50. (Both parts discuss nature-study in its bearings 
on high-school biology. These sections on nature-study will be reviewed 

Nature Study and the Child. By C. B. Scott. Boston, D. C. Heath & 
Co. 1901. Pp. 61S. $1.50. (A discussion of aids and principles. Also 
contains lesson plans.) 


First Principles of Agriculture. By E. S. Goff & D. D. Mayne. N. Y., 
American Book Co. 1904. Pp. 248, illustrated. 80 cents. 

The Garden Diary. By Rose Kingsley. N. Y., Pott & Co. 1904. 75 
cents. (A page for each day of the year is headed with a poetical selection 
and the remainder is left blank for " Garden and Nature Notes.") 


American Natural History. By W. T. Hornaday. N. Y., Scribner's 
Sons. 1904. (Reviewed in this issue.) 

Our Big Game. By D. W. Huntington. N. Y.. Scribner's Sons. 1904. 
Pp. 347, illustrated. $2.00 net. 


Animal Stories. Retold from St. Nicholas. Edited by Miss M. H. 
Carter. Vol. I, About Animals. Vol. II, Cat Stories. N. Y., Century Co. 
(Four more volumes are in press.) 

Monarch, the Big Bear. By Ernest Thompson Seton. N. Y., Scribner's 
Sons. 1904. Pp. 214, illustrated. 

The Tree-Dwellers, and The Early Cave Men. By Katherine Dopp. 
Chicago, Rand, McNally. (These books will be reviewed in connection 
with an article on the relation of primitive-life studies to nature-study.) 

Nature's Byways. By Nellie W. Ford. Boston, Silver, Burdett & Co. 
Eighth edition, 1903. 40 cents. (A reader for primary grades.) 

Outlines in Nature Study and History. By Annie G. Engell. Boston, 
Silver, Burdett & Co. 1900. Pp. 165. 48 cents. (Lesson plans for the 
primary school.) 

Bird Day. How to Prepare for it. By C. A. Babcock. Boston, Silver, 
Burdett & Co. 1901. Pp. 95. 50 cents. (An introduction to the study 
of birds.) 

Our Birds and Their Nestlings. By M. C. Walker. N. Y.. American 
Book Co. 1904. Pp. 208, illustrated. 60 cents. 



est in connection with nature-study 
January to September, 1904 

arranged by ada watterson 

Tutor in Biology, Teachers College, Columbia University 

[Editorial Note. — This first installment of an index to the 
periodical literature relating to nature-study begins the record 
of literature which appeared in the first eight months of the year 
1904; and if space in the second number of this journal allows, 
there will be added to the list below the important titles under 
the following headings : " Natural history of plants and animals," 
" Physical Nature-Study," " Geographical Nature-Study," and 
" Agricultural Nature-Study." 

It has not been attempted to make a complete bibliography, but 
rather to select those articles which appear to be most important 
and accessible in most public libraries. In the case of periodicals 
designed for local circulation, only articles of exceptional merit 
will be catalogued. 

The figures with black-face indicate the volume and those fol- 
lowing the : refer to the pages. The abbreviations of journal 
titles are those used in the general indexes to be found in 

Readers are requested to inform the compiler concerning any 
important omissions.] 


Bardwell, D. L. Nature-study. New York Teachers' Monographs, 
6:6-11. June. 1904. (This number also contains outlines, by various 
authors, for nature-study in the different grades.) 

Bigelow, M. A. Outlines of work in nature-study in Horace Mann 
School, in " The curriculum of the elementary school." Teachers College 
Record, 5:35. March, 1904. 

Broadhurst, Jean. Nature-study as a training for life. Plant World, 
7 : 87-93. April, 1904. 

Burroughs, John. Literary treatment of nature. Atlantic, 94:38-43. 
July, 1904. 

46 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, jan. 1905 

Burroughs, John. On humanizing the animals. Century, 67 : 773-80. 
March, 1904. 

Burroughs, John. True test of good nature literature. (Introduction to 
new edition of Nature Library.) Country Life in America, 6:51. May, 

Chapman, F. M. The case of W. J. Long. Science, 19 : 387. March 4, 

Davis, W. H. Natural and unnatural history. Science, 19 : 667-75. April 
22, 1904. (Criticism of W. J. Long and other writers.) 

Eppens, E. H. Nature-study a la mode — a protest. Critic, 45 : 149. 
August, 1904. (Protest against modern scientific methods of studying 

Ganong, W. F. The writings of W. J. Long. Science, 19 : 623-26. April 
15, 1904. 

Gilmore, Gertrude. The functions of nature-study and what it can do as 
a preparation for high-school biology. School Science, 4:136-38. June, 

Guillet, Cephas. A glimpse at a nature school. Ped. Sem., 9 : 91-99. 
March, 1904. (Curriculum based on a study of physiography.) 

Hoke, G. W. The centre of interest in nature-study. Ohio Educ. 
Monthly, 53 : 63-65. Feb., 1904. 

Latter, 0. H. Nature-study. School World (Eng.), 6:108-9. March, 
1904. (Value in correlation of studies.) 

Long, W. J. Science, nature and criticism. Science, 19 : 760-767. May 
13, 1904. (Reply to critics.) 

McMurry, F. M. Advisable omissions from the elementary curriculum 
and the basis for them. Educ. Rev., 27 : 478-494. May, 1904. 

Ranger, W. E. Nature-study movement. Education, 24 : 501-3. April, 

Sharp, Dallas L. Our uplift through outdoor life. World's Work, 
8 : 5043. July, 1904. 

Spectator. School flower show-. Outlook, 77:211. May 28, 1904. 

Titchener, E. B. Nature-study. Amer. Jour, of Educ, 37 : 333-4. May, 
1904. (Protest against "scientific nature-study" in the kindergarten.) 

Ward, H. Marshall. Nature-study. School World (Eng.), 6:205-8. 
June, 1904. 

Wheeler, Wm. M. Woodcock surgery. Science, 19 : 347. Feb. 26, 1904. 
(Criticism of W. J. Long.) 

Zueblin, Chas. The return to nature. Chaut., 39 : 257-66. July. 1904. 



This department will be devoted principally to the many little 
practical problems which are of interest to teachers of nature- 
study ; and all readers are invited to use this column freely. Ques- 
tions should be sent to the office of the managing editor. Some 
will be answered by members of the editorial board, while others 
must be referred to readers for answers in later issues. But in all 
cases the answers published are subject to discussion, correction, 
or addition by readers. We hope to have such supplementary 
answers within a month after the appearance of the first answer. 

The announcement of this department in the prospectus of this 
journal has already called forth the following questions : 

Question i. Books on Trees. " Kindly give a list of popular 
books dealing with trees." W. X., Chicago. 

Keeler's "Our Native Trees" (Scribners, N. Y. 1900. 
$2.00). Matthew's "Familiar trees and their Leaves" (Apple- 
ton, N. Y. New ed. 1903. 200 ill. $1.75). Lounsberry's 
"Guide to the Trees" (Stokes, N. Y. 1900. $2.50). New- 
hall's "Trees of Northeastern America" (Putnam, N. Y. 1890. 
$2.50). Rogers' " Among Green Trees : a guide to acquaintance 
with familiar trees " (Mumford, Chicago. 1902. $3.00). Hunt- 
ington's " Studies of Trees in Winter " ( Knight, Boston. 1902. 

Question 2. Classification of Birds. " To what extent should 
classification of birds be presented in the bird-study of a fifth or 
sixth grade?" 

Referred to readers for answer. 

Question 3. School-Garden for Rural Schools. " How should 
a rural school-garden be conducted so as to interest the pupils ? It 
seems to me that the manual work involved in making gardens is 
such a familiar experience to country children that they will have 
little of the interest which novelty gives to the city children." F. 
H., Toledo, Ohio. 

Referred to readers who may have had experience. 

48 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, i, . tax. 1905 


[Editorial Note.- — All articles in The Review are open to 
discussion, and readers are invited to send their contributions to' 
this department as soon as possible after the publication of the 
paper to which reference is made. The editors must reserve the 
right to select and abridge if space is limited, and to modify 
criticisms which tend to be so personal or acrimonious as not to 
be helpful. The weak points of the nature-study movement de- 
serve free discussion, but in the spirit and form of good friendship 
for all persons who may represent opposing views.] 


[The help of all readers is needed in keeping The Review in touch with 
local developments of nature-study. Information regarding important 
changes in local movements, notes or manuscripts of papers read at local 
conventions, literature designed primarily for local circulation — these sug- 
gest the nature of information which will be useful to the editorial man- 
agers, especially to the writer of this page devoted to " News Notes."] 

Nature-Study Libraries. Hampton Institute has begun a system of 
traveling nature-study libraries for Southern teachers. A set of twelve 
books is loaned for a school term at a rental of fifty cents. 

New Nature-Study Society. North Carolina teachers of nature-study 
have recently completed the organization of a state association. The N. C. 
Nature-Study Society. The officers are : The State Superintendent of 
Schools, Dr. Joyner, President, and Professor Stevens, of the Agricultural 
College, Secretary. A board of advisers, composed of specialists in each 
branch of science, will answer questions by teachers ; local branches will be 
formed in schools ; and a series of leaflets will be published. 

Migrating Birds. Of interest to students of birds, and, indeed, to all 
who are interested in birds, is the report that a law intended to prevent 
the killing of certain species of birds will probably be passed in Mexico. 
This will certainly protect some of our migrants which are wantonly de- 
stroyed in their winter homes. 

Death of Dr. Muldrew. We regret to announce the death of Dr. W. H. 
Muldrew, Dean of Macdonald Institute, the new Canadian school of 
nature-study which is referred to elsewhere in this issue. He was one of 
the collaborators named in the prospectus of this journal. 

Untrimmed Copies. Subscribers who prefer their copies of The Re- 
view with pages uncut should notify the managing editor before No. 2 
is published March 20th. 




Vol. I MARCH,, 1905 No. 2 



[Editorial Note. — The discussion of the relations of nature-study and 
natural science opened by the symposium in No. 1 of this journal will 
doubtless be added to in later papers with other titles or by voluntary con- 
tributions to the pages devoted to " Discussions and Correspondence." So 
far as the discussions already published are concerned, it appears that the 
writers are practically agreed that: (T) nature-study and natural science, 
viewed from the standpoint of education, should be regarded as decidedly 
different in that true nature-study lacks the characteristic organization of 
science; (2) nature-study so distinguished from science is the proper work 
of the elementary and ungraded schools; and (3) nature-study should be 
understood as dealing with all phases of nature, physical as well as 

But although it is advocated that nature-study should be without strict 
scientific organization, there are many suggestions in the first symposium 
that the writers are looking for some satisfactory educational organization 
for nature-study. In search of such organization we naturally inquire first 
into the educational values of our subject and from these formulate the 
aims or guiding principles for the teaching. Here we are face to face with 
another fundamental problem ; and, following the plan of the earlier sym- 
posium, the consideration of the questions involved is from the points of 
view of several writers. Several contributions to this symposium arrived 
too late for this issue and will be published later.] 

Purdue University 

It is conceded, in view of the already crowded curricula of the 
schools and the excessive work laid upon the teachers, that no 
new subject should be introduced unless it is clearly shown to be 
necessary to secure the symmetrical intellectual development of 

50 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

the child. If nature-study fails to aid in bringing about this 
result, it has no position in the schools which is at all defensible. 
It is essential, therefore, that there should be a clear-cut con- 
ception of the significance of the subject from this viewpoint. 
Its peculiar function is to develop the perceptive powers, and 
through this development bring the child into an intimate and 
sympathetic relationship with his surromxlings. This central 
thought, the real educational purpose of nature-study, has too 
often been lost in the effort to make the subject the vehicle for 
carrying information bearing upon an almost endless variety of 
natural phenomena. In no other subject, perhaps, is there such 
need to keep constantly in mind the real end in view ; to recognize 
the fact that it is not necessary to know plants and animals, but 
that it is through these to develop the perceptive powers so as to 
bring the child into a broader, a closer and a more sympathetic 
contact with the world about him. 

If this view of the function of nature-study is correct, several 
conclusions necessarily follow. One of these bears upon the 
amount of work, which as a rule has been and is far too great. 
Indeed from any viewpoint the most cursory consideration shows 
this to be true when the youth of the child, the limitations of 
time, the other school work, and the over-burdened teacher are 
taken into account. The amount of work must be adapted to the 
capacity of the average child under the average conditions and 
this adaptation can be brought about in most cases only by largely 
reducing the amount of required or suggested work. 

A second conclusion bears upon the material suitable for nature 
work. If the work be reduced in amount, there are manifold 
and patent reasons why the work touching plants and animals 
should be retained, the reduction therefore being brought about 
by the dropping of certain other subjects. This is certainly true 
for the earlier school years', whatever may be said in favor of dif- 
ferent and more varied material for the advanced grades. 
Nothing appeals so strongly to the young child as life, and when 
life is associated with color and movement the appeal is all but 
irresistible. Changes in temperature, the formation of soils, 
the effects of erosion, and a host of other phenomena of great 
interest and value make no such appeal, do not enter so appar- 
ently or directly into the child life and can be left with safety until 
a later school period. The only objection to such a reduction of 


work and a confining' of the material in large measure to plants 
and animals will be found to have its origin in the belief that 
nature-study is a device for imparting information rather than 
a means for developing power. 

A further conclusion is, that in presentation there must be a 
close adaptation to the intellectual development of the child, the 
methods employed emphasizing the work of the child and very 
much reducing the importance of those ordinary bureaus of infor- 
mation, the teacher and the book. Briefly stated nature-study 
has for its purposes the development, or at least the keeping func- 
tional, of certain powers of the child ; not to give the teacher an 
additional opportunity for talking or as a means for the exploita- 
tion of books. The methods should be in every case such as to 
give the child this training. 

Still another conclusion, if this view be correct, and one of 
great importance, is that the work of the various grades must 
be more closely related and that the work of each grade must have 
underlying it some definite pedagogic purpose. The fragmen- 
tary and illogical courses now offered under the head of nature- 
study show how little real thought has been given to this phase 
of the subject. The vast amount and range of suggested work 
merely serve to emphasize the conclusion that much may be done 
to make nature-study an efficient working tool in the schools by 
arranging a logically progressive scheme of study for each grade. 
The work as outlined for each year should have some definite 
intellectual end in view, and this should be directly connected with 
the purpose of the work in the year preceding and following. In 
the absence of such carefully wrought-out courses the work in 
nature-study must of necessity be fragmentary and unsatisfactory. 
At some future time it is the hope of the writer to present briefly 
a discussion of various intellectual centers about which the work 
of the grades may be grouped. 

To summarize very briefly, the materials of nature-study are 
incidental, its intellectual purpose is the supreme thing. If it 
becomes an efficient means of securing a symmetrical intellectual 
development, there must exist a definite conception of its functions 
and limitations. The amount of work presented must be much 
reduced and the method of presentation carefully adapted to the 
child's mental development. Direct observation of nature must 
take the place of much time now taken by the teacher, and the 

52 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

results of these observations must replace much that is now given 
in readings from the multitudinous so-called " nature-books." 
All of which means that we have no better tool for the develop- 
ment of the perceptive powers and bringing the child into sympa- 
thetic relations with his surroundings than nature-study, when it 
is nature-study pure and undefined. Where it is not, it had much 
better be dropped from the course. 


Berkeley, Cal. 

Xature-study has developed in our schools as a result of im- 
pulses from several different directions. On the one hand, we 
can trace its beginnings through object teaching to Pestalozzi and 
other educational leaders of the still more distant past, all voicing 
the feeling that the child's education should deal more with things 
and less with books. From another side has come the growing 
influence of science in the university and high school also empha- 
sizing the importance of contact with nature. 

While object teaching was formal and too often developed into 
a lifeless talk about isolated objects, the scientific notions which 
slowly filtered down into the elementary school frequently brought 
with them methods and aims not adapted to the building up of 
immature minds. 

These two chief sources of inspiration in the nature-study 
movement differ very materially in their influence so that there 
has arisen two ways, broadly speaking, of looking at the subject. 
With one school of teachers the training and culturing of the 
mental powers is held to be the chief aim ; with the others, the 
acquirement of exact and systematized knowledge. 

The real differences, however, among those teachers who have 
given the subject thoughtful attention are probably in most cases 
not as great as they sometimes appear ; and I can not believe that 
we are hopelessly adrift, but that there must be some unifying 
principle underlying all the diverse ideas, not only as to what is 
really meant by nature-study, but as to what its aims and values 
should be. If this principle upon which we can all unite can be 
brought into clearer light, it will go far toward placing nature- 
study upon a rational basis. 


We can all agree that nature-study should deal with nature at 
first hand, should deal with the actual phenomena open to the 
child's observation. This much accepted, we have the founda- 
tion for another step involving the content of the subject. In 
no two localities are the home surroundings and the opportunities 
for first-hand contact with nature the same. One school is in a 
valley in an agricultural district ; another is in the mountains 
where the leading industries are connected with mining. One 
school may be near the ocean with all its wealth of marine life, 
while another may be far from any large body of water. Spring 
plants may be growing up in one place while in another the 
ground is still covered with snow. Hence what is at hand for 
the children of one place can not always be personally investigated 
by those of another. It is unreasonable then to attempt to for 
initiate any uniform course of study for all parts of the country. 

In nature-study it matters little the number of facts acquired so 
long as the pupil is taught to see, think, and form conclusions of 
his own ; to feel at home in the world and that he is a part of it. 
The inspiration of the teacher counts for much, and it is far better 
to cover only a part of the phenomena open to study, taking up 
those that he is particularly interested in, than to run over the 
whole field in a formal and lifeless manner. 

Nature-study should not be an introduction to any particular 
occupation, such as agriculture or the workshop, nor should it be 
given for the purpose of an introduction to the science studies 
of later years. That it really does aid in agriculture, and in the 
shop, and that it does form a basis for science is nevertheless true. 
Nature-study has its own direct ends to accomplish — ends which 
are not trifling and insignificant, but of the highest value. 

The aim of nature-study should be the putting of the child 
into harmony with his environment, into sympathetic and intelli- 
gent relationship with the factors of his surroundings, both or- 
ganic and inorganic. He does not go at this study as does the 
scientist, nor for the same purpose. Interest in, and a simple 
understanding of the common facts of the world about him do 
not mean that the pupil has consciously grouped these facts for 
the purpose of arriving at law as does the scientist, but that he 
has a conception of their obvious relations sufficient for his com- 
mon needs and to make him a happier dweller among them. 

We conclude then that nature-study has within itself a prin- 

54 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

ciple which can be worked out in all localities, and that its aim 
is the same everywhere; but that the materials of study will 
change with the changing surroundings, and the method with the 
degree of development of the child. 


Teachers College, Columbia University 

[The following is one section of a paper on " Scope and Methods of 
Scientific Nature-Study ' read at the meeting of the New York State 
Science Teachers' Association, at Syracuse, December 28, 1904.] 

Dealing as nature-study does with the same materials and 
processes with which natural science is concerned, some simi- 
larity in educational values is to be expected. Looking first at 
the educational aspects of natural science, we find that writers 
who have discussed the subject have concluded that the educa- 
tional value of science study lies (1) in its discipline, and (2) in 
the information which has utilitarian, intellectual, aesthetic, and 
moral bearings. Along the same lines we must look for the 
educational value of nature-study. 

First, with regard to discipline, it has been urged by many 
writers that natural science is valuable in general education above 
all because of its disciplinary value. Karl Pearson, in the intro- 
duction to his " Grammar of Science " has urged that " in the 
first and foremost place " modern science finds its support in 
" the efficient mental training it provides for the citizen " ; and 
Professor Bessey, of the University of Nebraska, has said " that 
culture is best which so prepares a man that whatever fact pre- 
sents itself to him, he will be able to arrange it accurately with 
reference to others." 

We may urge the same arguments in favor of discipline in 
nature-study. Obviously this involves the question of method 
of teaching nature-study ; but it may be taken for granted that 
all real nature-study, like all modern natural science, is taught on 
the basis of actual study of natural objects and processes. Na- 
ture-study so taught ought to have some of the discipline which 
natural-science study gives. It ought first of all to train the 
pupils in careful, critical observing; and this ought to lead the 
pupils to much independent observing. Moreover, such nature- 


study ought to teach the pupils to appreciate the value of knowl- 
edge demonstrated to be true so far as our senses can determine ; 
and it ought to teach them to compare facts, judge their values, 
and arrange them with reference to other facts. In short, nature- 
study properly conducted ought to give the first training in the 
scientific method in which natural-science studies are able to give 
more advanced and more complete training. Along this line 
we have, I believe, one of the greatest values of nature-study — 
one which we have scarcely begun to appreciate and in which is 
the possibility of greatest advance in nature-study. As will be 
suggested in a later section of this paper, with advances in devel- 
oping the disciplinary value there will come improved selections 
of more valuable subject-matter. 

But we must not defend nature-study simply on the ground 
that the method of study affords discipline in observing, experi- 
menting, judging, reasoning, etc. The value of such mental 
processes depends largely upon the ability to apply them in 
useful lines in every-day life. Karl Pearson admits that, while 
science-study trains the judgment, it does not necessarily follow 
that the scientific man has good judgment in every-day life involv- 
ing fields other than sciences, because he may not be able to 
carry his scientific method outside the field in which he has 
acquired it. Likewise, the discipline afforded by nature-study 
will be valuable in proportion to the pupil's ability to apply it in 
a useful way. A pupil trained to see the details of structure or 
activity in a particular object on which attention has been specially 
centered- may not be any better able to observe things in general 
as he meets them in daily life ; and moreover the trained ability 
to note details is not necessarily associated with ability to discover 
points of general human interest. As an example, the detailed 
study of postage stamps might well train the observation, but 
training to observe with regard to the peculiarities of postage 
stamps does not mean expertness of observation, although per- 
haps some improvement, with regard to other things, c. g., com- 
mon objects in nature. Therefore Ave could not justify a detailed 
study of postage stamps on the sole ground that it trains the ob- 
serving powers, because the value of this is doubtful so far as 
useful application of the training is concerned. But a study of 
postage stamps with reference to the history and geography which 
thev suggest might be made a very useful exercise, because the 

56 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march. 1905 

attention might be directed towards things which it is useful to 
know. This illustration must suffice ; but it must be obvious to 
all who will stop to consider various similar illustrations which 
are readily called to mind that the value of the power of observing 
depends, as stated above, largely upon using the power in useful 
ways. This in its turn involves attention and interest, and the 
conclusion must be that the discipline of nature-study is best 
which trains the pupil to apply the method in useful ways — to 
observing things in nature which are important enough to deserve 
attention in the busy life of the average citizen. It is here that 
the discipline and the information of nature-study must go 
together, for the value of the discipline will in no small measure 
depend upon the usefulness of the information. 

Now, the usefulness of the information gained through nature- 
study is along aesthetic, utilitarian, intellectual, and moral lines; 
and the teaching of nature-study which is directed towards the 
facts which clearly have valuable relations to every-day life in 
these lines will at the same time make possible discipline which 
is most valuable. 

Summarizing, we may defend the place of nature-study in our 
educational system on the ground that it gives discipline and in- 
formation which are useful in the life of the average citizen. 

From this brief outline of the educational value of nature-study, 
we pass to a statement of the aims which, obviously, grow out 
of the values. I have previously stated 1 these in outline form as 
follows: (the numbers refer to order of statement not to relative 
value) (1) To give general acquaintance with and interest in com- 
mon objects and processes in nature. (2) To give the first train- 
ing in accurate observing as a means of gaining knowledge direct 
from nature, and also in the simplest comparing, classifying, and 
judging values of facts; in other words, to give the first training 
in the simplest processes of the scientific method. (3) To give 
pupils useful knowledge concerning natural objects and processes 
as they directly affect human life and interests. 

The first aim (for acquaintance and interest), finds its justifica- 
tion chiefly along moral and aesthetic lines. It is really the basis 
of most of the nature-study work which has been done in this 
country. The second aim (for discipline) simply stands for the 

1 In Teachers College Record, 5: 35. March, 1904. 


practical method of study with special emphasis on accuracy in 
observing and reasoning. The third aim (for useful knowledge) 
looks towards results which are primarily useful for their own 
sake; but which secondarily and incidentally may come into rela- 
tion with the study of natural sciences of the higher schools. 
With differences in materials and advancement of pupils the em- 
phasis upon the three aims will naturally vary ; but no series of 
lessons and especially the work of no one year should fail to 
give fair representations to the kind of teaching suggested by each 
of the three aims as stated. There is no conflict between these 
aims. The first depends upon the teacher's attitude towards 
and interest in natural objects and processes; the second is sim- 
ply a method of teaching; the third means nothing but selection 
of useful facts for emphasis. How can such a combination mean 
a conflict of aims? 

I know that some teachers w T ill answer, as some authors have 
written, that the formal development of lessons which the very 
statement of the aims suggests — and especially the second aim 
(for accurate, critical work) — is opposed to the first aim (for 
interest in nature) so completely that the " life and interest will 
be taken out of nature-study " and the pupils will hate the subject 
as they are commonly supposed to hate all serious work of the 
school. This, if true, is a serious criticism. Limitations of space 
will not allow proper defense here ; but I intend to refer to it in a 
paper on " Informal Nature-Study " in some future issue of this 
journal and describe some work observed in certain schools in 
which nature-stud}- is " good fun " and at the same time serious, 
critical work. 


The University of Chicago 

[Editorial Note. — This paper was prepared quite independently of the 
preceding symposium ; but it touches so definitely upon educational values 
and aims of nature-study that it should be read in connection with the 
papers which discuss the problems of aims and values.] 

Under the name of nature-study work has been introduced into 
the schools that is hard to define. It seeks to supply a need that 

58 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

is evident enough, but whether it actually does supply it is an 
open question. The statements of its purpose range from culti- 
vation of a sentimental love for nature to training in habits of 
exact observation and inference. When to this confused state- 
ment of purpose there is added the fact that it has been thrust 
upon a host of unwilling and unprepared teachers, it is no wonder 
that " nature-study " is an ill-defined, inchoate thing, the despair 
of the primary teacher and the joke of the scientific fraternity. 
And yet, its purpose is sound, and it must outgrow its ill-defined 
beginnings. It is certainly a great problem, to be solved by 
extensive experiment rather than by preconceived notions. I am 
quite prepared, therefore, to find that some of the suggestions I 
am about to make will be disapproved by experience. 

In the outset it is well to state the purpose of nature-study as 
clearly as possible ; not its incidental advantages, but its domi- 
nant motive. Naturally it is just here that we may part com- 
pany, but the dominant motive must determine the method. In 
my judgment the great function of nature-study in elementary 
education is to supplement what may be called the conventional 
education. The latter of necessity compels attention to certain 
abstractions of language and numbers that are not of paramount 
interest to the pupil at the time. At the same time, the child 
possesses what I have called " tentacles of inquiry " that are ex- 
tended towards natural objects. Too frequently a strictly con- 
ventional education atrophies these tentacles through disuse, and 
when later in life the opportunity for work in science presents 
itself, there is no response, for loss of interest has followed loss 
of power. I believe that this benumbing effect of the exclusively 
conventional education upon the natural interest in observing has 
much to do with the small proportion of college students at- 
tracted to the laboratories. What I have called the conventional 
education is necessary, but it needs to be supplemented by nature- 
study in order that the tentacles of inquiry may remain func- 
tional. To me the keeping functional natural powers is the fun- 
damental purpose of nature-study in elementary schools, that later 
in education and later in life the pupil may not be robbed of oppor- 
tunity and enjoyment. If this purpose be sound, the methods of 
nature-study are to be judged by their success in fulfilling it. 

This leads first to certain criticisms of much work in nature- 
studv that I have observed. How extensively these criticisms 


apply I have no means of knowing. Of course the most obvious 
weakness is the unprepared teacher. For the most part they are 
not to be blamed, for the work has been thrust upon them, and 
they arc more or less conscious of their helplessness ; and, 
furthermore, quite a number of the reputed leaders in the subject 
are distinctly " blind leaders of the blind."' 

Accepting the teachers, however, such as they are, my first criti- 
cism of observed methods would be directed against what I have 
been in the habit of calling " dead work " ; which means the obser- 
vation of insignificant, trivial things ; work that means nothing 
when it is done. I realize that many a teacher, through lack of 
knowledge, is compelled to occupy the time with anything that 
occurs to her, and is sometimes honest enough to call the exercise 
" busy work." For example. I have seen period after period given 
to a study of the forms of leaves, chiefly because the forms are 
endless and illustrative material is easily obtained. 

A second criticism of observed methods is the attempt to arouse 
a factitious interest in nature-study by all sorts of playful and 
imaginative devices. Most of the books dealing with nature- 
study cater to this tendency and perhaps are largely responsible 
for it. These devices disgust strong children, just as does the 
foolish and forced sprightliness of many primary teachers. 
Nature-study, imbedded as it is in conventional education, is the 
one chance for exact and independent observation, for cultivating 
the ideas that between cause and effect there can be no hiatus, 
that imagination is beautiful and most useful in its place but that 
its place is never to lead to a misconception of facts, and that 
there should be no playing fast and loose with truth. 

Passing from the statement of purpose and criticisms of ob- 
served methods to a statement of principles, I would say that if 
the purpose of nature-study is to keep functional the tentacles of 
inquiry, it follows that a test of success is interest. It is evident, 
therefore, that no science can be presented in any completeness or 
in any definitely organized sequence, and hence the purpose must 
be continuity of interest and not continuity of subject. The re- 
sulting interest must be checked by the objects of interest, which 
must be important, and so I reach my general thesis that nature- 
study must look to a continuity of interest in important subjects. 

What are appropriate subjects? I would suggest an answer 
under three heads: (1) Things of common experience. This 

60 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march. 1905 

means that there can be no fixed schedule appropriate for every 
school, and it also means an adaptable teacher. The teacher who 
has secured a definite " outline " from some one is in danger of 
passing by the most important natural objects within reach of the 
school. I have seen such an " outline " prepared on the seacoast 
and used by a teacher in the central west. When it came to the 
subject of seaweeds, a few miserable things were obtained with 
much difficulty from the seashore, and the glorious forest with 
which the school was surrounded was left without observation ! 
This is an extreme case, but essentially the same thing is common 
enough. (2) No subject should be pressed too far, for interest 
may pass into disgust. Watch the pupil, not the outline ! (3) 
Observation should be directed more towards activity than 
towards form and structure. It is fundamental in botany that 
plants be regarded as things alive and at work ; and it is also of 
far greater interest to a child to watch a plant doing something 
than to observe form and structure, which in the very nature 
of things mean nothing to the observer. 

What are appropriate methods? (1) Very definite work, that 
has already been traversed by the teacher ; for it is confusing and 
discouraging and disastrous to work at random. Some very 
definite result must be plainly in sight. (2) Individual work in 
observation or experiment, which means personal responsibility. 
(3) Unprejudiced observation, which means that the pupil is not 
to be told what ought to be seen ; some children are so docile 
that they never fail to see what they are told to see. (4) Bring- 
ing together and comparing individual results, a thing of funda- 
mental importance, for it develops differences in results which 
must be settled by repetition, shows what is essential in the 
results and what amount of variation is possible, develops the habit 
of caution in generalization, and impresses the need and nature of 
adequate proof. 

What are appropriate results ? ( 1 ) A sustained interest in 
natural objects and the phenomena of nature. (2) An indepen- 
dence in observation and conclusion. (3) Some conception as to 
what an exact statement is. (4) Some conception of what con- 
stitutes proof; in short, an independent, rational individual, such 
as the world needs to-day more than anything else. I feel strongly 
that our educational system lacks efficiency in just this direction, 
and that continuous training in exact observation and inference. 


beginning with the kindergarten, must result in more sanity 
among adults. 




Teacher of Grades Two and Three 

Photographs by C. F. Hodge 

Aery early in the spring of 1903 all the children in the schools 
of the city of Worcester were offered seeds for planting by the 
leading seedsman, and many teachers who were interested in 
garden work gladly accepted the offer for their pupils. At the 
Downing St. school the children were allowed to choose their 
own vegetable seeds ; but in the case of flower seeds the easily 
grown varieties like the nasturtium and calliopsis were given to 
the lower grades, stocks and carnations to the older children. All 
flower seeds were planted in pots at home in accordance with di- 
rections given about drainage, soil, depth to plant, and care to be 
given. This flower growing was successful and on the last day 
of school the children brought their plants, with pots gayly 
dressed in fancy paper, for an exhibit. Some very good radishes 
and lettuce were grown in beds in the school-yard, but no attempt 
was made at a report of vegetables grown at home. 

This spring, 1904, when the same offer of seeds was made, it 
seemed wise to attempt gardening on a larger scale, as the first 
trial had shown that the children were eager for the work, and we 
were satisfied that gardening ought to be made a permanent part 
of our course in nature-study. As I was especially interested, it 
naturally fell to my lot to distribute the seeds and supervise the 
work through the summer. I decided that the gardens must be 
at the children's homes, because there was no available land near 
the school, and more particularly because each child would feel 
that it was his own garden and that he had a personal responsi- 
bility for every seed given if it was at his home. Notes were 
sent to the parents asking their consent to the children's having 
seeds, and permission was readily obtained for more than four 
hundred children. Each child selected three kinds of seeds, either 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

w- ■ A . 


A home-garden planted and cared for by a girl of twelve 

The largest of the children's home-gaidens. 


flower or vegetable. The choice was not always wise, for some of 
the younger children, probably acting" on suggestions of their par- 
ents, chose seeds most difficult to germinate. Girls and boys were 
about equally divided in their choice of flowers and vegetables, 
which was much to my surprise; and later in the summer I found 
the girls quite as successful vegetable gardeners as the boys. 

During the days following the distribution of the seeds little 
conversation was heard about the school building and neighbor- 
hood save of planting; and it soon became evident that what the 
children lacked in knowledge and experience they made up by 
their enthusiasm. Would it last through the summer, was the 
question. It seemed necessary that the children should be watched 
over and encouraged, and' so they were told that I would visit 
their gardens when they were w r ell started and that my disap- 
pointment would be great if they had nothing to show me. They 
were told, also, that the New England Agricultural Society had 
asked the school children to make exhibits of flowers and vege- 
tables at the fair to be held in Worcester early in September and 
that it was hoped that every child in Downing St. school would 
raise something worthy of exhibit. It was understood by every 
child that if he were assisted by others in the production of his 
flowers or vegetables, they would not be eligible for exhibit at the 
fair. Knowing this, a little girl in the lowest grade chose only 
vegetable seeds in order to avoid any suspicion that her father, 
who was a florist, had helped her. 

As soon as the home-gardens were fairly started, work was 
begun on some garden beds for the school-yard. The year before 
w r e had made an attempt at a flower bed, but in our ignorance 
had made it by heaping the loam on the hard gravel of the school- 
vard and in midsummer our plants wilted and died. We had thus 
learned from experience that the bed must be lowered nearly to 
the level of the yard to prevent drying out. Volunteers removed 
the loam, excavated through the hard gravel to the depth of 
eighteen inches, then replaced the loam. New beds were made in 
the same way. two for flowers and one for vegetables and a fourth 
for a dozen varieties of sw r eet herbs. Boys and girls in the school 
volunteered to care for the beds ; and, with an occasional reminder, 
they were kept well weeded and watered throughout the summer. 

As soon as there w r as something to see in the home-gardens, I 
began to visit them whenever I could before and after school until 

6 4 

THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

the term ended and after that I made systematic visits, a street at 
a time, until all were inspected. I saw gardens good, bad and 
indifferent ; the first, however, being largely in the majority. Of 
the bad, in most cases the child was not to blame, for the failure 
plainly resulted from poor soil or lack of sunshine. The gardens 
which I term indifferent belonged to the class of children who 
delight in beginning new things but who have not the moral 

S*. \rf£* 

r ^L- t£v 

" The comparisons which a child would draw between his garden and those of his neighbors 

were interesting and helpful." 

stamina to push on to a completed result. However, the lesson 
was probably helpful, so far as it went. In very little of our edu- 
cational plan is a subject studied to completion ; everything learned 
or done is a fragment which some day may serve a purpose which 
we can not foresee. 

As the summer went on and hot, sultry days came, it was won- 
derful how many gardens did do well. Even the transplanting 
was done so carefully and the plants so well protected from the 
sun's rays that few were lost. Mothers told me that their children 
did not wish to go away even for a few days, because the garden 
would need attention during their absence. The comparisons 
which a child would draw between his garden and those of his 




neighbors were interesting and helpful, and the boy or girl whose 
garden was a little in advance of the others was indeed envied. 

When the time for the fair drew near, in order to know defi- 
nitely what each child would contribute, postal cards were sent to 
every family whose children had been successful in their work, 
directing how to cut the flowers, prepare the vegetables, and that 
they be brought to the school-house at an early hour on the morn- 
ing of the opening of the fair. Wagons had been secured to 

A corner of the exhibit at the agricultural fair More than thirty kinds of vegetables and all 

common varieties of flowers. 

carry the exhibit to the fair-grounds. Every child who exhibited 
was given an exhibitor's ticket, allowing free admission each day. 
This privilege alone more than repaid the children for the hours 
of labor spent in the garden work, for no child ever could stay 
long enough at an agricultural fair, and a large percentage of the 
children had never before attended one. 

The judges awarded the Downing St. school the first premium 
of $7.00 for the best collection from any one school. Thirteen 
other premiums were won by individual children of the school 
— six first premiums, four second and three third — amounting to 
$6.00 more. There were more than thirty kinds of vegetables 

66 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

exhibited, the largest production being two mammoth whaleback 
squashes weighing twenty-eight and twenty-nine pounds apiece, 
and the most unique, a handsome pepper plant, full of peppers, 
growing in a tin pail. The flower table included all common 
varieties from the showy nasturtium and marigold to the dainty 
pansy and the sturdy dahlia. The finest golden marigold plant 
that I have ever seen, one literally covered with huge blossoms, 
was grown and exhibited in a large pot. A little girl was the 
proud owner and she won the first premium for marigolds. Many 
people sought the attendant to inquire if the exhibit was entirely 
the work of the children, none of whom were over fourteen years 
of age, the youngest were but five, and the average was probably 
not more than ten. 

I doubt if any summer ever spent by the children of the Down- 
ing St. school has been as profitable as this one. They had defi- 
nite, pleasing, out-of-door occupation ; and not once have I heard 
a complaint, heard so often summers before, that the mothers 
would be glad when school began so that boys and girls would be 
away from the street and its dangers. 


Supervisor of Training School, Los Angeles, Cal. 

What is a school-garden ? On your answer depends very much 
the success or failure you will make of one. 

The school-garden of certain parts of Europe forms a portion 
of the income of the tenant schoolmaster. It is more than an 
experiment in showing how things grow. It represents a suc- 
cessful venture as well as an object lesson in elementary agricul- 
ture. Such conditions do not exist in the public schools of 
America. Yet many writers, advocating the school-garden for 
our schools, cite these foreign ones as models. 

One of the best known school-gardens in the United States 
consists of limited beds in all sorts of available corners of a limited 
school-yard. In one corner a group of children care for a bed of 
flowers, in other angles other varieties are cared for by other 
groups. Some are wild flowers, some are domesticated. Through 

croswell] SCHOOL-GARDEXS 6? 

this garden the children of this city school have come to know 
many wild flowers that otherwise would have remained strangers ; 
some knowledge of the care of plants has been imparted ; and the 
beds have furnished specimens for analysis and study in the class- 
room. This work is well adapted to the needs of the pupils of 
this particular school, and the garden deserves the reputation it 
possesses. Yet would you say that your school-garden exists for 
the purpose of teaching the recognition of wild flowers, learning 
to care for them, and of raising supplies for the botany and art 
classes ? 

Many school-gardens are planted with vegetables of all sorts — 
radishes, lettuce, cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes, squash, corn, 
beans, etc. In fact, some of them show a sample of almost every- 
thing which might be grown in a market garden. It would be 
difficult for anyone to say why all of these are planted ; certainly 
it would be impossible to give an adequate reason for each. But 
all are planted regardless of the location of the school, whether 
in a large city or in a country district. It is probable in both 
cases the object, as stated, is to enable the children to see these 
vegetables in the process of growth. The object may be, how- 
ever, to show how to grow different vegetables. But whatever 
the aim, the result is the same in the majority of cases. The 
garden is started late, so that only a few radishes mature before 
the close of school. These are gathered and eaten. Then comes 
the long summer vacation and the end of the school-garden as 
far as the children are concerned, for in most instances the condi- 
tions are such that the garden, which was started amid much 
enthusiasm and with some promise, ends in unsightly neglect. 
The children have seen something growing; they have, if the 
conditions were favorable, had an opportunity to exercise a measure 
of responsibility during the early growth ; but for the most part 
they have experienced the discouraging effect of failing to com- 
plete what they started to do. The evil effect of such failure, 
apart from its demoralizing influence on the general character, is 
more than an offset to the good which may come from any knowl- 
edge gained. The creation of a desire for plant culture, which 
should be the result, is lacking ; not only that, but the fresh enthu- 
siasm of the first attempt it lost. Never again will there be such 
an opportunity to develop in the same pupils a genuine love for 

68 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

gardening and the wholesome influences which come with the suc- 
cessful nurture of plants. 

These examples are sufficient to show that the conditions exist- 
ing in one locality may not exist in another. The conditions will 
modify both the aim and the possibilities of the garden. In each 
case the purpose of the garden should be definite, and should be 
determined beforehand, by the nature of the surroundings and 
the possibility of success. To attempt the impossible does not 
speak well for one's sanity ; not to know what you are trying to 
do shows lack of business ability ; to encourage your pupils in a 
forlorn hope is dishonest, and the effort is foredoomed to failure. 

Summarizing, a school-garden has often failed for one of the 
following reasons : It was simply an imitation, a fad without a 
purpose ; the purpose was too general ; it was not adapted to 
existing conditions ; or the connection between the end sought and 
the plan followed was too loose. 

The success of a school-garden should be measured, not by its 
extent, nor by the opportunity which it offers for securing photo- 
graphs of groups of children at work, but by the effectiveness with 
which it supplies the means of satisfying a genuine need on the 
part of the pupils of a given school. Two gardens may be 
equally successful, yet widely different. In a large city school 
where the children have little opportunity for either observation or 
work in the soil, to plant for the purpose of seeing how the com- 
mon vegetables grow, even though there may be no prospects 
of any crop, is entirely proper, provided the children are not 
encouraged to hope for the impossible. If, however, such a pur- 
pose is the leading one in a village or small city where the children 
see the different plants growing under more normal conditions, 
and where by a little encouragement they can be led to work their 
own little plots at home, then such a garden shows stupidity on 
the part of the promoter. In the smaller place its purpose should 
be much more specific ; the school should put much more em- 
phasis on the multiplying of plots at home, and less on show at 
school ; more on specific knowledge of how to cultivate those 
things within the ability of the child that may -add to the beauty 
or attractiveness of the individual home, less on how radishes or 
potatoes grow ; more attention to those things which can be surely 
grown, and which by their success will deeepen and extend the 
interest in such soil lore as will make lives happier, purer and 
more useful. 





Editor of "Nature and Science" in St. Nicholas. Author of "How Nature Study 

should be Taught " 

[Editorial Note. — The experiments described in this paper are so prac- 
ticable and adaptable to every schoolroom that they deserve to be familiar 
to every teacher of nature-study. For this reason we have urged the author 
to re-write the earlier accounts of his experiments and make them more 
generally available for teachers of nature-study and high-school biology.] 

1 am requested to tell teachers how I use in tablets the chemicals 
of Sachs' nutrient solution for the artificial feeding of plants. For 
those not familiar with feeding plants with chemicals I first quote 
briefly from Professor Sachs :* 

' The complete revolution which rational agriculture and for- 
estry have experienced through the establishing of the theory of 
the nutrition of plants, proves how much has been accomplished 
in this department. It would extend far beyond the scope of this 
lecture to reproduce even briefly the substance of the literature of 
the subject. The most significant result of the development of 
the nutrition theory is met with, however, in the fact that we are 
now able to rear plants artificially — that we are in a position, 
with chemically pure water to which we add some few chemically 
pure salts, to rear artificially highly developed plants as well as the 
simplest algae (and mutatis mutandis, also fungi) — that from in- 
conspicuous and often scarcely ponderable quantities of vegetable 
substance, quantities of it as large as we choose may be produced 
in this way. 

" Such being the favorable position of affairs, I regard it as the 
simplest and most instructive method to connect the main points 
of the theory of nutrition of plants, so far as they concern the 
food materials, with the description of an experiment in artificial 
nutrition made with a highly organized plant. I think that in 
this manner the essential and important points come into view 
more clearly than with any other mode of exposition. In the year 
i860 I published the results of experiments which demonstrated 

1 See Lecture XVII, " The Nutritive Materials of Plants," in Profewn- 
Julius von Sachs' " On the Physiology of Plants." 

7° THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

that land-plants are capable of absorbing their nutritive matters 
out of watery solutions, without the aid of soil, and that it is 
possible in this way not only to maintain plants alive and growing 
for a long time, as had long been known, but also to bring about 
a vigorous increase of their organic substance, and even the pro- 
duction of seeds capable of germination." 

I have utilized all that this honored botanist and others have 
recorded regarding artificial nutrition of plants, and have added 
these three points : ( 1 ) Convenience of supplying the chemicals 
in tablet form. (2) Novelties (to attract the young folks) in sit- 
uations of growing plants. (3) A germinating case for scientific 
or popular observation and experiment. 

This is how I came to use chemicals in tablet form for feeding 
plants. For many years I have been visiting schoolrooms and 
talking to the young folks on nature-study. I have also been 
accompanied by young folks, in parties of from a few to two hun- 
dred and fifty in number, on natural-history excursions along the 
roadsides, across the fields, through the forests and in the meadows 
and swamps. In a single year I have taken as many as 4,500 
girls and boys on tramps aggregating more than 175 miles. Most 
of this has been in the spring; but just why I have never been 
able to understand, for surely Nature is interesting at all sea- 
sons. But requests for the help of the naturalist-guide come 
almost wholly in the spring. At this season plant life is especially 
active, new, living and growing. That is — let me qualify this 
statement — the plant life outdoors to which I introduced the young 
folks. Indoors that to which they introduced me, in the form of 
seeds germinating on cotton, blotting paper or sawdust, most fre- 
quently suggested death rather than life. Sometimes the mass 
would be decaying, filthy, ill-smelling, disgusting. And the young 
folks would apologetically say, " You should have seen it a few 
days ago, then it was growing nicely." 

At this same time, plant life outdoors was becoming better and 
better ; every day added to the charm, and brought new interests. 
Gradually the impression deepened that something was wrong. 
Every time the young folks or teachers called my attention to 
germinating seeds in bad condition I felt a jar of discord. I 
admit that it took several years of such experience to formulate 
itself into more than annoyance, and to become a determination to 
find a remedy. I was familiar, as are most teachers of botany, 




Fig 1. An egg-shell garden. Several common plants grown three feet tall from sawdust in egg- 
shells Sawdust kept moist with water during germination and alterwards with the solution 



Fig 2. In center " agateware" pan cotton plants are growing in bits ot crushed stone. In outer 
pans beans are growing in sawdust Fed by the nutrient solution 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

with Sachs' solution from experiments made several years before 
in a university laboratory ; but it took time for the suggestion to 
arise that the solution could be used aside from technical experi- 

Fig 3. Oats in a lamp-chimney " struggle for existence." Wrap a roll of cotton in black cloth, 
push it into the chimney, and then with a stick or wire poke seeds in between glass and cloth. Dur- 
ing germination keep moist with water, and afterwards with the solution. 

Hairy vetch on cloth netting stretched over the mouth of the tumbler, the roots hanging down 
into the solution. Many other common plants grow well in same position. 

merits, and by the young folks as a common plant food. But one 
day light came. I ordered some of the mixture in bulk, put up 
loose in two-ounce packages. Later, as I saw a physician leave 
tablets for a patient and heard him refer to the convenience of 


these over the old method with powders and mysterious mixtures, 
the suggestion came to mind — Why not put up those nutrient 
chemicals in tablets ? I at once gave an order to a manufacturing 
chemist for 10,000 compressed tablets. This was in the early part 
of 1900. All that spring and summer I experimented with my 
tablets, as did a few teachers of botany to whom I gave a supply. 
We used the entire 10,000. They were found to work marvel- 
lously well, even beyond my fondest hope. The first public an- 
nouncement was on page 557 of " Nature and Science " of St. 
Nicholas for April, 1901, in a series of prizes offered to the young 
folks for germinating seeds. The result of that contest, during 
the summer and autumn of 1901, was astonishing. The children 
made vise of the tablets most successfully in growing plants in all 
sorts of ingenious situations. I was deluged with letters from 
young folks, teachers and parents, describing experiments. Sev- 
eral of these letters and a number of illustrations were published 
during the following spring in St. Nicholas (April, 1902). Later 
accounts were given in School Science, Chicago ; and Popular 
Educator, Boston. 

Each of the tablets is composed of the following : Common table 
salt (sodium chloride), 2 Y / 2 grains ; plaster of Paris — gypsum (cal- 
cium sulphate), 2.y 2 grains; Epsom salts (magnesium sulphate); 
phosphate of lime, nearly the same as burned bones (calcium 
phosphate), 2V2 grains; East Indian saltpetre — nitre (potassium 
nitrate), 5 grains; compounds of iron and chlorine (ferric chlo- 
ride), nearly ^V grain. To make the food solution, two of these 
tablets are required for each pint (500 ccm. nearly) of water. 
Crush the tablets to be used and put the powder in the water. 
Shake or stir thoroughly before using. Keep the plants thor- 
oughly moistened with this solution, which is both drink and 
food for them. 

The solution prepared from the tablets will nourish a plant if 
the roots can be kept supplied with it, even on top of a stone, or a 
brick, between two sheets of glass (see Fig. 4), on crushed rock 
(see Fig. 2), sawdust (see Fig. 1), pebbles, bits of glass, or any 
similar insoluble substance. Plants thrive well on perforated cloth 
or wire-netting stretched tightly across any receptacle that is 
kept filled with the solution (see Fig. 3). The photographs pub- 
lished in 57. Nicholas and other periodicals to which I have re- 
ferred and also the new ones accompanying this article show some 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 

of these situations. But for novelty or scientific experiment there 
are many others equally good. Plants may even he suspended in 

Fig. 4. White lupins, growing from successive plantings in a germinating case made of two sheets 
of glass tied together with cotton wadding next to the back glass and a layer of black close-woven 
cloth between the wadding and the glass in front. The cloth is for a dark background and to force 
the roots to grow in one plane between the cloth and glass in front. The case is kept standing on 
edge (see Fig. 5). The seeds are planted on the upper edge between the front glass and the black 
cloth, and kept moist (with water until rootlets appear and then with the solution). Strips of cotton 
should be used to cover the edge and protect the seeds from drying until the plants begin to grow 
(see Fig. 5). At the end of two weeks there is a living chart showing successive stages. 

Fig. 5. Germinating cases, described in connection with Fig 4, arranged in card-catalogue style 
in an enameled pan. By this arrangement space is economized and the roots in each case, except the 
one in front, are darkened by the adjoining case. A piece of black cloth may be used to cover the 
front glass. The excess solution poured over the upper edges is collected in the pan, and from time 
to time is used again to moisten the cotton above. 

mid-air and grown, if the roots are kept moist with the solution. 
Apply the solution to the roots in any way that you please, keep 


the stem and leaves in the light, and the whole plant will grow 
and thrive if it is kept warm. I have not found so much advan- 
tage in keeping the roots in darkness as I had anticipated. In 
most of my experiments they have been wholly in the light. This 
is undoubtedly somewhat of a disadvantage to the plant, but to be 
able to watch the development of roots adds greatly to the interest. 

I have found the tablets somewhat helpful as a fertilizer, but 
my belief is that they are most efficacious when they are used alone 
and not added to earth or other nutritious substances. 

Contrary to the persistent belief or to the inquiries of most 
young folks and of many teachers, let me say that the tablets do 
not germinate nor aid in germinating the seeds. They feed the 
plant after the tiny roots have been formed and are ready to take 
food. In fact, the application of the chemical solution in the very 
earliest stages of germination has seemed to me to be a disad- 
vantage. To germinate a seed only three things are necessary : 
warmth, moisture and air. It will not germinate with only one or 
two of these. It must have all three. The tablet solution will 
not supply the warmth nor the air, and the moisture is better sup- 
plied by water than by the solution. Darkness is helpful, but not 
an absolute essential for germination. Allow the seeds to sprout 
in the ordinary old-fashioned method on moist cotton, blotting 
paper, etc., and apply the solution only to feed them as soon as 
the young plants tell you by starting their roots that they are ready 
for food. 

For four years I have experimented extensively with this solu- 
tion by growing plants in a great variety of situations. This has 
not been work, it has been play, most enjoyable hours snatched 
from the pressure of many duties. I have come to love plants, 
not alone from the scientific or the esthetic standpoint, but as 
pets. My desire has been to create and increase an interest and 
love for the growth of our common plants, in their entirety, as 
living things. It is not enough to know the flowers, not even 
enough to know the plants, that is at any one stage of their exist- 
ence, in the sense of knowing either the name or structure. The 
message coming to us from the Great Xature-Study Teacher, re- 
garding one species of plants, was intended I think to apply to all. 
He said " consider the lilies of the field how they grow." 

[How to obtain the tablets. — A box containing 30 tablets, with full direc- 
tions for use, will be mailed for ten cents— a very small amount which is 

76 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1. 2, march, 1905 

just sufficient to pay for the tablets, printing, packing, and postage. The 
author has no financial, only an educational, interest in the sale. This low 
price is possible only because thousands of boxes are prepared at a time 
by a manufacturing chemist. Large quantities have been purchased by 
schools, and colleges find them most convenient for making the standard 
Sachs' solution. Address Edward F. Bigelow, Stamford, Ct. — Managing 


North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

Molds of bread, cheese and fruits are only too common objects 
in the household ; but little real knowledge prevails regarding their 
nature, mode of origin or effects. This field of observation and 
experimentation is so little known that it is by most teachers either 
never thought of at all or considered too difficult to be of use to 
the nature-study classes. Many simple and instructive experi- 
ments, however, may be made in any school at no cost with these 
simple plants, and much interest aroused and knowledge attained. 

Experiment 1. To see whether any desired kind of mold can be 
produced at will upon moist bread. 

Have one or two of the pupils place a slice of moist bread in a 
glass fruit-can and heat it in a steamer just as you would in can- 
ning fruit. Then seal it up while hot also just as you would in 
canning fruit. Bring these cans to school. Also secure some 
moldy cheese or bread. Suppose the cheese has on it a vellow 
mold. Now the problem is to see if we can grow this yellow 
mold in the bread. Heat the tip of a hat-pin in a match or lamp 
flame, let it cool a second and dip it into the yellow mold. Now 
draw this hat-pin across the bread in the jar. Then close the 
can and watch it daily to see if the yellow mold comes in the 
place you have planted it. Try this experiment with various 
kinds of molds. 

Experiment 2. To see whether molds will develop if all in the 
vessel are killed and all air excluded. 

Proceed as you did in Experiment I. Can the bread as you 
would can fruit, and let it stay in the schoolroom for a few weeks 
to see whether molds develop. Molds should not grow here 


because you have killed all that were present in the can and 
bread originally and prevented any more from entering. 

Experiment 3. To see whether germs abound in the air. Open 
the can used in Experiment 2, thus allowing the air to enter. Let 
the cover remain oft" for a day or so and observe whether the 
bread then molds or not. Do not allow it to become dry, since 
molds can not grow in dry substances at all. 

Germs are drifting about in the air in very great abundance, 
and when the can is open many of them will fall upon the bread 
and begin to grow. The fact that they do develop thus shows that 
the air contained them in considerable quantity. 

Whenever you see apples or other fruit decaying it is because 
germs somewhat similar to those of the bread have gotten under 
the skin of the fruit and are there growing, thus causing the decay. 
If the entrance of these germs could be prevented, the fruit 
would not decay. On the other hand, if germs are placed in 
healthy apples, decay is produced. You may illustrate by an 

Experiment 4. Secure a perfectly healthy apple and a rotten 
apple in a well developed condition of rot, that is, an apple cov- 
ered with mold. Stick a hat-pin into the mold and then into the 
healthy apple. Set the healthy apple away and watch it from day 
to day to see whether the rot develops in the place where you 
planted the mold. 

Another disease on the sweet potato which causes the potato 
to become soft and mushy is a good disease to use in a similar 
experiment, to illustrate the same point. 

From all of the above experiments the child will glean a number 
of valuable facts and insight and interest in a feature of daily life 
with which very few people are in touch. 


Teachers College, Columbia University 

The explanation on the cover that The Xature-Study Review 
is a journal " devoted to all phases of nature-study for elementary 
schools " has led readers to inquire why nature-study is thus em- 
phasized as an elementary-school subject when much work in the 

7 8 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march. 1905 

lower years of high schools is nature-study, as defined in the first 
symposium, rather than study of the principles of natural sciences. 
First, in explaining why the sub-title of this journal makes 
special mention of elementary schools, it should be said that those 
persons who were responsible for the initial steps towards organ- 
izing the journal held as fundamental propositions the following : 
(1) that nature-study and not natural science is the proper work 
of elementary schools, (2) that high-school studies based on ele- 
mentary-school studies of nature should be advanced to the intro- 
duction of the elementary principles of natural science. Any 
student of scientific education will be led to similar views if he 
carefully examines nature-study and natural science in some of 
the most progressive schools in this country. It is clear beyond 
question that nature-study is and will be most prominent in ele- 
mentary schools, and that the high-school work is decidedly in the 
line of organized natural science. Furthermore, the most impor- 
tant unsolved problems of scientific education naturally concern 
the beginning work, which is in the elementary schools. For these 
reasons The Nature-Study Review was designedly " devoted 
to all phases of nature-study in elementary schools " ; but that 
this primary purpose of the journal need not affect its usefulness 
to high-school work in the line of nature-study will appear in the 
following analysis of the relations of such work to that of the 
lower school. 

With a good foundation of nature-study gained in the ele- 
mentary school, it is reasonable to hold that all high-school science 
should be primarily real science study, that is to say, it should be 
close analytical and synthetical study of natural objects and 
processes primarily for the sake of gaining acquaintance with 
the general principles and methods of modern science. This is 
now realized in the teaching of the physical sciences in many 
high schools ; but on the whole the teaching of the biological 
sciences is not well organized on the basis of scientific study of 
principles. To a large extent the biological work of the first or 
second year of our high schools must for the present give much 
attention to nature-study (we commonly call it natural history), 
because the pupils in the great majority of cases come to the high 
schools with little or no knowledge concerning the common things 
in nature around them ; and the high school must first of all take 
up the work left undone in the elementary schools. I have 


already pointed out in Chapter IV, pp. 320—327, of " The Teaching 
of Zoology in the Secondary School " (N. Y., Longsmans, Green 
& Co., 1904), that this nature-study work in the biology of high 
schools is probably a temporary compromise made necessary 
because of the undeveloped nature-study in lower schools ; and 
that with the advance of nature-study the larger part of the natural 
history for the sake of general acquaintance with common living 
things will be taught in the elementary school, leaving the high 
school free to devote its time to more serious study of biology as a 
science, with incidental instead of primary emphasis on natural 

But no matter what may be the future developments, the fact 
remains that the high-school work in natural history or biological 
nature-study presents no peculiar problems. It is in all essentials 
the same study of living animals and plants which in many schools 
is conducted in the upper grammar grades. Much of it is study 
of living things out of doors, usually for the sake of identification 
and general acquaintance ; but this, too, is well accomplished in 
elementary schools. I have seen fifth-grade classes do field work 
in study of birds and trees which would be highly creditable to 
the first year of high school. We must conclude that the high- 
school study of natural history is so similar to the nature-study 
of the lower schools that in dealing primarily with nature-study 
for elementary education this journal will most directly approach 
the problems, and at the same time the materials will be just as 
useful to the high-school teacher who has occasion to present 
nature-studies either as an incidental or as a prominent part of 
science, especially biology. 

Finally, in addition to the present reasons why high-school 
teachers of biology are directly interested in nature-study as a 
part of their teaching and the indirect interest which the best 
teachers of any grade of our educational system have in the lower 
work upon which they must build, there is still another important 
stimulus for interest in nature-study in that more and more the 
elementary-school teachers are looking to the science specialists 
in the high school for directions, thus leading high-school teachers 
to get acquainted with the problems of the lower school. 

80 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march, 1905 



Unfortunately, it appears that many persons, and even certain 
journals, have interpreted the long list of collaborators as meaning 
an aim to include all active leaders of nature-study in the United 
States and in the Provinces of Canada. As a result of this inter- 
pretation, we have received several dozen letters calling attention 
to the fact that certain names, in some cases very well-known 
ones, are not among those of the collaborators of this journal. 
We explain as follows : 

The list of collaborators does not at all adequately repre- 
sent the wide-spread interest in nature-study in America. The 
list was originally made up on short notice from the suggestions 
of less than half a dozen persons who knew from personal 
acquaintance that certain individuals would probably give their 
time and influence to the movement for a journal of nature-study. 
The list was necessarily an extended one because the editors 
needed, especially in the first year, the cooperation of some repre- 
sentatives of each of the various phases of science in higher educa- 
tional institutions and of nature-study in schools in various geo- 
graphical localities. Since the prospectus was issued correspon- 
dence has indicated that many more names would have to be added 
if the published list of collaborators was to pretend to be a direc- 
tory of the leaders of nature-study in the various States and in 
Canada who would gladly give their cooperation. The original 
list has already ceased to represent accurately those who have 
pledged their support to The Review, for some of our most val- 
uable cooperation is now coming from persons whose names will 
not be published except when signed to articles. With this expla- 
nation we trust that there will be no more misunderstanding, and 
that the editorial board composed of editors and collaborators will 
be regarded simply an arrangement for promoting the editorial 
and business interests of the journal, rather than as a directory 
of active workers in the field represented. 


The first two numbers of The Review give prominence to more 
or less theoretical papers on the educational problems of nature- 


study, and naturally most of these papers have been contributed 
by writers who have approached nature-study from the viewpoint 
of the broader questions of education which appeal especially to 
college men and school officials. This represents, however, but 
one side of the problem. We must have the opinions of those 
who are able to observe and reason concerning" nature-study ; but 
we must give an equally prominent place to the results obtained 
by teachers who are actually at work in the elementary schools. 
As an example, we have one such paper ( on school-gardens) in 
this number, and will have several in the next. Teachers who 
work out even minor points which may interest others are invited 
to send concise accounts of their results to the editors of this 
journal. We can not promise to publish everything; but we want 
to have available a generous supply of material from which to 
make selection guided by our best judgment as to what best repre- 
sents actual doing in the field of nature-study. 


Very frequently in connection with the nature-study work in 
schools there is observed some interesting point which is appar- 
ently new, or at least not mentioned in the books commonly 
accessible. Records of several such observations have already 
been sent to the editors, and some of them will be published with 
critical notes by experts. Teachers are invited to send brief 
accounts of observations which they think may prove to be new. 


Animal Stories Retold from St. Nicholas. Six volumes 
planned, two published. Edited by M. H. Carter, of New 
York Training School for Teachers. X. Y., Century Co. 
1904. About 200 pages each, illustrated. 65 cents each. 
The introductory volume of this series is entitled " About Ani- 
mals." The aim of the series as therein stated is to give young 
readers " some idea of the great animal world, and to set them 
thinking about our relation to it." In consequence the informa- 
tion and anecdotes selected for this volume cover a wide field. In 
addition to narratives and some rhymes about animals, certain 
sections are introduced to awaken scientific interest and to empha- 

82 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

size the natural-history point of view. Of these chapters, " A 
Brief Survey of the Animal Kingdom," states the most important 
facts of animal classification in very simple language, and is evi- 
dently intended to help children place the various common types. 
The chapter is too brief to serve for more than this, and if used in 
connection with animal study should be supplemented by fuller 
explanation and illustration. 

In the chapter, " Mother Nature and the Jointed Stick " the 
description of the use of the vertebrate skeleton and the muscular 
control of the body is introduced by means of an analogy which 
confuses rather than clarifies, but the structural comparison be- 
tween the human and other vertebrate skeletons is interestingly 
shown by a number of ingenious diagrams. 

Chapters of special value for arousing interest in animals in 
their natural environment, and for fostering a desire to protect 
and study them in their wild state are, " Animal Tracks in the 
Snow," " How some Animals become Extinct," and " Hunting 
with a Camera." 

The remainder of the book is made up of stories of animals in 
captivity and as pets of man. The stories are well told and are 
full of interest, pathos and humor together with many accurate 
and valuable observations of animal ways. In this connection, 
it is not obvious why the chapter on the mounting of large ani- 
mals is introduced. This undoubtedly gives us a glimpse of an 
interesting and difficult art, but does not aid in furthering the 
aim of the book as stated by the editor. 

The book is full of interest and will be especially enjoyed by chil- 
dren of about ten or eleven years of age, and portions of it may 
profitably be read to still younger children. As far as school use 
is concerned, it would seem of most value if used by the teacher 
for supplementary lessons on animal life, by reading aloud por- 
tions of the book and discussing the story or sketch with the class 
in such a way as to bring out certain characteristics of animal life 
or structure. 

The second volume under consideration is " Cat Stories." 
This volume is made up of eighteen short stories and rhymes 
about cats exclusive of other animals. For this reason the book 
will not appeal so well to the interest of children as the more 
varied volume " About Animals." The stories are rather more 


entertaining' than instructive, but cat ways and characteristics are 
well described. The book has a peculiar value from a narrative 
standpoint, and some of the best stories might be read to children 
in the primary grades with a view to oral reproduction. The 
stories are well told in simple language, and the facts are inter- 
esting and appeal to young children. The book is, however, too 
special to be used as a supplementary reading book. 

Both books, " About Animals " and " Cat Stories," are well 
illustrated with reproductions of photographs and original draw- 
ings and the paper and print are good. The books are well 
worthy to be placed in any school library for children of the upper 
primary and lower grammar grade-. 

Elizabeth Carse. 

The Charlton School, 
New York City. 

Since the above review was set in type four other volumes com- 
pleting the series have been received : " Stories of Brave Dogs." 
" Lion and Tiger Stories," "Bear Stories" and "Panther Stories." 
These are in all essentials like the " Cat Stories " reviewed above, 
and the same general commendations and criticisms are applicable 
to them. All the volumes of the series will undoubtedly be well 
received as books for home reading and for school-libraries. 

M. A. B. 

How Nature Study Should be Taught. By Edward F. Bigelow. 
Introduction by J. P. Gordy ; appendix, " How to Introduce 
Nature-Study," by H. A. Surface. N. Y., Hinds, Noble & 
Eldredge. 1904. Pp. 203. $1.00. 
This series of talks to teachers is not, as the title might suggest, 
a book of special method — though there is considerable pedagogy 
in it — but rather is it a plea for the more general and sympa- 
thetic teaching of the subject. The author was, for eight years, 
the editor of The Observer; for three years editor of Popular 
Science, and for the past five years the editor of the department 
of Nature and Science in St. Xicholas. He is known as a lecturer 
and is not without experience as a teacher. However, the point 
of view throughout the book is rather that of the school patron 
than of the teacher. The author, evidently an ardent nature- 
lover, is interested in children and desires that nature be por- 

84 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

trayed " from the standpoint of the child." He does not tire of 
insisting upon the distinction between elementary science and 
nature-study, which, as he sees it, is a distinction between the 
imparting of scientific knowledge, with the inculcating of habits 
of scientific thinking, and the development of a love of nature. 
1 Yrsonally we are inclined to the belief that scientific method, 
both on the part of the teacher and eventually on the part of the 
pupil as well, is inseparate from a satisfactory handling of nature- 
study. ' What I have had in mind," to quote from the opening 
chapter, " is not a matter of learning nature, but of loving her." 
To this we are wont to answer: "Yes, but 'even so faith, if it 
hath not works, is dead, being alone.' ' Later he adds: " It is 
nothing less nor more than taking an intelligent interest in the 
earth and its products." Ay, there is the saving word — intelli- 
gent. What in the author is a fine sentiment may easily take the 
form of the rankest sentimentality in a teacher whose loving does 
not lead to a desire to know. 

In general, as Professor Gordy says in his introduction, the 
pedagogy of the book is entirely sound. What at first appear as 
extravagances are seen to be only the overflow of ardor, and 
statements which seem extreme are later modified. That a dis- 
tinction must be made between elementary science and nature- 
study we must heartly agree, but mental activity should be de- 
manded in one as in the other. With increasing maturity comes 
a measure of ability to divorce the intellect from the emotions 
without damage to either. 

Perhaps our greatest fault as teachers of children lies in our 
failure to adopt the viewpoint of the pupil. The author makes 
this very clear, and in urging a more sympathetic interest in the 
out-door life of the child he has probably given us his most val- 
uable contribution. " To overcome the onesidedness of a school 
limited to mere instruction, nature-study has been introduced as 
the most valuable field in which to let the child do the telling." 
Quoting: from C. B. Scott : " More than is the case with other 
studies, probably, science, or nature-study, deals with the indi- 
vidual child, and aims to develop each child as an individual." 

We do not feel quite so comfortable when we read the follow- 
ing : " There must be the stock before the graft; the seed before 
the plant can develop. Therefore, talk about the attractions of 
nature and of her beauties, especially of the beauties : * *. Ex- 


patiate to your pupils on the beauty of nature." Most of us should 
be cautioned, I fear, before acting upon this advice, for it is dan- 
gerous ground. 

The chapter on correlation is good. The world about us is 
worthy of study in its own right. ' There is danger of correlating 
nature-study until it is annihilated," yet there are lines of intersec- 
tion that should be followed into other fields. " Correlate manual 
training with nature-study interests and see how the whole child- 
life wakens up. You wake him up to one thing and he is awake 
to all." 

The author's sense of humor is not lacking and many of his 
points are made by the reductio ad absurdum method. The book- 
is written in an interesting style, and will doubtless stimulate 
many readers to a greater interest in direct study of natural things. 

Fred L. Charles. 
Illinois State Normal School, 
De Kalb, 111. 

First Principles of Agriculture. By E. S. Goff and D. D. Mayne. 
X. Y., American Book Company. Pp. 248, illustrated, eight 
colored plates. 80 cents. 

This little book, intended for use in the rural schools, is another 
evidence of the growing tendency to emphasize the practical ele- 
ment in education, to connect the school life of a child with its 
home life and daily environment. Written as a text-book for 
" pupils in the upper form of the rural school," it is an endeavor 
" to make the farm a center of interest and its industries, its 
economies, and its science the subjects of thought and study." 

The book consists of a series of brief reading lessons on soils, 
plants and various horticultural operations, insects, dairying and 
animal husbandry. The earlier subjects are illustrated by simple 
experiments, the directions for which are given at the beginning 
of each lesson, while at the end of each is a summary of the chief 
points covered. The book is illustrated, containing several appeals 
to the popular taste in the way of colored plates. 

For those schools in which a good course in nature-study ex- 
tending through the earlier years already exists, this book, dealing 
as a large part of it does with some of the simpler facts of plant 
and animal life, would seem to be superfluous, since it is not 
written or arranged in such a way as to be of much use in such an 

86 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

extended course. On the other hand, in schools in which a study 
of these first principles of agriculture is introduced into the last 
year as an entirely new subject, so condensed a text-book would 
hardly suffice alone to accomplish its avowed purpose. No at- 
tempt is made to outline a complete course of study or to give any 
but the simplest examples of practical work ; many topics are 
omitted altogether or stated briefly as facts without demonstra- 
tion. It is difficult to see how the book, taken as reading lessons 
only, could arouse any very vivid interest in the farm as a subject 
of thought and study. Supplemented, however, by additional 
practical work, and in the hands of a trained teacher, it might be 
very useful as a reading book for those classes in which the 
economic side of nature-study is emphasized. 

Ada Watterson. 
Teachers College, 

Columbia University. 

Bird Life Stories. Book I. By C. M. Weed. Chicago, Rand, 
McNally & Co. 1904. Pp. 86, 24 three-color plates. 75 
This book, which is one of a series of three books now in press, 
is made up of condensed and revised selections from descriptions 
of our common birds by Audobon, Wilson, Nuttall and Bendire — 
our four most famous writers on birds. The slight revisions and 
condensations of the original descriptions have been made only 
where it was necessary to omit matter of no modern or general 
interest and to shorten sentences so as to make the meaning more 
clear to pupils of the upper grammar grades, for which the book 
is intended. Notes on geographical distribution have been added 
to the description of each bird ; and each account is accompanied 
by a plate which is excellent in its truthfulness to form and color. 
The book presents in a most attractive form just such material as 
a teacher should be glad to place in the hands of the pupils to sup- 
plement their practical work on birds. Teachers and pupils will 
eagerly await the appearance of the other two volumes. 

Anna N. Bigelow. 

Monarch, the Big Bear. By E. Thompson Seton. N. Y., 
Scribner's Sons. 1904. 
This interesting story deserves notice in a journal devoted to 
the educational aspects of nature-study not because it has any 


close connection with that field ; but because it will undoubtedly 
be so classed, with others of its kind, in the minds of many people. 
The book is a typical Thompson-Seton contribution to animal 
fiction ; and, of course, it has the characteristic prefatory explana- 
tion that " the intention is to convey the known truth," but the 
legal phrase " nothing but the truth " is wisely avoided in an " his- 
torical novel of Bear life." The author admits that it is not 
exactly a contribution to pure science. But in spite of all such 
scientific deficiencies the story will find enthusiastic readers. Chil- 
dren — small ones and many of larger growth — will never tire of 
" bear stories " so long as specimens of these interesting animals 
remain; and readers who are too old for " The Three Bears " of 
the nursery days will enjoy even the unscientific parts of this latest 
account of bear life seen through a strong and healthy imagina- 
tion. From the standpoint of fiction " Monarch " is splendid ; but 
for real nature-study we prefer the less mighty, but more nat- 
ural, specimens of the zoological parks. M. A. B. 



Home Nature-Study Course. In this interesting series of cor- 
respondence leaflets for teachers conducted by Mrs. Comstock, 
of Cornell University, five volumes have been completed and No. 
I of a new series was issued in October, 1904. It contains lessons 
on Leaf Study ; Seed Distribution — Weeds ; Chipmunk : Alfalfa 
or Lucerne. No. 2, December, deals with evergreens ; and among 
other useful points, it gives simple tables for determining our 
common cone-bearing trees. The leaflets are free to teachers in 
New York State who follow the course, ten lessons in a year ; 25 
cents per year to subscribers outside of the state. 

" Beautiful America." Under this heading, Mr. J. Horace 

McFarland, of Harrisburg, Pa., President of the American Civic 
Association, begins in the Ladies' Home Journal for January 
the second year of a department devoted to beautifying our homes 
and towns. Leaflets describing the work of the association will 
be sent to those who apply, enclosing stamp, to the Secretarv of 
the Association, North American Building, Philadelphia. Many 

88 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

of the educational and social aims of the organization are in gen- 
eral terms so similar to those underlying gardening for children 
that teachers of nature-study who are local directors of children's 
gardens ought to get into touch with the work of this national 
society. In a later issue we hope to review some phases of the 
work of the Civic Association. 

Garden Magazine. A new periodical with this title appeared 
last month (Feb.), published by Doubleday, Page & Co., New 
York. It contains many timely articles and notes of interest 
to those who make gardens primarily for pleasure. It is attrac- 
tivelv illustrated. Monthly. $1.00 per year. 

Training Teachers at Macdonald Institute. As Xo. 20 of a 
series of nature-study papers by Canadian educators, the Ottazva 
Naturalist publishes in the January, 1905, issue (Vol. 18, pp. 193- 
196) an article on " Nature-study at the Macdonald Institute," 
bv D. J. Doyle, which gives many interesting facts concerning 
the work of this new training school. It is of special interest to 
note that, while recognizing the importance of child-study to the 
teacher of nature-study, the staff of this school insists upon 
" placing the students as much as possible in direct contact with, 
nature " bv means of field excursions and laboratory stud}'. 

Report of Children's School Farm. An interesting account of 
gardening is to be found in a recent pamphlet entitled " Report 
of the First Children's School Farm in New York City, originated 
and conducted b_V Mrs. Henry Parsons." This report is " printed 
for distribution in answer to the constant inquiries from all parts 
of the country concerning the details of the work whose great 
importance Mrs. Parsons was the first person to demonstrate in 
the city of New York, with the cooperation of the Park Board." 
It is a very full and satisfactory account of the gardening work 
directed in the unimproved part of DeWitt Clinton Park ( Eleventh 
Avenue and 52d St.) in the summers of 1902, 1903, 1904: and 
will doubtless be helpfully suggestive to others who conduct such 
experiments in densely populated regions of our great cities. 
From the educational standpoint the Children's Farm is in no 
essential respect different from many gardens which were devel- 
oped years ago in other cities ; but it is of interest because it is 
another successful garden developed under very adverse con- 
ditions. « 


History of School-Gardens. A pamphlet, free, with the title 
" Progress of Agricultural Education, 1903," is a recent reprint 
from the 1903 Annual Report of the office of the Experiment Sta- 
tions, U. S. Department of Agriculture. It deals with the prog- 
ress of agricultural education in colleges and in schools of elemen- 
tary and secondary grade. Ten pages and eight excellent plates 
of full-page size are devoted to school-gardens, giving a very 
useful general history and survey of the school-garden movement 
in all parts of the United States and the insular possessions. A 
list of elementary books and pamphlets on nature-study and 
school-gardening, previously published as Circular No. 52, is here 

Some Children's Pets. Under this title a recent bulletin of the 
Northern State Normal School, Marquette, Mich., outlines some 
nature-study lessons on common animal pets. The lessons are 
designed to run through the fall term of the first, third, fifth and 
seventh grades. There is no apparent reason for the arrangement 
according to alternate grades ; on the contrary, many schools do 
similar work best by concentrating in the first and second grades. 

Rhode Island l ' Nature Guard." No. ^3< "Tracks in the 
Snow," and No. 34, " A Talk about the Weather," No. 35, " How 
to Grow Corn," and No. 36, " Seed Travelers," are the latest addi- 
tions in the interesting correspondence series conducted by Pro- 
fessor Card of the Rhode Island College. 

Nature Collections. Bulletin No. 134 (June, 1904) of the On- 
tario Agricultural College, the second leaflet from Macdonald 
Institute, gives useful hints on making collections for schools. 
It was prepared by the late Dr. Muldrew. It gives suggestions 
for collecting (1) nature notes, (2) living animals and plants, (3) 
pressed plants and leaves, (4) grains and grasses, (5) seeds and 
dry fruits, (6) specimens of wood, (7) insects, (8) historical 

Key to Woody Plants in Winter. A pamphlet with this title 
has been recently published by K. M. YViegand and F. W. Fox- 
worthy of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (Price, 25 cents.) 
It includes the genera of trees and shrubs found wild or in cultiva- 
tion in the state of New York, but it also applies to the neighbor- 
ing states. It appears to be a useful supplement to such a book 

0,0 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2, march, 1905 

as Huntington's " Studies of Trees in Winter " (Boston, Knight 
& Millet, 1902), which gives good descriptions and illustrations 
but no key to genera. 

Tuskegee Institute Leaflets. Teachers' Leaflet No. 2 gives 
practicable directions for making gardens. An interesting fea- 
ture is the " Calendar " which gives planting directions by 
months. Farmers' Leaflet No. 16 deals with cotton. 


a lilbliography of the leading magazine articles of inter- 
est in connection with nature-study 
January to September, 1904 

Tutor in Biology, Teachers College, Columbia University 

[Editorial Note. — This second installment of the bibliography completes 
the record for the first eight months of the year 1904. 

Tt has not been attempted to make a complete bibliography ; but rather to 
select those articles which appear to be most important and accessible in 
most public libraries. In the case of periodicals designed for local circula- 
tion, only articles of exceptional merit will be catalogued. 

The figures with black face indicate the volume and those following the 
: refer to the pages. The abbreviations of journal titles and dates are 
those used in the general indexes to be found in libraries. 

Readers are requested to inform the compiler concerning any important 



Bigelow, E. F. (ed.) Nature and science. Dept. in St. Nich. 31. 
1904. Nature pedagogy. Dept. in Pop. Educator. 21. 1904. 

Blight, R. (ed.) Among the plants; garden, field and forest. Cur. 
Lit. 36. Ja.-Ap. '04. Nature in and out of doors. Cur. Lit. 36. My.-S. 
'04. (Extracts from various current magazines.) 

Comstock, Anna B. Nature study. Dept. in Chant. 39. Ja.-Je. '04. 
(Lessons on animals and plants.) 

Weed, C. M. Seasonable nature studies. Serial in Jour, of Educ. (New 
Eng.). 59. Ap.-My. '04. (Studies of birds and flowers.) 


Bigelow, E. F. Comfort in cold weather. St. Nich. 31 : 360-2. F. '04. 
(Winter homes of animals.) 


Burroughs, John. Animal individuality. Tnd. 56 : 85-87. Ja. 14, '04. 
Current misconceptions in natural history. Cent. 67:509-17. F. '04. 
Natural History. Dept. in Outing, beginning Ap. '04. Some natural his- 
tory doubts and conclusions. Harper. 109 : 360. Ag. '04. What do ani- 
mals know? Cent. 68:555-63. Ag. '04. 

Flint, A. Tact and taste in animals. Sci. Am. S. 57 : 23444-5. Ja- 16, 
'04. How animals detect poison. Sci. Am. S. 57:23751. My. 28, '04. 
Long, W. J. Animal Individuality. Ind. 56:1242-8. Je. 2, '04. 
Smith, N. A. Children's pets. Kind. Rev. 14. Ja. '04. 

Invertebrates, Except Insects 

Brewster, E. T. Root-footed animals. St. Nich. 31 : 552-4. Ap. '04. 
(Protozoa through the microscope.) 

Conn, H. W. Jellyfishes. St. Nich. 31 : 963. Ag. '04. 

Furlong, E. E. Warrior mound-builders. St. Nich. 31 : 651-2. My. '04. 

M'Clure, W. F. Starfish and their injuries. Sci. Am. 90:98. Ja. 30, '04. 
(Habits and forms.) 

Miller, E. R. Odd things which live in the sea. Overland. 44 : 7'- 
Jl. '04. 

Rogers, J. E. Common shells of the seashore. C'try Life in Amer. 
6 : 246-9. Jl. '04. 


Aaron, S. F. Effect of cold on insects. St. Nich. 31 : 362. F. '04. The 
mosquito. 31 : 648-50. My. '04. 

Collins, P. Protective resemblance of insects. Sci. Am. S. 57 : 23764-5. 
Je. 4. '04. 

Comstock, A. B. Ants. Chaut. 39 : 273-6. My. '04. The bumblebee. 
39 : 384. Je. '04. The mourning-cloak. 39 : 76. Mr. '04. 

Fulda, G. Examples of insect mimicry. Sci. Am. 91 : 219. S. 24, '04. 

Higginson, T. W. Butterflies in poetry. Atlantic. 93 : 746-54- Je. '04. 

Howard, L. 0. Mexican cotton-boll weevil. R. of Rs. 29: 188-91. F. '04. 

Hutchinson, C. E. A trapdoor spider. Sci. Am. 91 : 83. Jl. 30, '04. 

McCook, H. C. Aeronautic spiders. Harper. 108:905-11. My. '04. In- 
sect commonwealths. 108 : 554-60. Mr. '04. Tailoring animals. 108 : 453~7- 
F. '04. The daintiness of ants. 109 : 604-10. S. '04. The strange cycle of 
the cicada. 109 : 44-49. Je. '04. 

Marlatt, C. L. Discovery of the native home of the San Jose scale in 
Eastern China and the importation of its natural enemy. Pop. Sci. Mo. 
65 : 306. Ag. '04. 

Miller, E. R. American silk-worm moth. Overland. 43 : 510-11. Je. '04. 

Snyder, C. D. Do grasshoppers drink? School Science. 4:90-2. My. 

Spectator. Bee-keeping. Outlook. 76 : 208-10. Ja. 2^, '04. 

92 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 2, march. 1905 

The bee as an artisan. (Trans, fr. La Nature.) Sci. Am. 91:98. Ag. 
6, '04. 

Winter insects. Sci. Am. go: 150. F. 20, '04. 

Lower Vertebrates 

Burti, V. How a python eats. Sci. Am. 90:31. Ja. 9, '04. 

Forbes, R. P. Fish of the western sea. Overland. 43: 176-80. Mr. '04. 

Knight, C. R. Color in Bermuda waters. Cent. 68 : 595, 603. Ag. '04. 
(Adaptations of fishes to their surroundings.) 

Smith, H. M. " As flat as a flounder." St. Nich. 31 : 1032. S. '04. 

Spaid, A. R. M. Harmless reptile. Sci. Am. 90 : 47. Ja. 16, '04. 

Stockton, F. R. Alligator hunting. St. Nich. 31 : 335-40. F. '04. 


Beasley, W. L. The flamingo and its queer nest. Sci. Am. 91 : 66. Jl. 
23. '04- 

Birds and the farmer. Ind. 56: 1041-2. My. 5. '04. (Economic value.) 

Burroughs, John. Nature's way. Harper. 109:263. Jl. '04. (Birds' 

Comstock, A. B. The brown creeper. Chant. 38 : 593. F. '04. The 
chipping sparrow. 39: 173-5. Ap. '04. White-breasted nuthatch. 38:491-3. 
Ja. '04. 

Dawson, F. A. Bird walks for children. Harp. B. 38:154-62. F. '04. 
(Field work for small children.) 

Finley, W. L. Rearing a wren family. St. Nich. 31 : 735-41. Je. '04. 

Garland, V. A California minstrel (mocking-bird). Overland. 43:118- 
20. F. '04. Feathered Californians. 43 : 386-7. My. '04. 

Gleeson, J. M. The great horned owl. Outlook. 77 : 295-7. Je. 4, '04. 
The harpy eagle. St. Nich. 31 : 832-3. Jl. '04. 

Hawson, F. E. When the birds were our guests. St. Nich. 31 : 906. 
Ag. '04. 

Herrick, F. H. Modern scientific methods of nature-study. Harp. W. 
48:53. 57-8. Ja. '04. (Photographing birds.) 

Hoar, G. F. The birds' petition. Educ. Gaz. 20 : 145. My. '04. ( Peti- 
tion to Mass. State Legislature for protection of birds.) 

Job, H. K. Great Cuthbert rookery. Outing. 43 : 5§3-90. F. '04. On 
lonely Bird Key. 44:231-8. My. '04. 

Oldys, H. Basket of chips. Atlantic. 93:219-25. F. '04. (Bird song.) 

Palmer, F. H. Song-sparrow. Educ. 24 : 500. Ap. '04. ( Birds in 

Rogers, C. E. Our friends, the birds. Ed. Gaz. 20:144. My. '04. 

Sandys, E. Robbing birds' nests. Outing. 44 : 387. Je. '04. 

Sharp, D. L. A crazy flicker. St. Nich. 31 : 554-5. Ap. '04. 

Smith, T. C. Song-forms of the thrush. Atlantic. 93 : 777-86. Je. '04. 


Spectator. Food of birds. Outlook. 76:158-60. Ja. '04. 
Stewart, J. A. Arbor and bird day exercises. Jour, of Educ. 59: 135. 
Mr. 3, 04. 
Scott, W. E. D. Blue jays. Outlook. 77:45. My. 7, '04. 

W., G. E. New study of bird life. Sci. Am. 90 : 22-23. Ja. 9. 04. 

(Care of wild birds in winter.) 

Wolcott, R. H. Outline of bird study. Jour, of Educ. 59 : 245. 27S. Ap. 
21, My. 5. '04. 

Van Dyke, T. S. When the gray wings came. Outing. 43:667-72. Mr. '04. 


Beard, J. C. Snow bouses of the seal and of the bear. St. Nich. 31 : 
210-11. Ja. '04. 

Boyden, A. C. Domestic animals. Squirrels and rabbits. Perry Mag. 
6:225. Ja. '04. Beasts of burden. 6:305. Mr. '04. 

Chapman, A. Pariah of the skyline. Outing. 44 : 131-8. My. '04. 

( Coyote.) 

Eastman, C. A. Gray chieftain. Harper. 108:882-7. My. '04. (Story 
of a Bighorn ram.) 

Gilman, C. Monkeys. Jour, of Educ. 59:38, 54, 87. Ja. 21, 28, F. 11, 

'04. The elephant. 59: 118, 182. F. 25, Mr. 24, '04. 

Gleeson, J. M. " Bhalu " — the Indian jungle bear. St. Nich. 31 : 712. 
Je. '04. Grizzly bear. 31:408-9. Mr. '04. The coyote. 31:606-7. My. 

Harcourt, H. Stories of my pets. St. Nich. 31 : 898. Ag. '04. 

Humphreys, P. W. Animal ship. St. Nich. 31:304-9. F. '04. (Wild 
animals from Africa.) 

Lydekker, R. How baby bats are nursed. (Abstract.) Sci. Am. 90: 
192. Mr. '04. 

McGrath, P. T. Wonderful whale-hunting by steam. Cosm. 37 : 48-56. 
My. '04. 

Rolker, A. W. Wild-animal surgeon and his patients. McClure. 22 : 
235-44. Ja. '04. The rogues of a Zoo. 23:212. My. '04. 

Scott, W. E. D. My dog Grouse. Outlook. 77 : 304. Je. 4, '04. 

Seton, E. T. The master-plowman of the West. [Gophers as soil- 
formers.] Century. 68 : 300-307. Je. '04. Monarch, the grizzly. Ladies' 

H. J. 21 : 5-6. F. '04. Little Warhorse : the story of a Jack-rabbit. Ladies' 
H. J. 21 : 13-14. Je. '04. 

Smith, H. M. Largest animals. (Whales.) St. Nich. 31 : 456-9. Mr. '04. 

Spectator. Bloodhounds. Outlook. 76 : 776-8. Ap. 2, 1904. 

Swindlehurst, F. Day with the Eskimo seal hunters. World's Work. 

7 : 4331-5- Ja- '04. 

Whitney, C. Jin Abu finds an elephant. Outing. 43 : 558-71. F. '04. 


Anderson, M. P. The protection of our native plants. Plant World. 
7: 123-2Q. My. '04. 

94 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 2. march, 1905 

Apgar, E. A. Reproduction in plants. Harper. 108:713-20. Ap. '04. 

Broadhurst, Jean. The protection of our native plants. Plant World. 
7 : 152-54. Je. '04. 

Comstock, A. B. Food stored in seeds. Chaut. 38 : 493~6- Ja. '04. 
Sugar bush. 38 : 590. F. '04. The clovers. 39 : 384-90. Je. '04. The 
onion. 39 : 276. My. '04. The potato study. 39 : 76. Mr. '04. The skunk 
cabbage. 39:76. Mr. '04. The trilliums. 39:173-5- Ap. '04. 

French, F. Nature's jewel caskets. Outing. 43:409-13. Ja. '04. 
(Seed dispersal.) 

Gardner, H. G. Creating new fruits. Cosm. 37: 262. Jl. '04. (Work 
of Dept. of Agric.) 

Harwood, W. S. A maker of new plants and fruits. Scrib. 36 : 49-55. 

Jl. '04. 

MacFailand, J. H. Nut-bearing trees. Outlook. 76 : 597-607. Mr. 5, 
'04. Some American trees. 76:817-27. Ap. 2, '04. 

Mackenzie, M. Open secrets. Kindergarten Review. 14. Ja. '04. 
(Trees in winter.) Familiar trees and their flowers. 14. Mr. '04. 

Shreve, F. Some plants which entrap insects. Pop. Sci. Mo. 65 : 417- 
31. S. '04. 


Planting forests. Ind. 56 : 392-4- F. 18, '04. 

Forest reserve for New England. Harp. W. 48 : 228-9. F. !3- '04. 

Munn, M. J. Great industries of the United States. III. Lumber. 
Cosm. 37 : 437-450. Ag. '04. 

Perceval, H. Maple sugaring in the northern woods. Outing. 44 : 36- 
44. Ap. '04. 

Pinchot, Gifford. The new hope for the West. Cent. 68:309-312. Je. 
'04. (Forestry reserves in the West.) Life of a forest. Sci. Am. S. 
57:23766-7. Je. 4, '04. 

Roosevelt, Theodore. Our forest policy. (Address to Soc. of Amer. 
Foresters, Mr. 27, 03.) Extracts in Plant World. 7: 8-1 1. Ja. '04. 

Vandevoort, L. Uncle Sam's foresters. Outing. 43 : 629-32. Mr. '04. 
(Field work of Div. of Forestry.) 


Bailey, L. H. A children's garden. Amer. Jour, of Educ. 37 : 297-8. 
Ap. '04. 

Bennett, H. C. School gardens in great cities. R. of Rs. 29 : 439~43- 
Ap. '04. 

Bigelow, E. F. An egg-shell garden. St. Nich. 31 : 1035. S. '04. 
Plants as pets. School Science. 4 : 87-90. My. '04. 

Bowles, J. M. A flower-garden for every child. World's Work. 8 : 
4799-4803. My. '04. (Home Gardening Assoc, of Cleveland.) 

Davenport, E. Study of Agriculture. Dept. in School News. 17. '04. 


Davis, F. My first greenhouse. Ind. 56: 1378-81. Je. 16, '04. 

Falconer, W. Gardening department in Ladies' H. Jour. 21. '04. Gar- 
dener's midsummer calendar; insecticides. 21:26. Jl. '04. 

Galloway, B. T. Farming under glass. World's Work. 7:4583-8. Mr. 
'04. Profits of garden and orchard. 7 : 4419-24. F. '04. 

Hay, W. P. A miniature conservatory in a city home. C'ntry Life in 
Amer. 5:249. Ja. '04. (Suggestions useful for schoolroom.) 

Knapp, G. R. Winter house plants. Harp. B. 38:79-81, 207-8. Ja., F. 

Knowlton, F. H. (ed.) Garden and greenhouse. Dept. in Plant 
World. 7. '04. 

Laidlaw, M. C. School gardens. Kind. Rev. 15:12-17. S. '04. 

Macleod, Ward. Ferns within doors and without. Delhi. 63 : 330-2. 
F. '04. Dept. in Delineator. 63. '04. 

Moore, G. T. Bacteria and the nitrogen problem. Sci. Am. S. 57 : 
23508-10. F. 13, '04. 

Paine, A. B. Little garden calendar. Dept. for children in Delhi. 63. 

Richards, R. Bog plants. New Eng. M. 30:419-23. Je. '04. (Plants 
which could be transferred to school-gardens.) 

Shaw, Adele M. Common-sense country schools. World's Work. 
8:4883-95. Je. '04. (School grounds.) The ideal schools of Menomo- 
nie. World's Work. 7:4540-4553- ^ r - '04. (School gardens.) 

Stableton, J. K. How school gardens are carried on. School and 
Home Educ. 23 : 308. Ap. 04. Winter preparation for school gardening. 
23 : 216. F. '04. 

Sutherland, A. Beauty for ashes. Delhi. 63 : 648-9. Ap. '04. (Vacant 
.Lots Cultivation Assoc, work in Phila.) 

Weed, C. M. (ed.) The home garden. Dept. in House Beautiful. 15. 

Plant food from the air. Sci. Am. S. 57:23413. Ja. 2, '04. (Nitrogen 

Scientific basis of cheese-making. Pop. Sci. Mo. 64 : 3§3~4- F. '04. 


Burrows, A. T. Cyclones, tornadoes and hurricanes. St. Nich. 31 : 949. 
Ag. '04. 

Fairbanks, H. W. Something about rock salt. St. Nich. 31 : 841. Jl. 

Meteorology for little folks. Amer. Jour, of Educ. 37 : 241-2. Mr. '04. 

Meyers, I. B. Elementary field work. Elem. Sch. Teacher. 4: 312. 
(Physiographic work, including some ecology.) 

Wygant, E. A. Work with minerals for little children. Ele. Sch. 
Teacher. 5 : 36-49. S. '04. (Lessons given in Univ. of Chicago School of 

96 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 2, march, 1905 


Brewster, E. T. Radium. St. Nich. 31 : 746-8. Je. '04. 

Culler, J. A. Experiments with the pendulum. Reprint in Amer. Jour, 
of Educ. 37 : 283. Ap. '04. 

Woodhull, J. F. Physical nature-study. Sch. Jour. 68. Ja. 9, Mr. 12, 
'04. Physical nature-study. Sound. Jour, of Educ. 59 : 70, 102. F. 4, 
18, 04. 


Conference on Nature-Study. Under the auspices of the Seminary for 
the the Study of Special Problems in Education, a conference on nature- 
study in the elementary schools, with especial reference to the study of 
agriculture, was held at the University of California, December 10th. 
Resolutions were proposed relating to the encouragement of such studies 
through legislative provision for a Central Bureau of Information, for 
special training of teachers and supervisors, and for the appointment of 
supervisors to act as deputy county superintendents of schools. Appro- 
priate bills will be presented to the legislature. 

Garden Seeds. The Home Gardening Association, 369 St. Clair St., 
Cleveland, Ohio, is extending its work of furnishing seeds at one cent a 
packet to schools and other organizations outside of the city. When this 
note reaches readers it may be too late to obtain seeds for this season, but 
those interested should send a two-cent stamp for circulars which explain 
the methods of carrying on this important work. Fuller accounts of the 
work will be found in the illustrated annual report for 1904; price 25 cents. 

Dean of Macdonald Institute. To this position, made vacant by the 
death of Dr. Muldrew, Professor S. B. McCready, science master in the 
Collegiate Institute of London, Ontario, has been appointed. 

Chicago School-Gardens. On September 10, 1904, the 250 principals of 
the schools of Chicago decided to beautify their schools by planting trees, 
shrubs and vines, and by establishing flower gardens in the schoolyards 
and window-boxes in the schoolrooms. The Board of Education will be 
called upon only to provide the soil, the work will be done by teachers 
and pupils. 

Philadelphia School-Gardens. In May, 1904, the city council appro- 
priated the sum of $3,500 to establish and maintain school-gardens in that 
city from May 15 to October 15. The work was in charge of the Edu- 
cational League, and the gardens were superintended by Miss H. C. 

Summer Courses for Teachers of Nature-Study. Circulars or letters 
giving information are wanted for use in preparing the " News Notes " 
for the May number of The Review. 

The date of publication of this journal is planned for the 20th of January. 
March, May, etc. 




Vol. I MAY, 1905 No. 3 


Principal of Training School, Northern Illinois State Normal School 

Many fail because they are not prepared for the work. There 
are those who seem to think that anyone who can teach other 
subjects in the grades can teach nature-study. It must be remem- 
bered that occasionally a teacher is found who is born so short 
along this line that it is a mistake to expect her to do anything at 
the work. Nature has not blessed her with keen observation ; she 
scarcely ever thinks of the many problems in nature about her. 
Her interests lie along other lines. Her stock of information 
and her disposition to inform herself are limited. She sees 
nothing to teach her pupils. She does not possess the patience 
to search out problems and to carry on, for an indefinite time, 
observations which lead to the discovery of scientific truths. The 
spirit of investigation is foreign to her thought. She cannot 
acquire it or cause others to do so. How can one with this mental 
endowment make a success in teaching nature-study. 

To succeed one must be filled with a love for nature and have 
a desire to know more of her. One such will go out in the early 
morning, at noonday and in the twilight and listen to her teach- 
ings, and return to the schoolroom filled with new life, bearing 
rich things for the pupils. In turn the pupils will catch the infec- 
tion and will make their little journeys and glean rich harvests. 

Again, teachers fail to discriminate between the essential and 
the non-essential in their teaching. Oftentimes the trivial, the 
unimportant, receives as much attention in the recitation as that 
of genuine importance. Pupils are left in the dark as to the 

98 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 3, may 1905 

relative value of what they have been studying. This is poor 
teaching. The teacher should not ramble anywhere in her work 
as fancy or the whims of her pupils dictate, but she should study 
her subject-matter and her pupils, so that essential truths may be 
made to stand out in the recitation like mountain peaks against 
the clear sky. This clear-cut teaching can be done in nature-study 
as well as in other studies. While flexibility in a course of nature- 
study is a thing desired, there is no reason why looseness in one's 
method in the recitation should be tolerated. 

Nature-study as often taught has a tendency to make of the 
pupils the most expert of liars. The writer visited a third-grade 
recitation a few days ago. The teacher asked, " How many have 
seen a fir tree ? " Up came nearly every hand in the class. The 
writer doubts very much if a single member of the class ever saw 
a fir tree. On a cold winter day a teacher asked, " What kind of 
an eye has a toad? " Before the pupils got through the toad had 
a very peculiar assortment of eyes. A teacher asked, '' How 
many have seen any young red-headed woodpeckers this Spring? " 
In a short time a boy who knew how to " work " his teacher had 
a post actually alive with red-headed woodpeckers projecting their 
heads out of knot-holes. His principal happened to enter and 
suggested that the boy go with him after school to the post in 
question. The boy's memory grew dim as to where the post was 
located ; he finally said that he did not see it but that his sister did 
and told him. In the end he had to admit that he made up the 
story for the occasion. In the same recitation there were several 
other similar stories, all produced because the teacher urged 
something, because she accepted whatever was given her, and 
because pupils had discovered that they could fool her. The 
teacher must know what pupils should see and be a skilled ques- 
tioner to head off this tendency to see things that do not exist and 
to image things that cannot be. The habit of truthfulness needs 
to become a part of the pupil's training or one of the great lessons 
gained through nature-study will be lost. 

Quite a common pedagogical blunder is committed by the 
nature-study teacher in forcing conclusions upon her pupils. It 
often comes about in this way : The teacher has thought through 
her subject-matter; she has made her observations and reached 
her conclusions ; everything seems clear to her mind. Why should 
it not be clear to her pupils? This she assumes to be the case 


and upon this basis doles out her generalizations, forgetting that 
they may be worse than meaningless to her pupils when gained 
by them in this unnatural way. For some teachers it is easier to 
think for pupils than it is to get them to think for themselves. 
Such teachers are better at teaching their subjects than they are 
at teaching pupils. They wonder why it is necessary to teach 
again a subject that has once been presented clearly. Pupils 
must do their own thinking and reach their own conclusions if 
they are to be of any value to them. Above all things the teacher 
of nature-study needs to cultivate open-mindedness on the part 
of her pupils. They must be ready to change conclusions pre- 
viously reached, if further investigation and thought demand that 
the change be made. They need to learn to base judgment upon 
reliable evidence. They need to know what to class as reliable 
evidence. They need to be discouraged in basing conclusions 
upon insufficient data. Right here it is hard for some teachers 
to go slowly. They are in such a hurry to tabulate and pigeon- 
hole every scrap of knowledge that the child has that they can't 
wait to let the child do some of this work for himself later in life 
when there is a necessity for it. 

Nature-study is peculiar in that the material dealt with, for the 
most part, is at first hand. This being true the teacher who tries 
to teach this subject without sufficient suitable material on hand, 
or within the reach of the child when it is needed, misses the 
pith of the whole matter. There is a pathetic side to nature-study 
which manifests itself, for instance, when a teacher stands before 
her class with a dead apple twig six inches in length in her hand 
and attempts to teach her pupils about the apple bud and how 
it is fitted to be protected during the winter. The humor of the 
situation becomes apparent when the class is studying life and 
it is largely done through the study of dead specimens of plants 
and animals. As a rule dead plants and animals do not manifest 
life. Pupils are intensely interested, generally, in the study of 
life under different forms and conditions. About it the most 
interesting of problems cluster. These problems suggest to us 
an ideal method of instruction. When we can present our work 
to our pupils in the form of a problem, or a series of related 
problems, we have solved in a large measure the problem of 
teaching. These problems are found in the material of nature- 
study, hence the importance of having that material at hand when 

ioo THE XATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

it is needed in the process of education. It need not be implied 
by what has been said that the child must always be wallowing 
up to his ears in material. There are times when he should 
depend upon what has been observed. However most teachers 
will err by not having enough material on hand when it is needed, 
rather tfhan bv^ having too much. 

Again, there are teachers who- seem to think that they must 
develop everything in nature-study. The recitation resolves itself 
into a pumping process. The operator works hard and overtime 
at this educational pump, with now and then a spasmodic wheeze 
as a result. The well is dry. The pump is primed with questions 
at the rate of one hundred during a twenty-minute recitation. 
The result is a crop of stories made up to fit the demand. ( )thers 
go fishing for ideas, using every kind of bait known to the peda- 
gogical angler. Occasionally a nibble gives hopes to the fisher- 
man and he feels certain that he is about to land an educational 
trout, but as he reels in his line he finds that he has nothing but 
a bunch of weeds from the bottom of the stream. There is no use 
fishing where there are no fish. 

Occasionally a teacher gets the idea that nature-study teaching 
consists in carrying on, before her class, a series of entertain- 
ments along the line of experiments, something of the pyrotechnic 
order. If these are carried on long enough pupils will lose in- 
terest in the more common things about them and hunger for a 
show when the nature-study period arrives. There are times 
when these experiments are just the thing, but as a rule an experi- 
ment is a difficult thing for the child mind to comprehend because 
nature is tampered with and the child cannot see the setting of 
what takes place. It is quite essential that we cultivate in the 
child the right mental attitude for the common things about him 
and that he comes to see in them that which is worthy of his 



Professor in the University of Leeds and in the Royal Institution 

[Editorial Note. — The article below is an extract from the introduction 
to Professor Miall's "House, Garden and Field" (London, Arnold: New 
York, Longmans) which will be reviewed in the next issue of The Re- 
view. It deserves re-publication here for the reasons that perhaps a 
majority of readers are prone to overlook prefaces to books and, at any 
rate, the book in this case will not be accessible to a very large number of 
the readers of this journal.] 

I have received a good deal of advice from teachers and others 
as to the kind of book on nature-study that is really wanted, 
and I will begin by explaining how it is that I have found it 
undesirable to attempt exactly what my friends expect. They 
expect, it would seem, ready-made lessons on a variety -of inter- 
esting and easy topics. The teacher, they tell me, has neither 
the time nor the knowledge to prepare lessons of his own. Since 
lessons on nature-study are demanded, they must be drawn up 
for him, and put into his hands complete. It is quite true, I 
sorrowfully admit, that many teachers have no time for study. 
That is almost the same thing as admitting that they have not 
time to teach well, for it is only those who are always increasing 
their own knowledge who can hope to become inspiring teachers. 
Knowledge, to be stimulating, must be kept alive by personal 
effort ; it cannot be acquired once for all. 

This is true, I believe, of all teaching, but it is especially true 
of nature-study. For the primary aim of nature-study is to set 
up the habit of observation, and to keep alive that love of nature 
which shows itself in most unspoilt human beings. If the teacher 
does all the observation himself, his pupils are defrauded of their 
fair share, though they may possibly catch something from him 
of the spirit of inquiry. But if the teacher too gets all his knowl- 
edge without effort, then the so-called nature-study which he dis- 
penses has no more power to excite the love of nature or the 
spirit of inquiry than a printed list of the kings of England with 
dates. These considerations lead me to believe that it will be 
a greater service to start, if I can, the habit of observation and 
inquiry in some few teachers than to furnish a great many ready- 
made lessons. 

102 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

I do not, however, think it superfluous or mischievous to print 
from time to time examples of ready-made lessons. The most 
independent of teachers can profit by seeing how another man 
goes to work; and he will, it is to be hoped, be as solicitous to 
note faults which he is to avoid as merits which he is to imitate. 
Of course, the facilities thus afforded will be abused by some. 
There are persons in all professions whom no pressure of cir- 
cumstances would induce to think for themselves. But a teacher 
of any spirit will at least throw the information and the hints 
which he gets from another into a form of his own, and will 
carry on many inquiries which cannot be expected to issue in 

The belief is prevalent that the training of teachers in nature- 
study means supplying them with a number of lessons which can 
be directly reproduced in the schoolroom. Several objections to 
this time-saving method force themselves upon the attention. 
The teachers are put into a servile attitude ; they are made into 
vehicles for transmitting (no doubt with much dilution and some 
loss of accuracy) lessons which another person has drawn up. The 
lessons as given to the teachers are not real lessons, nor are the 
teachers really trained, for the laying up in a note-book of mate- 
rials for future lessons does not deserve the name of training. 
A printed book would answer the purpose in view better than 
any lecture ; the book is both more extensive and more accurate 
than any old lecture-notes. I have understood my duties differ- 
ently, and address a class of teachers in training as persons 
whose powers are to be cultivated. Such tasks are assigned to 
them as they are fit for; the explanations and questions are 
adapted to their present knowledge and capacity. To offer them 
a lesson suitable for a class of children would be impossible, and 
even if it were possible, would give a wrong notion of what the 
lesson should aim at. A lesson at its best is an inquiry, worked 
out between the teacher and his class. Train the teachers to 
observe, to reflect, to express their meaning in clear language, 
and to arrange the matter of their lessons in a good order, but 
leave them entirely free to choose their own subjects, and to 
handle them in their own way. 

Though the teacher, even if fortunate, cannot expect to be able 
to devote a large part of his time to study, the hours that he can 
now and then spend in study will be of great use, both to him and 


to his pupils. If he is only able to get up with due thoroughness 
a single new lesson a rear, that lesson will influence all the rest. 
I have heard of a schoolmaster who had mastered by his own 
efforts the movements and phases of the moon, and taught that 
one thing heartily and well. Xo mean result, I thought, but I 
should have been glad to hear that he was adding a fresh topic 
to his stock every year ; less than that would not fix him in the 
right attitude. 

Whether the living things that share our dwellings, or seek 
their food in our gardens and fields, make the best possible matter 
for school-lessons or not, the student of nature is bound to attend 
to them. They are what the mother-tongue is to the student of 
languages, what the fatherland is to the student of history. A 
man who knows nothing about the flowers of his own window- 
boxes and his own flower-beds, nothing about the plants which 
raise food for him, or the insects which devour what he had 
hoped to enjoy, nothing about the minute forms of life which 
bring fertility to the soil, or fatal disease to the household, 
nothing about house-flies and hive-bees and bacteria — such an 
one may call himself a naturalist, may indeed have a right to the 
name, but he has need of deep knowledge of some other kind to 
escape the accusation of blindness and indifference. What oppor- 
tunities of enlarging his knowledge of life has he allowed to 
escape him ! 

We want fresh helpers for the preparation of new nature- 
studies. There must be a large number of teachers who could 
now and then write a good one. The difficulty (and a very 
serious difficulty it is) would be to pick out the really useful 
lessons from the rest. Such questions as follow might be some 
guide in the estimation of merit. 

Has the writer made out anything, great or small, that was not 
known before? Does he employ new methods of inquiry, or 
new methods of teaching? Is the plan of the lesson natural, 
attractive, and likely to aid the memory? Is the language simple 
and expressive? Can the pupils do work for themselves upon 
the subject of the lesson? Does the lesson contain any good 
experiment? Is it illustrated by new and careful drawings? 

I am quite sure that there would be no difficulty in getting any 
lesson published which came out well from such an interrogation, 
and I believe that to write once in a way with all possible care 

104 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 3, may 1905 

a lesson which was to appear in print would be a valuable dis- 
cipline for the more ambitious of our young' teachers. I should 
like to see the preparation of new nature-studies organized a 


Lecturer on Botany and Nature-Study, New York City 

In many parts of New York City are children who never see 
any growing thing — children to whom the world of trees and 
birds, flowers and brooks, is a sealed book. Nature-study has 
finally won a place in the school-curriculum, but where to g"et the 
" nature " to study is often a most difficult problem. The ideal 
way is to take the children to the woods and fields ; but except 
in a few instances, this cannot be done under existing conditions. 
The work briefly described below suggests one way in which the 
gap between the children and nature may be bridged, at least 

While visiting a " Wild-Flower Show," given by the Storm- 
King Club of Cornwall, N. Y., in 1893, it occurred to the writer 
that here was a plan that might be profitably transported to the 
city. Accordingly, the following spring a wild-flower show was 
given in the library of the New York City Normal College by 
the Natural Science Committee of the Associate Alumnae, of 
which committee the writer was then chairman. The members 
of the committee and their friends collected the flowers, of which 
over one hundred species were on exhibition, all classified and 
labelled. This we believe was the first wild-flower show ever 
given in New York City. The College students, the children of 
the adjoining Training School, the pupils of neighboring schools, 
and many adult visitors greatly enjoyed the exhibition. It was 
so successful that six more were given under the same auspices 
between 1894 and 1900. 

As the exhibitions became better known, many more teachers 
wanted to bring their children, even from distant parts of the city. 
But the children to whom the flowers would be the greatest revela- 
tion were just those who could not afford the necessary car-fare. 
In order to reach these, permission was secured from the proper 


authorities in 1900 allowing' us to give the exhibitions in the 
public schools. Their scope was widened and garden flowers as 
well as fruits and vegetables were included. The Public Educa- 
tion Association now took an active interest in the work and 
appointed a Nature-Material Committee, to whose helpful cooper- 
ation much of the success of the exhibitions is due. 

From 1900 to 1903 three flower shows were given each year. 
The first was held early in May so that Arbor Day would be 
included, and special efforts were made to have the trees largely 
represented. A second spring show was given two or sometimes 
three weeks later, when not infrequently nearly two hundred kinds 
of flowers were on exhibition ; and a fall show was held about the 
middle of October, when fruits and vegetables formed a promi- 
nent part of the exhibits. In December of 1903 a fourth or mid- 
winter exhibition was given of such miscellaneous material as 
could be collected at that season of the year or kept over from 
the summer ; for example, birds' nests, wasps' nests, cocoons, galls, 
shells, starfish, lichens, woody fungi, budding twigs and ever- 
greens. The experiment proved a success and so evidently filled 
a need of the schools that the plan was continued and a second 
midwinter show has just been given. This was found to be so 
helpful that, at the general request of principal, teachers and the 
district superintendent, it was kept open for ten days in order 
that the children and teachers of the neighboring schools might 
profit by it. Being given in a building used as a Girls' Recrea- 
tion Center, it was open evenings as well as by day. In all, 
seven exhibitions have been given in the schools, each time in 
a different building but always in sections where work of this 
kind is most needed and where we find principal and teachers 
willing to cooperate with us. 

As a rule, the only available space for the exhibitions is a por- 
tion of the playground on the ground floor. Saw-horses and 
planks, kindly provided by the Supply Department of the Board 
of Education and sent from school to school as they are needed, 
furnish the necessary tables. As flower-holders we use all the 
pails, jars, pitchers, etc., available in the building, supplemented 
by vessels of all sorts and kinds, proudly loaned by the children, 
who like to feel that they are helping. 

While we strive to make the exhibitions as attractive as pos- 
sible from the artistic standpoint, still, as has been said, their 

106 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

main purpose is educational and we want the little visitors to carry 
away something besides the impression of beauty. Hence all the 
specimens are distinctly labelled with the common names ( we now 
use permanent tin labels with black lettering). The wild flowers 
and the cultivated plants are arranged on separate tables, and 
when our specimens warrant it, the former are grouped as the 
" flowers of the field," " flowers of the woods " and " flowers of 
the swamps," the first mentioned having when possible a back- 
ground of common grasses. The flowers producing edible fruits 
have a table by themselves with specimens showing the young 
fruit forming. Another table is given up to the lower plants. 
Here are lichens, fern clumps springing out of velvety moss that 
the children delight to feel, and there are often horse-tails, club- 
mosses and colonies of puff-balls that the children never tire of 
" making smoke." Several times we have had a miniature 
swamp or bog with pitcher-plant, cranberry vines and sphagnum- 
moss surrounding a tiny pool ( in a tin basin ) , in which a small 
turtle and some tadpoles disported themselves. In the fall we 
have an array of nuts in their shells and other fruits arranged 
according to their method of dispersal. 

It takes at least half a day to arrange the exhibits, and it has 
not been found possible to keep the flowers more than three days or 
four unless much fresh material is sent in. The principal of the 
school divides the available time among his classes. It has been 
found that the children gain much more when they see the flowers 
two or three times and have an opportunity to talk them over with 
each other and with their teachers. At the first visit they are too 
much overwhelmed to take in details. 

That there was great need of just this kind of work the fol- 
lowing statistics, based on data carefully collected by the teachers 
and principals, certainly goes to prove. It was found that in one 
school, with an attendance of 1,353. 7^ P er cent °f the children 
had never been to the country ; and in another, with an attend- 
ance of over a thousand, the percentage was 36, while half the 
pupils had never seen even Central Park. In another school, 30 
per cent of the 932 children in attendance had never been out of 
the city ; in a second the percentage was 67 ; while in still another 
it was 40. In two instances we were told by the principal that 
she fully believed there were children in her school who had 
never seen grass growing. 


As a natural consequence of the above conditions, we found 
that manv of the children did not recognize the most common 
flowers, either wild or cultivated. For instance, out of a class 
of 55, Grade 1 B, only a single child knew a clover blossom; of 
a class of 52, Grade 2 A, four did not know a daisy, seven a 
buttercup and twelve a dandelion ; of a class of 34, Grade 4 B, 
comprising children from ten to fourteen years of age, three did 
not know a daisy and twelve a dandelion, though doubtless all 
of them could recite poems about the flowers in question. I am 
pleased to be able to state that every child in this school had 
either daisies or buttercups to take home and become acquainted 
with. Examples of this kind might be repeated indefinitely. 
Suffice it to add that marigolds as well as dogwood, apple blos- 
soms and many others were indiscriminately called " roses," and 
that ferns were invariably termed " soup greens " by numbers 
of the children. That the children's knowledge of common animal 
forms was quite as limited was unexpectedly shown by the fol- 
lowing incident. A " brown bear " caterpillar chanced to arrive 
in a box of autumn flowers and was taken by the principal through 
most of the class-rooms. It proved to be unknown to the great 
majority of the pupils, who variously called it a " frog," ' lizard," 
" snake," " grasshopper " and " worm." Yet apparently every 
child, when told what it was, could glibly inform us that a cater- 
pillar turns into a chrysalis and then comes out a moth or a 
butterfly ! Since then an effort has always been made to have 
a "caterpillar corner " where a few common caterpillars are 
shown and often also grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, and some- 
times frogs and toads. One may judge from the above facts what 
a revelation the nature exhibitions are to these unfortunate city- 
bound children. 

It should be stated that the above data were collected in 1900, 
1 90 1 and 1902, and that at the two exhibitions that have been 
held since the new nature-study course has been in operation, it 
was evident that the year's work in that subject had done much 
for both children and teachers. Special efforts are made to help 
the latter by illustrating the grade work as far as we can by 
having as many of the plants and animals mentioned in the syl- 
labus as possible ; and the midwinter show was instituted to pro- 
vide them with the birds' nests, wasps' nests, budding twigs and 
evergreens. In addition, whenever the teachers wish it — and they 

108 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3. may 1905 

are usually very glad to avail themselves of the offer — they are 
piloted about the exhibition when the children are not there and 
a running talk is given on the specimens, bringing out their 
special points of interest, also directing how to keep them and 
make the most of them in their class-rooms. At the close of the 
exhibition everything that can be kept is taken to the school- 
rooms to do duty again in the regular nature-study work, often 
to serve as models for drawing and subjects for compositions. 
All else is distributed among the children, and usually the common 
flowers are received in such generous quantities that many boxes 
may be sent directly to the schoolrooms and given out to the chil- 
dren at once. Many times every child in the school has had at 
least one or two flowers to take home. 

Our flowers and specimens come from many different people 
and from many places, not only in Xew York, Xew Jersey and 
Connecticut, but sometimes from an even greater distance. Many 
generous boxes come from the country estates of wealthy people 
who have been interested in the work, many through personal 
friends of the workers. The Park Commissioner has sent us gen- 
erous contributions from Central Park ever since the work began, 
principally branches of shrubs and trees ; and near-by chapters 
of the National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild have frequently 
contributed. For a number of years various Junior Naturalist 
Clubs under the direction of Air. John \Y. Spencer sent great 
boxes of flowers, often the largess of their own little gardens. A 
number of schools, many of them in the country, have sent to us 
regularly. It seems a particularly happy arrangement to have 
these country children send of their abundance to their less fortu- 
nate city cousins, and we feel that the work benefits both ends of 
the line. Sometimes individual names will come with each bunch 
of flowers ; in this case each child receives a note of thanks from 
the city boy or girl who receives the flowers. The names of all 
the donors are kept, and the children write letters of thanks as 
part of their work in English. These letters are often very inter- 
esting, telling of the flowers that pleased them most, how they 
" never dreamed there could be so many kinds of flowers " ; how 
they had often read about certain flowers but " had no idea they 
looked like that," and almost always, " what a nice smell the 
flowers had " — that seems to appeal to them all. 

In order that zeal for the flower shows will not tend to the 


destruction of any of our wild plants, those who send are re- 
quested to cut the Mowers carefully, not to send roots, and when 
a flower is rare in any locality, not to gather it at all. Many 
flowers are collected in the suburbs of Xew York City, but in 
these cases the collections are made on the land that is there being 
constantly invaded for building purposes. Xo effort is made to 
secure the rarer wild flowers except a few, such as the arbutus 
and the fringed gentian that the children have learned poems 
about and whose acquaintance they make with delight. The most 
common flowers, as we have seen, are rarities to the children and 
we try to have these in such abundance that they will never forget 
them. We often have pails and pails full of cherry and apple 
blossoms, of lilacs and dogwood, asters, goldenrod and daisies ; 
and basins heaped high with buttercups, violets, star of Bethlehem 
and clover. 

In conclusion, the principals of the schools in which the exhibi- 
tions have been given all testify to the lasting impression they 
make on the children and to the impetus given to nature-studv 
throughout the school. This reaches the teachers as well as the 
children, for in many cases these shows are a revelation to the 
former as well as the latter. A number of the superintendents 
are now interested in the work, and last year some good photo- 
graphs were taken for the Public School Exhibit at St. Louis. 


Cornell University 

The habits of social insects are most interesting from the human 
standpoint. We are interested in them because of the successful 
socialism that prevails in the bee-hive, the ant-nest and the wasp 
habitation ; the perfect way they manage their communal affairs 
is to us nothing less than marvellous, especially since there is no 
one individual who directs the work which seems to be started, 
continued and finished through a consensus of public opinion. It 
is only of late that observation nests have been devised so that 
we are able to verify for ourselves the wonderful tales which the 
earlier naturalists have written for us concerning the lives of 
these small socialists. 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

The observation hive for the study of bees is simply con- 
structed and can be made by any one who is at all familiar with 
the use of tools ; it is also an excellent piece of work for the pupils 
in manual-training classes to construct. It consists of a small 
hive with panes of glass at the sides and is placed in the room 

Fig. i — An ordinary bee-hive made into an observation hive by inserting glass panes in sides and 
putting a glass sheet under the wooden cover. Drawn from hive in Professor Kellogg's laboratory. 
(From Kellogg's " American Insects," copyright 1904, by Holt & Co.). 

with the entrance arranged so that the bees may pass in and out 
of a raised window. We have used for this an ordinary Lang- 
stroth hive ; panes of glass were inserted at the sides and on the 
top, over which boards were fastened when we were not observ- 
ing, so that the bees would be content since they were always in 
the dark. We placed this hive on a table with the entrance on 
a window-sill ; the sash was lifted an inch or so and to keep the 
bees from crawling back into the room a strip of wood two inches 
in thickness was introduced beneath the sash except in front of 
the entrance of the hive, thus closing the space made by lifting 
the window. 

An excellent observation hive is one devised and used by Pro- 
fessor Y. L. Kellogg in his laboratory at Stanford University, 
and which any carpenter can easily construct. It consists of a 
box with glass sides, large enough to hold two Langstroth frames 
one above the other. Thus both sides of each comb are exposed 
and an individual bee may be kept constantly in sight while she 



1 1 1 

is working 

A passageway that leads from the entrance of the 
hive to the exit at the window has a glass top, so the interesting 
performances of the bees passing in and out while at work and 
the actions of the sentinels which guard the entrance may be 
observed. This hive has black curtains hung over it when not 
in use. If the glass is not kept covered most of the time so that 

Fig. 2. — An observation hive holding only two trames, with the two sides who ly of glass, so that 
any single bee can be continuously watched. Drawn from hive in Professor Keilogg's laboratory. 
(From Keilogg's "American Insects," copyright 1904, by Holt & Co.). 

the interior of the hive is dark, the bees will take the matter in 
charge and curtain the inside of the glass with propolis or bee- 
glue, thus shutting out intrusive eyes. I remember once a Sister 
teaching in a parochial school came to me in much perplexity ; 
she had taken great pains to introduce an observation hive of 
bees into her schoolroom, and not knowing that the bees wished 
to have their home entirely dark, she failed to cover the glass in 
the slides of the hive ; the bees, therefore, did it for themselves 
so well that after the first few days her pupils were unable to make 
any observations. 



[i, 3, MAY I905 

The A. I. Root Co., of Medina, Ohio, have a very pretty obser- 
vation hive which they have put on the market at a most reason- 
able figure. They will ship it all set up, and if wished, filled 
with Italian bees and queen. This hive comes in several sizes 
and ranges in price from a dollar and a quarter to four dollars all 
stocked with bees. I would advise the size containing" one frame 
below and a super of four sections for honey above. These sec- 
tions should be ordered with starters for comb foundation in them, 
so that the whole process of building the comb may be observed. 
Dr. Edward F. Bigelow, of Stamford, Conn., has invented a verv 
handsome and elaborate observation hive for schoolrooms ; this 

Fig. 3. — " Observatory hive," manufactured by the A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio. 

is also manufactured by the A. I. Root Co. This hive is supplied 
with special division boards and a sliding magnifying glass so 
that the bees may be observed while feeding ; they are also remov- 
able hives for temporary exhibition, and also a " flying cage " and 
observation hive box. I have not seen this hive as yet, but the 
A. I. Root Co. have sent me a description of it. It will be on the 
market soon, and Dr. Bigelow has refused to take out any patents, 
thus generously giving the public full advantage of his invention. 1 
After the hive is bought or made and is ready for use, then 
arises the question of how to fill it with its proper inhabitants. 

1 Dr. Bigelow will write for The Review a description of this hive and 
its use. — Managing Editor. 


This may be accomplished by buying the bees of a regular dealer; 
and if the teacher has four or five dollars to devote to setting- 
up the hive, this would be the best way to do. But if there is 
no money for buying bees then the nearest apiarist should be 
asked to donate a brood-frame filled with comb nearly covered 
with bees, with a queen-cell in it or provided with a laying queen 
already at work. If he is not generous enough to make the dona- 
tion, the expense of buying this amount of bees should not be 
more than one dollar. 

The hive should be placed in a second-story window if the 
school is in a village ; if there is no second story, then a window 
should be chosen which faces away from the playground and the 
street, for bees do not like to have company in their front yards. 

After the hive is set up and the bees are well at work the 
pupils will eagerly observe the citizens and the industries of the 
hive. The citizens are of three kinds, the workers, which do 
all the labor of the hive ; the queen, which is the mother of all 
members of the colony and the drones, which are the idle sons 
of the queen mother. The great mass of bees on the comb are 
workers ; in size they are smaller than either queen or drones. 
The queen has a long, pointed body which extends far behind her 
wings, and she is decidedly larger than the workers. The drone 
is also larger than the worker and his body ends bluntly behind 
his wings almost as if it had been cut off with a shears. 

The industries of the hive are building of comb ; the gathering 
and storing of honey and pollen ; feeding the young ; feeding and 
caring for the queen ; keeping the house clean ; stopping all 
crevices with bee-glue ; and fanning with the wings to set up a 
draft through the hive, so that it will not be too warm and that 
the uncapped honey may ripen. All of these duties are performed 
by the workers. In order to make the comb they have first to 
secrete the wax, which they accomplish by gorging themselves 
with honey and remaining suspended while the wax exudes in 
little, white plates from wax-glands on the lower surface of the 
abdomen. The wax is collected and chewed to make it less brittle 
and then put in place. The whole process of building the geomet- 
rical cells of the comb may be observed. All of the work done 
by the queen is the laying of eggs. It should be noted that she is 
always surrounded by her devoted ladies-in-waiting, who feed 
her and care for her most tenderlv. While the drone takes no 

H4 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

active part in the industry of the hive, he should not he blamed 
for this as he is unfitted by nature for toil. He has no wax- 
glands, so he cannot secrete wax ; his tongue is short so he cannot 
gather honey from flowers ; he has no pollen-baskets on his legs, 
so he cannot gather and make bee-bread ; he has no sting, so he 
cannot fight the enemies of the colony. He is an aristocratic 
prince and his one duty is to go finally on his travels and seek 
some waiting princess. If he does not do this successfully and 
hangs around the hive after the honey season has passed, his 
sisters may be seen attacking him with fierce jaws and stings to 
put an end to his idle existence. 

While studying the bees in an observation hive the pupils should 
also study the relation of bees to flowers, and to learn the value 
of these messengers which carry pollen from bloom to bloom. 
In order to study a flower from this standpoint, the following 
questions should be asked : Where is the nectar in the flower ? 
Where in relation to the nectar glands are the pollen and the 
stigma? How does the bee come in contact with pollen and 
stigma in order to reach the nectar? 

Suggestions for the Use of the Observation Hive 

If possible get Italian bees for the observation hive as they are 
more gentle than the black bees. 

Place the hive in a window above or away from the street or 

Do not keep the glass uncovered more than is absolutely 

If the hive becomes too populous close it at night and take it 
to the nearest bee-keeper and let him take off some of the bees 
from the frame. 

If you see the worker bees fighting, it means that robbers are 
attempting to get at the stores of the observation hive. The 
entrance to the hive should at once be contracted by placing a 
block of wood in front, so that there is room for only one bee at 
a time to pass in and out. 

hemenway] WIXDOW GARDEXS 115 


Director of Hartford School of Horticulture 

Ever}- schoolroom should have a window garden, and can have 
one at very small expense. The more elaborate gardens are built 
outside the window and have glass sides and top, with sash that 
opens. These are heated during the night by leaving open the 
window which separates the window garden from the school- 
room proper. These window gardens can be obtained from most 
of the larger greenhouse construction companies at a reasonable 
expense, but if a school cannot have as elaborate a garden it can 
certainly have a very creditable one by getting an ordinary box 
that scythes or saws are packed in. These can be obtained from 
the hardware store for ten cents each. The outside appearance 
can be improved by covering them with a table oil-cloth, and this 
will also prevent the water from running out. About an inch or 
two at the bottom should be filled in with broken pots, brickbats, 
cinders or charcoal, to furnish drainage, which will lessen the 
danger of over-watering. The remainder of the box should be 
filled with a good, rich compost or garden soil. It is well to 
work about half a pint of bone-meal into it. The box can be 
filled with plants that will bloom at least part of the school year. 
Geraniums are among the favorite flowering plants for this pur- 
pose, because they will stand neglect perhaps better than any other 
plant. The dracaena (Codyline indivisa) is another plant that 
will stand well, and several of the flowering begonias. The pres- 
ence of a single well-filled box of plants in a schoolroom will 
greatly improve its appearance and will help to create a love for 
nature in the children. 

Perhaps a larger use for the window garden in the schoolroom 
is to start young plants for the school-garden and grounds. The 
process of planting seed, the miracle of germination, and the 
growth of the young plant are subjects altogether too infre- 
quently taught in the schoolroom; subjects which no child can 
know too much about, and the knowledge and study of them will 
often be the means of an awakening which will not be brought 
about by text-book study. The window garden furnishes the 
beginning of the study which is to reach its height when the plants 



[i, 3, MAY 1905 

have reached maturity, have flowered and borne fruit in the school- 
garden. While the deeper boxes may be used, it is perhaps better, 
when seeds are to be planted, to use much shallower boxes. In 
the absence of gardeners' flats, cigar boxes can be obtained from 
some near-by dealer, or some grocer or fruit dealer will gladly 
supply the school with fig boxes. The soil for these should be 
about one part rich soil and two parts of sand. The seed should 
be covered lightly, the very small seeds being merely pressed into 

A cheap box for a window garden — a " saw-box " with begonias, dracaenas, and umbrella palm. 
The side of the box is covered with wandering jew (Tradescantia). 

the soil with a block or board. The boxes should not be allowed 
to dry up ; the small boxes will probably have to be watered at 
least twice a day. As the plants come up and grow they should 
be put* into flower pots or tomato cans, or, if they are to be trans- 
planted into the garden, old strawberry boxes will be better. A 
paper should be put in the strawberry box to make it tighter. 
The soil for the transplanting of seedlings should be one part 
soil, one part well-rotted manure and one part sand, and if the 
plants are to be shifted and remain in the schoolroom, upon the 
second shifting some fine bone-meal should be added to the soil. 

hemenway] WINDOW GARDEXS 117 

Schools that can not buy plants for the schoolroom can very 
readily grow enough to supply the whole building at a very small 
expense. It will also be of more educational value to the children, 
although it will, of course, take more time. The following plants 
are named as being well adapted for successful growing, from 
seed, in the schoolroom : 

Abutilon (flowering maple), mixed varieties; will last several 
vears if cared for. 


Littler gem Alyssum (carpet of snow) ; blooms twelve or four- 
teen weeks after planting seed and if the blossoms are cut will 
continue blooming for six months. 

Asparagus plumosus and Asparagus sprengeri ; slow to start 
but will last for years if well cared for; do well in north windows. 

Begonia semperflorens, mixed varieties ; plants start slowly ; 
bloom in three or four months after planting and continue bloom- 
ing ; good for both north and south windows ; do best in warm 

Calendula (pot marigold), mixed varieties; blooms in eight to 
twelve weeks after planting and continues for three or four 

Centaurea gymnocarpa (dusty miller) ; white or dusty leaved 
plants used for their ornamental foliage ; do well in north windows 
and will stand a low temperature. 

Chrysanthemum frutescens grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum 
Comtesse de Chambord (white and yellow marguerites). These 
well-known daisy-like flowering plants will live and bloom for 
many months. 

Coleus, mixed varieties ; good for very warm and sunny rooms ; 
handsome foliage plants. 

Cyperus alternifoleus (umbrella or water palm) ; sow seeds in 
fine moss or moss and sand without covering and keep very wet ; 
a handsome plant that is sure to do well in any window. 

Dracaena, mixed varieties ; slow to start, but at the end of a 
year they will be nice plants that will improve in appearance for 
several years; will stand in sun, shade, heat and cold; good sized 
plants will stand more neglect than any other in the list. 

Fuchsia, mixed varieties ; grow rapidly in warm rooms and 
bloom well ; do well in north windows when the rooms are warm. 

Kochia scaparia (standing or summer cypress) ; a handsome 
plant ; completes its life in about five months. 


Petunia, mixed varieties ; slow in starting" but a rapid grower 
and always covered with bloom ; does well only in sunny windows. 

We all admire the beautiful plants that the florists grow in their 
greenhouses, and no one questions but that they raise the moral 
standing and develop the esthetic taste, the love for nature and 
things beautiful. It would not be wise to try to grow some of 
the delicate plants that the florists have, but the above are excel- 
lent substitutes for the window garden which is the teacher's 



Teacher of Grade V, Upsala St. School, Worcester, Mass. 

To have a garden in our school-yard seemed almost beyond 
possibility. The soil was sand and gravel overlaid with cinders, 
making a hard surface. It was necessary to procure rich loam 
to cover the cinders in order to provide for our plants. All the 
children in the building from the first grade to the seventh, wil- 
lingly carried all the loam they could procure, bringing the earth 
in baskets and boxes, old dishes, handkerchiefs, and any old bits 
of paper, cloth or crockery that would hold a handful of dirt. In 
three days we had enough loam brought in to begin work. We 
chose a strip three feet wide along the east fence which was one 
hundred and ninety-two feet long. Then we spread the loam, 
with a borrowed shovel, to the depth of several inches, and after 
sodding the border were ready to begin planting. 

We planned to have three types of wild plants : creeping vines, 
herbaceous plants and shrubs. The only vine procured was wood- 
bine, but we made up for our lack of vines in our fine assortment 
of herbaceous flowering plants. Among shrubs we procured 
azalea, sheep-laurel and wild cherry. The azalea lived only long 
enough to blossom, because it was transplanted too late in the 
spring. The wild cherry is thriving yet. But of all the shrubs 
the sheep-laurel grew best. We procured sixty varieties of wild 
flowers, and they all lived and blossomed. Some of these flowers 
were transplanted from the woods, while others were grown from 
seeds. Those which were transplanted gave the best results, the 
most successful being the violet, white daisy, cone flower, buttercup, 




false solomon seal, lady slipper, jack-in-the-pulpit, robin-runaway, 
mallow and celandine. The daisy and celandine were especially 
satisfactory. In June when school closed we left a bed of daisies 
about six feet long and three feet wide in full bloom. 

When I was asked to take charge of this work I knew nothing 
whatever about gardening. However, I discovered that working 
and studying with my pupils was the most natural and delightful 
way of learning. By the close of the season we all had become 

A wild-flower garden three feet wide by one hundred and ninety-two long " It has supplied for 
the whole school a valuable part of its equipment for lessons in nature-study." 

acquainted with our wild flowers and knew their roots and seeds 
and haunts as we could not have learned them from books. At 
seven o'clock on the bright May mornings there would often be 
from ten to twenty children of different ages waiting at the 
school-gate, of their own accord, to accompany me to the neigh- 
boring woods for flowers. The children greatly enjoyed these 
excursions. It was pleasing to watch the interest the children took 
in. the garden. They protected it and studied every little plant 
from its budding to its seed bearing. Their admiration for the 
azalea when in blossom was very noticeable. They seemed aston- 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

ished that anything so beautiful and pink could grow in our yard. 
Our wild-flower garden has proved a success from the begin- 
ning and has supplied for the whole school a valuable part of its 
equipment for lessons in nature-study. The gathering and sowing 
of seed, the hunting for plants in the woods, the planting, water- 
ing and tending — all carried out by the children under the inspi- 
ration of a common purpose — combined to yield a quality of 
knowledge and, more than that, a love for the flowers which no 
other kind of study could secure. 


Teacher of Grade VII, Upsala St. School, Worcester, Mass. 

When we first came to Upsala Street School in 1895 we found 
the school-grounds just as grounds are usually left at the comple- 
tion of a new building. Had there been no question of economy, 
it would have been a simple matter to make a lawn. But having 
no money in our treasury and having no generous benefactors in 
our neighborhood, this was just the question we had to consider 
most earnestly. Furthermore, we wanted this lawn to be the 
result of children's thought and labor. With this end in view we 
tried by every means to awaken their interest, to make them want 
to beautify their surroundings. 

Time was taken during the nature-study period to consider 
lawns. Each day the lack of one was more keenly felt as sug- 
gestions came in fast and no practical test of their efficiency could 
be made. The first steps — the cleaning up process, the picking 
up of loose refuse, the carting away of the same in borrowed 
wheel-barrows, and the leveling of rough places — though in itself 
interesting work, served to strengthen the purpose of the children 
and our daily tasks gained new life and interest. 

Having found the soil poor in quality and scarce at that, 
methods of enriching it and plans for obtaining more were dis- 
cussed. On applying to the Highway Department for street 
sweepings, we found that they could give us but little because the 
streets in our locality were not frequently swept. But although 
a little disheartened, our boys and girls showed an admirable 
spirit and all decided that a beginning should be made. The 


ground was spaded and graded as well as could be done with 
the few tools at their command. The top soil was made smooth 
by the use of rakes. Commercial fertilizer was applied and lastly 
grass seed was sown. The seed used was " chaff ' collected 
from barns in the neighborhood by our boys. It was pressed 
down by means of boards. As the soil and seed were poor the 
result was poor, but did not discourage any of us. Having made 
a beginning we were determined to win. 

Our next attempt (in 1903) was a little more successful. Se- 
lected grass seed, added to " chaff," with an application of fertil- 
izer, produced a thin covering of grass with many bare spots. 
Every blade of grass was carefully protected, the boys even 
coming in bare feet that they might not injure the tender plants. 
The whole lawn was frequently raked, well watered, and more 
seed scattered. Weeds could not escape so many sharp eves. 
The first cuttings with the mower were allowed to remain on the 
ground to protect the roots from the hot sun. 

From actual experience we learned many facts about making a 
lawn and the culture of grass. Last spring, having still a .few 
bare spots, the children raked the whole lawn. As an experi- 
ment to decide which was the better fertilizer, phosphate was 
applied to the lawn on one side and nitrate of soda on the 
other. The lawn was well watered as often as required, and cut 
with the lawn mower, care being taken not to cut so close as to 
cause sun-burning. Weeds and coarse grass were cut at the roots 
or pulled up, allowing the grass to take full possession and make 
a thick mat. YYe were not able to say which fertilizer was the 
better, because the grass flourished on both sides. This fall 
(1904) we have allowed the grass to grow long so as to protect 
the roots from the severe winter weather. 

Although the hardest work has been accomplished, our children 
will continue to improve the lawn by intelligent care. Having 
heard that wood ashes is one of the best fertilizers for our con- 
ditions, every child has volunteered to bring a small box of it next 
spring, and is looking forward to the time when this can be tried. 

The children of Upsala Street School are justly proud of their 
lawn. The labor and thought expended taught them that much 
in the way of beautifying unsightly grounds can be done under 
unfavorable conditions. This knowledge has led many to attempt 
the work at their homes, and with gratifying results. 

122 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3. may 1905 


Vice-principal of Normal School, Ottawa, Canada 

One of the most serious objections urged against the intro- 
duction of nature-study into public schools is that there is " no 
time for it." 

Let us consider one hour per week the amount of time required. 
One of the most historic responsible pronouncements on the sub- 
ject is that made in 1892 in the report made by the famous Com- 
mittee of Ten, where the natural history section recommended 
that " No less than one hour per week, divided into at least two 
periods,' should be devoted throughout the whole school course 
below the high school to the study of plants and animals ; that in 
this study no text-books should be used, and that these observa- 
tion lessons should, as far as possible, be made the basis of or 
correlated with work in language, drawing and literature." 

Twenty years ago the writer of this article made a somewhat 
careful observation and study of a number of schools in the United 
States, England and France, in which courses in nature-study 
similar to those recently prescribed for Ontario schools had been 
for years and still are in operation. 

Since that time he has had opportunity for more extended 
observation and experiment, and his opinion is that an average of 
one hour of school time per week for nature-study during the 
entire public school course forms a satisfactory working hypoth- 
esis. Many of the most successful teachers of nature-study give 
but few set lessons on the subject and vary the time and emphasis 
to accord with external conditions. For example, in the spring 
when Nature seems to awaken from her winter sleep, more time 
may be devoted to the subject than during the winter months. 
Then too it is necessary to adjust the lessons to the schoolroom 
conditions. For example, in a large rural school with many 
classes in charge of but one teacher, most of the work must be 
taken with combined classes or incidentally in connection with 
other subjects. Speaking generally, one half-hour lesson per 
week may profitably be devoted in every class to some definite, 
sequential, subject of investigation, and the other half to general 
unrelated observation made as occasion demands. For example, 


yesterday in the Ottawa Model School a number of boys of about 
nine rears of age, in the second grade, had a half-hour lesson on 
seed planting and at its conclusion undertook to make the seeds 
which they had planted grow. During the next three or four 
weeks they will have a half-hour lesson each week, devoted 
to a statement of the discoveries they have made regarding their 
plants and the difficulties they have met with, and also to a con- 
sideration of ways of overcoming these difficulties and to a fuller 
investigation of heat, light, soil and moisture conditions in relation 
to plant development. Another half-hour per week will probably 
be occupied in the discussion of such phenomena as the coming of 
the birds and the melting of the snow, and to the explanation of 
nature references found in the current class literature. 

It may be urged that such work has always been done in 
schools. In reply it may be said that where such is the case the 
requirements of the new regulations are being carried out, and this 
is no doubt being done in an unostentatious and effective way in 
many schools. It is probable, however, that most readers have 
cause to remember with regret schools which they themselves 
attended, where more than one hour per week was wasted in 
memorizing abstract and meaningless definitions and records 
which have since been found to be incorrect, where no attention 
was ever paid to birds or plants, trees or flowers, the glory of the 
sunset or the matchless grandeur of the heavens or indeed to any 
of the living realities of existence outside the schoolroom, and 
where instead of forming habits of observation and appreciation 
of the objects about them, the pupils formed habits which caused 
them to ignore all material things as commonplace and to move 
through realms of profoundest mystery and intense attractiveness 
with blind eyes and dormant sensibilities. It is to be feared also 
that such schools have not yet entirely disappeared. 

Nature-study reinforces other studies. It will be found that 
one hour per week occupied in nature-study is not really taken 
from other subjects if the work be properly correlated. For ex- 
ample, in objective drawing the first step is to gain an accurate 
knowledge of the object to be drawn. The time usually occupied 
in doing this is saved if the object has already been investigated 
in nature-study lessons, and experience shows that children prefer 
to draw such objects rather than those with no previous interest. 

In conclusion it may be said that there is good reason for the 

124 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3. may 1905 

assertion that all things being equal a class which devotes an hour 
per week to nature-study will do better work in other subjects 
and make more rapid progress than if they devoted their entire 
time to these subjects. [From Ottawa Naturalist, April, 1905.] 



Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous detective was able from an 
examination of an old bowler hat to give an account of the 
appearance, occupation, habits, character, and worldly circum- 
stances of its owner. Similarly, from an inspection of his friend's 
watch, he was enabled to discover that its former owner was a 
man of fallen estate and character, a drunkard, spendthrift, etc., 
a physical wreck, and a victim of chronic poverty. Many other 
instances will occur to the reader in which Holmes was able, by 
the exercise of his sense organs and his reasoning faculties on 
some concrete object, to construct a whole chain of facts with 
which that object was connected. 

In the explanation of the methods by which he arrived at these 
results, it will be seen that the faculties upon which he depended 
for his conclusions were : — 

1. Observation, by which he obtained the external facts con- 
nected with the object. In the case of the hat above quoted, he 
observed the size, shape, condition, kind of lining, newly-cut 
grizzled hairs, smell of lime-cream, tallow stains, etc. 

2. Deduction, by which he gained new facts as inferences from 
the ones already obtained. From the large size he deduced a 
large brain and consequent intellectual power, from the quality 
of the hat the well-to-do state of its purchaser, and from its 
interior stains his physical condition, among other inferences. 

3. Memory, by which he was able to associate his newly-dis- 
covered facts with those in his past experience. For example, 
his memory informed him that the particular shape he had 
observed was in fashion three years before, so fixing the time of 
the hat's purchase. 

4. Constructive imagination, by which he was able to combine 
his facts and build them into a homogeneous hypothesis — that 
the person he wished to discover was Henry Baker, a man 


formerly well-to-do, fallen on evil days, of sedentary habit, in 
poor domestic circumstances, etc. The story, of course, is that of 
" The Blue Carbuncle." 

In his wonderful power of obtaining facts from the examina- 
tion of concrete things the great detective of fiction is an ideal 
type of the nature-student. Though his observations of nature 
were limited mainly to man, and especially to criminal man, yet 
the faculties and the methods he employed are equally applicable 
to all natural objects; and if objection be made that Sherlock 
Holmes never existed, even without the knowledge that he is the 
creation of a man of science and had a prototype in fact in Dr. 
Bell of Edinburgh, it may be remembered that the great " nature- 
student " Cuvier, by the exercise of precisely the same faculties 
as those previously analyzed, was able, from an examination of 
a single bone, to reconstruct in imagination the animal of which 
it formed a part. This illustration in actual fact is at least as 
wonderful as any of the detective's logical achievements in fiction. 
The faculties used by Sherlock Holmes and Cuvier are simply 
those possessed but not used by the average child in the elemen- 
tary school. This is the great attraction of Sherlock Holmes. 
When he explains his course of reasoning to his astonished 
clients, they realize that all that he saw they might have seen 
also, and that the faculties which seemed supernatural were 
really the ordinary ones which they shared in common with him, 
but which in his case were used, in theirs were neglected. It 
should be noted, however, as Holmes repeatedly points out in his 
" explanations," that people fail, not to see things, but to reason 
from what they see. They do not " proceed to draw inferences 
from their observations." For instance, millions of people before 
Sir Isaac Newton had seen an apple fall from a tree, but no one 
until his day had ever gone further and reasoned why it fell. 
This has an important bearing on nature-study in schools, as it 
proves that, somewhat contrary to the common idea, it is in 
deductive power rather than in observation that training is 

To illustrate the application of the foregoing to nature-study 
in the elementary school, the writer proposed to describe the' 
progress of an " investigation " which took place in his own 
school. By the exercise of their faculties of observation, deduc- 
tion, memory, and imagination on the foot of a creature they 

126 THE NATURE -STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

had never seen or heard of, the children were led to reconstruct 
a mental image of that creature, and to deduce various facts con- 
nected with its habits and surroundings. (The sceptical are 
invited to find the faulty link in the following chain of argument 
before talking of " impossibilities.") 

A " newly-severed " foot was discovered by a boy on a local 
dust-heap, and not knowing to what manner of creature it be- 
longed, he brought it to school to be examined. The foot was 
about as large as that of a small fowl, and was completely cov- 
ered with thick white fur or feathers. This much was obvious 
from a -superficial observation. Closer observation disclosed four 
toes beneath the covering which was seen to consist of hair-like 
feathers. Memory thus assisted to furnish the first deduction, 
that it was the foot of a bird. (N. B. — This, as will be seen in 
the sequel, was not immediately obvious, as the foot superficially 
rather resembled that of a large white rabbit.) The deduction 
from the size of the foot was that the bird was rather larger than 
a partridge but smaller than a fowl. From the color and thick- 
ness of the feathers on the foot the inference was that the bird 
would be warmly covered with thick, downy feathers in which 
white was the prevailing color. But the children's previous expe- 
rience had told them that, by a recognized law of nature, the 
structure of any creature depends upon its surroundings. The 
bird in question must therefore have its home in a cold climate 
amid a snowy environment. It was therefore not an English 
bird, but probably came from the north. Geographical knowl- 
edge fixed its probable habitat as Northern Scotland, Norway, 
Sweden, or Russia. Further, the children knew, from a previous 
lesson on the stoat, that most wild creatures whose prevailing 
color is white change their color with the season and darken as 
the snow melts. The color of the bird in question might be 
therefore expected to vary with the seasons. 

Observation of the toes showed the claws to be small and weak. 
The owner was evidently not a bird of prey. It was not a swift 
runner either. Neither could it scratch the earth in search of 
food. Could it, like many weak-toed birds, be insectivorous? 
The previous deduction of a cold climate negatived this hypoth- 
esis. It was certainly, from its feet and plumage, not a water- 
bird. ' Eliminating the impossible," as Holmes did, it did not 
prey on other birds, nor get its food from beneath the ground, 


nor from the air nor the water. Therefore it must live on plants 
which grew above the ground. But its weak, muffled, foot 
showed that it could not perch in trees to feed on fruit or berries 
(the rigorous climate, again, was against the presence of trees). 
Such a bird looked like starving until it was suggested that it 
fed on leaves and shoots of plants. This again corroborated the 
early inference of a harsh climate, as these would be almost the 
only food available. (Some of the children had read about the 
reindeer and its food.) 

Again, the clumsy foot was much against the possibility of the 
construction of any nest. A bird with such a foot would most 
likely lay its eggs on the bare ground. In accordance with a 
law previously quoted, the eggs would probably be of a brown 
tint, mottled to resemble the earth. The number of eggs would 
tend to be large, first because " ground-game " are especially 
assailable by enemies and seldom rear the full brood, and also 
because, however many eggs are laid on the ground, there is no 
danger, as in trees, of any falling out of the nest. 

Summing up the facts thus deduced from the foot, the children 
were invited to imagine, as its owner, a bird as large as a small 
hen, covered with thick white feathers even to its toes, inhab- 
iting the countries round the Arctic Sea, feeding on lichens, 
leaves and young shoots of plants, and laying a large number of 
brownish eggs on the bare ground. Obviously the next thing 
was to discover whether such a bird existed in fact, and if so, 
what it was called. 

Sherlock Holmes having evolved such a description of an 
unknown individual, would have discovered the person answer- 
ing to it by making inquiries in the locality in which he thought 
he might be found. As it was plainly impossible in this case to 
inquire in Northern Europe, a natural-history book was pro- 
cured, and the plates in it were examined to see if any one 
of them tallied with the mental image gained by the children. 
Practically all the children recognized at once a plate which 
was stated to be a picture of the ptarmigan. The appended 
description was then read by one of the boys, and it was seen 
that practically all the deductions were correct, and that also the 
printed account only supplemented the deduced one in some 
minor particulars. This the reader may see for himself by refer- 
ence to anv book on birds. 

t28 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

It is not, of course, suggested that children could possibly 
arrive at such a result unguided, hut it is in good faith asserted 
that all the deductions ahove stated were elicited from a class 
of older scholars who had never seen more of the bird in question 
than the foot they had before them. Such an object lesson as 
the one described is doubtless very uncommon, and opportunities 
for a similar prolonged course of reasoning would rarely occur 
in school work ; but the writer's aim in describing it is to show 
the possibility of applying in school work those methods and fac- 
ulties which Sherlock Holmes in fiction and Cuvier in fact used 
with such striking results. It seemed an exceptionally good 
illustration of the way in which the various faculties should coop- 
erate and their results be coordinated in the " scientific " exami- 
nation of a natural object. Rut in every nature-lesson examples 
will occur of the way in which a single observation may furnish 
several deductions, which may again be associated with facts 
already in the memory to enable the imagination to build up a 
hypothesis. [From Indian Journal of Education, Madras, Jan- 
uary, 1905.] 


[Editorial Note. — As stated in an editorial in the March issue, this 
department is intended to record observations made in connection with 
nature-study classes in elementary schools. It is not aimed to make this 
a place for recording facts new to professional naturalists, but rather to 
stimulate careful and critical observation in schools.] 

An Interesting Canary's Nest. All lovers of nature are inter- 
ested in the controversy going on between the " Old School Nat- 
uralist " and the " New." The one looks at the animal from the 
anatomical point of view and says, " Impossible " ; the other, from 
the so-called psychological point, introducing feeling, and no 
doubt romances a little, and says, " Probable and possible." The 
observer sits quietly by and uses his eyes, placing confidence in 
things actually seen. 

Two years ago a large cage for birds and small animals was 
constructed near the Training Department of the San Jose State 
Normal School, in such a position that the children of the various 
departments could, from the windows, observe the action of the 



animals. All the birds — canaries, finches, cardinals, doves and 
paraqnets — were placed together. When the nesting season came, 
the children of the lower grades, as was their yearly custom, wove 
baskets for nests, and these were placed in the bushes and trees. 
One canary, which was born in the Kindergarten, and spent four 

A canary's nest. The string is woven around and through the nest. 

years of her life there, refused the kind of nest that she had been 
accustomed to occupy, and constructed one of her own out of the 
material collected from the ground, as shown by the accompanying 

John Burroughs, in a recent article, "Do Animals Think?" 
says, " The family of birds to which the canary belongs are not 
weavers ; they build cup-shaped nests . . ." This nest has a dis- 
tinctive weaving stitch, and the string, either accidentally or inten- 
tionally, is run around and through the nest. If the bird has 
" human intelligence," there is no reason why she should not 
have learned the " coil," as it is the first attempt at weaving 
taught the children. If it was accidental, then the bird certainly 
used the string to the best economy for the strength of the nest. 
If in her new environment and larger life, instinct came to the 

130 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1. 3. may 1905 

bird's aid, she took the material at hand and fashioned a nest after 
her own way. 

Does it not raise a question whether the ability to weave is to 
be confined to the class of birds called weavers ? To the writer, 
at least, it seems evident that either instinct or " bird reason " 
taught her that in the absence of the strength of the usual arti- 
ficial nest, something new had to be brought into service to make 
the nest stronger. D. R. Wood. 

State Normal School, 
San Jose, California. 

I have seen a number of canaries' nests, but have not known of 
one acting in any such manner. Certainly the finches do a good 
deal of a rough sort of weaving, especially in lining the nest. 
The chipping sparrow's nest is a model in point. This instance 
may be explained, it seems to me, as the re-assertion of a native 
instinct on bringing the canary back to a more natural environ- 
ment. C. F. H. 


ABCof Bee Culture. By A. I. Root, revised by E. R. Root. Pp. 
400, illustrated. Medina, O., A. I. Root Co., 1905. $1.20. 

This well-known " cyclopaedia of everything pertaining to 
the care of the honey-bee " first appeared in 1877, and nearly 
100,000 copies have been sold. For the information of readers 
who have not seen earlier editions, we explain that it is arranged 
on the dictionary plan for ready reference in connection with 
practical work. If one wants at any particular time to know 
about hives, stings, drones, queens, swarming, wintering, enemies 
of bees, robbing — to take at random only a few of the interesting 
topics which come to mind — full information of a very practical 
kind is to be found under these headings. There are hundreds 
of good figures which add to clearness of the descriptions. Any 
one who has any practical dealings with bees will find this book 
indispensable ; and many persons have found it -very interesting 
reading quite apart from actual bee-keeping. 

In this connection it may interest some readers to know that the 
publishers of this complete guide issue several interesting pam- 
phlets for amateurs wihch are good introductions to the ABC 
volume. Among these are " Habits of the Honev-Bee " and 


" Outfits for Beginners in Bee Culture," both of which are free 
to those interested. M. A. B. 

Manual of the Trees of North America. By Charles S. Sargent. 
Boston, Houghton, Mifflin. 1905. Pp. 826, fig. 644. $6.00. 
Professor Sargent's " Manual of the Trees of Xorth America " 
is a welcome addition to any nature-study library. Giving in 
condensed form the substance of the author's standard " Silva 
of Xorth America," this manual is of convenient size for handy 
reference. Trees of all regions of Xorth America, exclusive 
of Mexico, are included and their identification is facilitated by 
reference to a regional map of the tree vegetation. The book is 
thus of more general use than any of the small manuals published 
heretofore. An analytical key to the families based on arrange- 
ment and character of the leaves, and keys to genera and species 
are given. The species are illustrated by Mr. Charles E. Faxon 
with drawings of leaf, flower and fruit. \Yhat may seem to the 
general reader like a disproportionate amount of space is given 
to the 132 species of Crataegus out of the total 630 species de- 
scribed, but the book is, nevertheless, by no means too technical 
or special and will be found useful by all persons who are inter- 
ested in out-of-door "things. A. Watterson. 

Nature-Study with Common Things. By M. H. Carter. X. Y., 
American Book Co. 1904. Pp. 150, illustrated. 60 cents. 

This " laboratory guide " for young pupils, of the fourth, fifth 
or sixth years, consists of questions and directions for practical 
class-room study of common fruits and vegetables, such as are 
readily obtained from the markets — blackberry, plum, pear, 
grape, radish, potato, apple, lemon, orange, onion, beet, carrot, 
pea, cranberry, strawberry and cherry. The aim of this work 
is simply training and developing the power of accurate obser- 
vation, " learning how to learn," for its own sake without regard 
to the relative value of the facts learned. The author states that 
" many of the observations the pupil is called upon to make in 
these lessons bear upon no conclusion. They make no attempt 
to explain anything, but are for the sole purpose of being made." 

Each object is to be studied in a single one-hour lesson, exclu- 
sive of drawings and written work. Concerning the latter, the 
author believes that " the teacher who sets too great a premium 
upon the language side of nature lessons create pupils z^'ho want 
to see only in order to sax, and their cursorv and shallow observa- 

132 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 3, may 1905 

tions dribble away at the ends of their tongues without having 
an idea behind. The child's attention must be held to what he 
can see, not to what he can say, if he is to get a clear-cut mental 

Concerning original observations by pupils, the author gives 
this sensible advice which many teachers will do well to follow : 
" Another thing a teacher ought scrupulously to avoid is letting 
the child get the notion that he is making new discoveries except 
for himself. This thought may stimulate him for the moment, 
but in the long run it is injurious to his intellectual development. 
To-day it is almost beyond the bounds of human possibility that 
a child should discover an unknown fact in the sciences, and the 
thought that he can do so will either engender in him an arro- 
gant self-conceit, or it will entail a cruel awakening which may 
convince him that all effort on his part is useless. The ideal to 
hold before the young student is the desire to see and learn for 
himself all that others have seen and learned before, and then 
more if he can." 

Altogether the book impresses the reviewer quite favorably. 
It seems certain that most schools would strengthen their nature- 
study as a whole by following, in the fourth or fifth grades, this 
guide through its seventeen lessons. Many educators are far 
from being convinced that any observation not directed towards 
obtaining useful knowledge is best ; but at present this is inter- 
esting theory and not capable of rigid practice, and in much of 
our nature-study we can do no better than lead pupils to see 
observable things and trust that the practice of observing may 
in itself be ample justification for the work. Until some one 
arranges a similar book taking account of both training in obser- 
vation and useful knowledge Miss Carter's book will fill an 
important place, especially in schools where the teachers require 
definite guides in their nature-study teaching. M. A. B. 

Mosses with a Hand Lens. By A. J. Grout. Second edition 

with Hepatics. Pp. 16-208. 8vo. Illustrated. New York, 

The O. T. Louis Company, 59 Fifth Avenue. $1.75. 

There is far too little appreciation of the mosses and liverworts 

as objects of natural-history study. To be sure many of these 

beautiful plants are much too small for the younger pupils of 

the elementary school, but they may at any rate be studied en 

masse, while for the older pupils the larger forms, of which there 


are many, ma)' very properly be studied in a not too detailed 
way, especially on field trips and by growing them under cover 
in the schoolroom, to which they lend themselves well. Until 
the appearance of Dr. Grout's earlier book of the same title no 
means was at hand for the guidance of those who, with little 
technical knowledge, desired to acquaint themselves with these 
lovely if lowly forms, the mosses. The second edition, which 
we notice here, extends the scope of the book to include the 
liverworts, which are on the whole less conspicuous even than 
the mosses, but which are as easily studied in a general way. 
The uninitiated have now a simple guide for the study of these 
which calls for the use of a simple hand lens only. The illustra- 
tions are very good. Certainly every teacher of nature-study 
will find Dr. Grout's book of much help. F. E. L. 

Book of April and May Flowers. By Anna Botsford Comstock. 
Xew York, American Book Co. 1904. Paper, 65 pages. 
The full title of half of this book is " My own book of three 
flowers which blossom in April," and the second half is devoted 
to three flowers of May. It is essentially an attempt to correlate 
nature-study, art and language, the book consisting of sugges- 
tions for drawing and describing the flowers on blank pages 
inserted for that purpose. The April flowers selected are hepat- 
ica, spring beauty, and adder's tongue ; and squirrel corn, trillium 
and jack-in-the-pulpit are the flowers for May. An accom- 
panying book of fourteen pages gives notes and suggestions for 
the teacher. Both pupil's and teacher's books appeal to the 
reviewer as having many points of excellence. 



Physical Nature- Study. Recently published leaflets in the Hampton 
Institute series deal with " Simple Experiments in Physics " (Physical 
Nature-Study). Leaflet No. 17, "Water," by Sarah J. Walter, sug- 
gests experiments to show " changes due to heat and cold," under the 
topics evaporation and condensation. A second leaflet (n. s. Vol. 
I, Xo. 1) by the same author deals with "Heat," its sources, effects 
upon solids, liquids and gases. 5 cents each. 

Hampton Leaflets. Other recently issued leaflets in this series are: 
" Sheep," " .Votes on Transplanting," " Some Birds L T seful to the 
Southern Farmer," 5 cents each. 

134 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3, may 1905 

Beneficial Soil Bacteria. Farmers' Bulletin 214 (free) of the U. 
S. Dept. of Agriculture is a very interesting account of the nitrogen- 
fixing bacteria which live in the nodules on roots of leguminous 
plants, such as clover and peas, and the relation of these bacteria to 
the fertility of soils. The recently perfected methods of artificially 
inoculating soils are fully described. 

Bird Leaflets. Educational Leaflet Xo. 12 issued by the National 
Association of Audubon Societies deals with the short-eared owl — 
description, habits and economic relations. The full list of leaflets 
published to the end of 1904 includes: (1) night hawk; (2) mourning 
dove; (3) meadow lark; (4) robin; (5) flicker; (6) wild pigeon; 
(7) snowy heron; (8) marsh hawk; (9) red-shouldered hawk; (10) 
sparrow hawk; (11) screech owl; (12) short-eared owl. Informa- 
tion concerning the leaflets and the Audubon Societies may be ob- 
tained from Mr. William Dutcher, 525 Manhattan Ave., New York 

Field Notes in Nature-Study. Under this title the Cincinnati 
Teachers' University Club of Natural History is issuing a series of 
pamphlets intended primarily to aid teachers of the Cincinnati 
schools in their nature-study work. Pamphlet No. 1, "A Chapter 
from the Insect World : Butterflies, and moths," is by Professor 
William Osborn. No. 2, issued in March, treats of " Land Sculptur- 
ing Displayed about Cincinnati " ; and the editor has added some very 
useful suggestions which will help teachers in presenting to pupils 
the simple facts regarding land sculpturing. No. 3, " Land Snails," 
will be ready soon. The Club has arranged a system of affiliation for 
nature-study clubs in schools and will soon publish a pamphlet on 
' How to Organize and Keep Alive a Nature-Study Club." Full 
information may be obtained from the Department of Biology, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. 

"Best Books." Lord Avebury's (Sir John Lubbock) revised list 
of 100 books from all languages, which has been recently published, 
includes five books directly relating to natural history : Humboldt's 
' Travels," Darwin's " Voyage of the Beagle," White's " Natural 
History of Selborne," Cook's " Voyages," and Darwin's " Origin 
of Species." 

Natural History of the Dog. The Open Court is publishing an 
interesting series of articles by Dr. Woods Hutchinson, on " What 
the dog is built to do," " an Introduction to the Rational Study of 
Natural History for Children." It is essentially a study of the domes- 
ticated dog from the standpoint of the adaptations of structure and 
habit which have a close relation to the animal's life. 


Department of Agriculture Publications. The latest " [Monthly 
List " announces the following new and reprinted bulletins and cir- 
culars which are of interest to teachers of nature-study and elemen- 
tary agriculture. Those with a price attached are for sale by the 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. ; all others are free 
upon application to the Secretary of Agriculture. 

A Primer of Forestry. Part II. Practical Forestry. Bulletin No. 
24, Bureau of Forestry. Price 30 cents. 

Cuckoos and Shrikes in their Relation to Agriculture. Bulletin 
No. 9, Division of Biological Survey. 5 cents. 

Food of the Bobolink, Blackbirds and Grackles. Bull. 13, Div. Biol. 
Surv. 5 cents. 

The Relation of Sparrows to Agriculture. Bull. 15. Div. Biol. 
Surv. 10 cents. 

Birds of a Maryland Farm : A Local Study of Economic Ornithol- 
ogy. Bull. 17, Div. Biol. Surv. 15 cents. 

The Honey Bee: A Manual of Instruction in Apiculture. Bull. 1, 
New Series, Division of Entomology. 15 cents. 

Bird Day in the Schools. Circular Xo. 17, Div. Biol. Surv. 

The Common Squash Bug. Circular No. 39, revised, Bureau of 

Two Vanishing Game Birds : The Woodcock and the Wood Duck. 
Reprint from Year-book of Department of Agriculture for 1901. 

The Relation of Forests to Stream Flow. Reprint from Yearbook 

The School Garden. Farmers' Bulletin No. 218. 

Nature-Study for Primary Grades. This is the title of No. 16 of 
the Hampton Institute series, by Annie M. Goding and Mary C. 
Breen, of the Washington, D. C, Normal School. The outline is 
intended for the three lower grades, but no attempt is made at speci- 
fying the particular work for each of these grades. The plan is 
arranged according to the seasons, and for fall, winter and spring 
many interesting studies are suggested and numerous references given. 
The pamphlet contains 28 pages, and the price is 10 cents. 

Practical Studies in Agriculture. A pamphlet of forty pages from 
the School of Agriculture of Purdue University, prepared by Pro- 
fessor M. L. Fisher, contains in Part I clear directions for twenty- 
seven practical studies closely connected with agriculture and in Part 
II are directions for fifteen " experiments for home study." The 
pamphlet will be very helpful to teachers who are arranging courses 
in elementarv agriculture. 

-& • 

136 THE NATURE -STUDY REVIEW [1, 3, may 1905 


In addition to books reviewed in this issue the following are reserved 
for future notice : 

Experiments with Plants. By \Y. J. V. Osterhout. N. Y, Macmillan 
Co. 1905. Pp. 492, figs. 252. $1.25. 

Nature Study: A Pupil's Text-book. By F. Overton and Alary E. Hill. 
N. Y., American Book Co. 1905. Pp. 142, illustrated. 

Physiology and Hygiene for Children. By Robert Eadie and Andrew 
Eadie. N. Y., University Pub. Co. 1904. Pp. 204. 



Tutor in Biology, Teachers College, Columbia University 

[Editorial Note. — The bibliography for the first eight months of the 
year 1904 appeared in the January and March issues of The Review. 

It has not been attempted to make a complete bibliography; but rather to 
select those articles which appear to be most important and accessible in 
most public libraries. In the case of periodicals designed for local circula- 
tion, only articles of exceptional merit will be catalogued. 

The figures with black face indicate the volume and those following the 
: refer to the pages. The abbreviations of journal titles and dates are 
those used in the general indexes to be found in libraries. 

Readers are requested to inform the compiler concerning any important 

Bass, W. S. Science in the Francis W. Parker School. Ele. Sch. 
Teacher. 5:97-113- O. '04. 

Brown, I. M. Nature-study in the third grade. N. Y. Teachers' Mono. 
6:34-43. O. '04. (Study of birds and house-fly.) 

Guyer, M. F. The question of method in nature-study. Ped. Sem. 12 : 
86-92. Mr. '05. 

Hampton Nature-study Leaflets. List of publications and terms of pur- 
chase. Southern Workman. 33 : -,72-3. O. '04. 

Harvey, A. E. The value of pet animals in the kindergarten. Kind. 
Rev. 15 : 7-10. S. '04. 

Overton, F. Practical experiences in nature-study. Amer. Educ. 8: 
91-5. O. '04. 


Ritter, J. Notes on nature-study in 4B. N. Y. Teachers' Mono. 6 : 65- 
70. O. '04. (Studies of ferns, mushrooms, trees.) 

Suggestions for nature-study. Abridged from report to Com. of Educ 
Science Sect, of British Assoc. School World (Eng.). 6:428-9. N. '04. 

The curriculum of the University Elementary School (Chicago Univer- 
sity). Ele. Sch. Teacher. 5:202-24. D. '04. 


Burroughs, J. Do animals think? Harper. 110:354-8. F. '05. Do 
animals reason? Outing. 45:758-9. Mr. "05. 

Deacon, C. F. Do animals reason? Outing. 45:760-1. Mr. '05. 

Hutchinson, Woods. Animal marriage. Contemp. Rev. 86 : 485-496. 
O. '04. (Evolution of monogamy.) 

Lull, R. S. Nature's hieroglyphics. Pop. Sci. Mo. 66:139-49. D. '04. 
(Restoration of the structure of extinct animals from their footprints.) 

Osborn, H. F. Icthyosaurs. Century. 69:414-422. Ja. '05. (Fossil 
wonders of the West.) 

Rolker, A. W. Wild animal trapping. McClure. 24:431-42. F. '05. 
Invertebrates, except Insects 

Brewster, E. T. Some curious methods by which nature mends injuries. 
St. Nich. 32:265-6. Ja. '05. (Regeneration in flatworms.) 

Herrick, F. H. How the lobster grows. St. Nich. 32 : 456-8. Mr. '05. 

Marshall, N. L. A school aquarium. Prim. Educ. 12 : 398, 400. O. '04. 

Whedon, C. C. The fresh-water aquarium. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 287-9. 
Ja. '05. 

Aaron, S. F. The spider without a snare. St. Nich. 32: 170-1. D. '04. 

Bigelow, E. F. How insects breathe. St. Nich. 32 : J^. N. '04. 

Bond, I. Watching ants in school. Prim. Educ. 13 : 34, 36. Ja. '05. 

Collins, P. Terrifying masks and warning liveries. Sci. Am. S. 58 : 
24084. O. 22, '04. (Protective and warning colors of insects.) 

Smith, J. B. Mosquito investigation in New Jersey. Pop. Sci. Mo. 66 : 
281-6. Ja. '05. 

Stewart, W. R. Great industries of the United States. V. The manu- 
facture of silk. Cosm. 38 : 95-104. N. '04. 
Lower Vertebrates 

Smith, H. M. The giant fishes of the sea. St. Nich. 32 : 72-4. N. '04. 

Brunner, J. The love-making of the grouse. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 
342-7. F. '05. 

Chapman, F. M. A flamingo city. Century. 69:163-80. D. '04. 

Dutcher, W. The ostrich. Bird-Lore. 7 : 153-6- Mr.-Ap. '05. Results 
of special protection to water birds. Bird-Lore. 7:45-116. Ja.-F. '05. 

Forbush, E. H. Nesting boxes. Bird-Lore. 7 : 5-9. Ja.-F. '05. 

138 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 3, may 1905 

Franklin, R. B. Little Pete. St. Nich. 32: 120-1. D. '04. (True story 
of a carrier pigeon.) 

Ingersoll, E. The unfortunate birds of the night. Harper, no: 138-40. 
D. 04. 

Jones, Lynds. Winter habits of birds. Sch. Rev. 13 : 29-33. Ja. '05. 

Kornmann, E. and others. A series of lessons on the fall birds for 
primary grades. Sch. Work. 3 : 233-42. O. '04. 

Pearson, T. G. The cormorants of Great Lake. Bird-Lore. 7:121-6. 
Mr.-Ap. '05. 

Beckwith, M. H. Domestic animals. 3. Cow. Prim. Educ. 12 : 436-8. 
N. '04. 4. Sheep. 12:477-8. D. '04. 5. Goat. 13:9-12. Ja. '05. 6. 
Horse. 13:61-3. F. '05. 7. Donkey. 13:131-2. Mr. '05. 

Brunner, J. The devastating squirrel. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 264-7. 
Ja. '05. 

Hutchinson, Woods. What the dog is built to do. Open Court. 18 : 577- 
83. O. '04. 

Knowles, W. C. A white squirrel. St. Nich. 32 : 169-70. D. '04. 

Osborn, H. F. The evolution of the horse in America. Century. 69 : 
3-17. N. '04. 

Loring, J. A. How elk shed and renew their antlers. St. Nich. 32 : 
361-2. F. '05. 

Williams, C. E. A glimpse of beavers at work. McClure. 24:292-8. 
Ja. '05. 


Comstock, A. B. Leaves. Chaut. 40:173-4. O. '04. Seed distribution. 
40:271-3. N. '04. The evergreens. 40:366-9, 465-8. D. '04, Ja. '05. 
(Contains excellent keys.) Tree study in winter. 41:66-72. Mr. '05. 

Harwood, W. S. A wonder-worker of science. Century. 69:656-72. 
Mr. '05. (An interesting account of Luther Burbank's work.) 

Hayward, C. B. Bananas — their culture and transportation. Sci. Amer. 
92 : 7S-80. Ja. 28, '05. 

Howe, C. D. Study of trees in winter. Sch. Rev. 13 : 25-9. Ja. '05. 

Ingersoll, E. Plant life in the desert. Harper. 110:577-83. Mr. '05. 

Jones, 0. M. Lessons on fall flowers. Sch. Work. 3 : 308-14. O. '04. 

Jordan, D. S. Some experiments of Luther Burbank. Pop. Sci. Mo. 
66:201-225. Ja. '05. (New species of plants.) 

Mackenzie, M. The great pine family. Kind. Rev. 15 : 350-1. F. '05. 

McFarland, J. H. Christmas fruits — where they grow. C'try Life in 
Amer. 7:160-170. D. '04. (Colored plates.) 

Marshall, N. L. Evergreens. Prim. Educ. 12:486-7. D. '04. 

Rogers, J. E. How trees spend the winter. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 
396-8. F. '05. 


Sipe, S. B. Teaching elementary forestry. For. and Irr. n : 72-5. 
F. '05. (In Washington, D. C, Normal School.) 


Thomas, Giinther. German and American forestry methods. Forum. 
36: 458-66. Ja.-Mr. '05. 

Waugh, F. A. How to plant a tree. C'try Life in Amer. 7:281-2. 
Ja. '05. 

Zon, R. G. Forestry in Germany. Chant. 40:253-63. N. '04. 


Agricultural high schools. Ind. 58:334-6. F. 9, '05. 

Barry, H. The making of a hotbed. Garden Mag. 1 : 58-60. Mr. '05. 

Bennett, H. C. School gardens. Kind. Rev. 15:393-401. Mr. '05. The 
Teacher. 8 : 227-9. O. '04. 

Burkett, C. W. The vital facts of agriculture. Crops to grow and pre- 
paring the land. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 255-8. Ja. '05. Tillage tools. 7 : 
372-4. F. 05. 

Fletcher, S. W. Pruning the home orchard. Garden Mag. 1 : 64-67. 
Mr. '05. 

Fullerton, E. L. How to plan the vegetable garden. Garden Mag. 1 : 
F. '05. A victorious campaign against insects. 1 : 6S-71. Mr. '05. 

Greathouse, C. H. Winter plans for summer gardens — preparing the 
soil. Outing. 45:755-6- ^ r - "°5- 

Grosvenor, G. H. Inoculating the ground. A remarkable discovery in 
scientific agriculture. Century. 68 : 831-9. O. '04. (Nitrogen problem.) 

Hosford, G. W. Notes on transplanting. Hampton Leaflets, n. s. i, no. 
3. Mr. '05. Pp. 7. 

Jackman, W. S. Fall planting. Ele. Sch. Teacher. 5: 114-/- O. '04. 

Linn, A. Bulbs for the winter window garden. C'try Life in Amer. 6: 
582. O. 04. 

McAdam, T. Flowers for the autumn. C'try Life in Amer. 6 : 
N. '04. The gentle art of wild gardening. 7:470-3. Mr. '05. 

Marcosson, I. F. Harvesting the wheat. World's Work. 9 : 5459-/7- 
N. '04. (Modern methods in the West.) 

Mason, A. R. Gaining a whole month. Garden Mag. 1 : 74. Mr. '05. 
(Planting seeds.) 

M., W. The rock garden : Alpine and Iceland poppies. Garden Mag. 
1 : 75. Mr. '05. 

Mumford, H. W. Study of animal husbandry. Serial in School News. 
18. O. '04-Mr. '05. 

Poe, C. H. The Government and the new farmer. World's Work. 9 : 
5951-64. Mr. '05. The rich kingdom of cotton. 9:5488-98. N. '04 
(Plant, harvesting, manufacture.) 

Powell, E. P. Creative farming. Ind. 57 : 78^,-7. O. 6, '04. 

Spencer, J. H. Growing bulbs in sand and water. C'try Life in Amer. 
7 : 55-6. N. '04. 

Sweetser, W. S. Breeds, care and management of sheep. Hampton 
Leaflets, n. s. 1 : 3-13. F. '05. 

Wilson, J. A bird's-eye view of enormous work for agriculture. 
World's Work. 9 : 5566-7. D. '04. 

140 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 3. may 1905 


Walter, S. J. Simple experiments in physics : water. Hampton Nature 
Study Leaflets, no. 17. 1904- Pp. 7- ■ Heat. Hampton Leaflets, n. s. 1, 
no. 1. Ja. 05. Pp. 8. 


[This department will be devoted to the many little practical prob- 
lems which are of interest to teachers of nature-study ; and all readers 
are invited to use this column freely. Questions should be sent to 
the office of the managing editor. Some will be answered by members 
of the editorial board, while others must be referred to readers for 
answers in later issues. But in all cases the answers published are 
subject to discussion, correction, or addition by readers. We hope 
to have such supplementary answers within a month after the ap- 
pearance of the first answer.] 

Nature Study or nature-study. In reply to several questions re- 
gard the form " nature-study " which is used in this journal, except 
where in quotations the form " Nature Study " may occur, it should 
be said that it was adopted as the preferred form after consulting 
many authorities on similar compounds. The word nature-study is 
too young for the common dictionaries, but similar compounds, such 
as nature-worship and nature-print are in the leading dictionaries 
hyphenated. Aside from the authority of lexicographers, there is a 
special argument for the hyphenated form in that we now have 
reason to speak of biological and physical nature-study, and the 
hyphen makes it clear that the adjective modifies the combined words. 

With regard to the capital letters, the old custom of writing Nature, 
meaning the material universe, is rapidly passing; and especially in 
the case of nature-study as a school subject there is no more reason 
why capitals should be used than in the case of arithmetic, geography, 
chemistry, etc. 

Classification of Birds. In reply to a question referred to readers 
in No. 1 of this journal, it seems to be the general opinion of the 
best teachers that the scientific classification of ornithologists has no 
proper place in elementary schools. Instead it is better to group 
birds as scratchers, swimmers, waders, birds of prey, climbers, 
perchers, naming the groups according to the most obvious adapta- 
tions in external structure. This classification from the old natural 
history does not agree with the modern system which takes account 
of the comparative structure of internal organs, but for nature-study 
purposes the old grouping is certainly best because it is based on 
what pupils can actually see and understand. 




Vol. I JULY, 1905 No. 4 



Assistant Secretary, United States Department of Agriculture 

111 preparing pupils for the study of science and industry, three 
main objects are to be attained : the pupil must be thoroughly and 
permanently interested ; he must be led into the scientific method 
of approach ; and, finally, he must be given the facts and trained 
in the practices incident to the profession or the industry. 

The logical manner of taking up these objects might seem to 
be with method proceeding from the first to the last ; but the 
individuality of the pupil is the most important thing to recognize 
and to develop. The methods and the acquisition of a body of 
thought and of skill in doing things must center in the individual, 
and liberty to use the means without too strict adherence to 
sequence must be accorded, that advantage may be taken of inter- 
est and of means as they present themselves. 

It may be wisest, as a general method of handling classes, to 
place nature-study during the first several years of the school, 
but this should not preclude the use of every available industrial 
fact and method of work which can be made to contribute. The 
country boy or girl, for instance, is constantly concerned with 
that which interests and that which develops the ability to under- 
stand and work in the farm and home industries about him. The 
chores in the morning and evening hours, the vacation duties on 
Saturday and during longer vacation periods should be utilized 
~by the cooperative direction of teacher and parent. Every pass- 
ing thing of interest should be seized upon to arouse and instruct 
the pupils of all grades. There are many things in the rural 

M- THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4. July 1905 

school which require that the whole school be a single class. That 
which is most lacking is often the scientific method of thought, 
and this really should be the first function of nature-study teach- 
ing. The pupil should be taught to follow from effect to cause 
and from cause to effect ; to classify objects ; to correlate activities 
and ideas; to observe in detail, and also to view the general rela- 
tion of things. As the personality of the teacher is the most 
important element in the schoolroom, so the development of indi- 
viduality in the pupil is the most important element of school- 
work. The objects, the activities, and the personal contact with 
the teacher which comes from nature-study, often prevent the 
narrowing effect in methods of thought of mere book teaching 
and avoids suppressing individual initiative. Nature-study may 
not result in such apparent accumulation of facts as mere book 
work does ; its greatest function is to prepare the pupil to acquire 
facts in after life as they are needed. 

Agriculture in city schools should hardly be regarded as an 
industrial subject. It is there rather a culture subject. City 
pupils should know something general and in detail of the 
agriculture of their country, that they may better know of their 
country. There is no part of history so important as present his- 
tory ; and no man can claim to be educated who has not a broad 
knowledge of what the people of his own country are doing. 
The body of thought of farm and country life being put into peda- 
gogical form makes an excellent culture study for city high schools. 
Since economic conditions carry people from the country to the 
cities, with but a slight movement in the opposite direction, there 
is not much of an object in teaching agriculture in city high 
schools with the hope of thus inducing people to become farmers ; 
but this line of instruction can greatly aid in inducing a larger 
percentage of city folk to move on to suburban acre properties. 

The country boy or girl who has had, prior to the seventh 
grade, considerable nature-study taught in the proper way is 
better prepared to take up instruction in agriculture and home- 
economics. The body of thought being accumulated by agricul- 
tural experiment stations and other institutions of research is 
being put into splendid form for industrial teaching. Texts, labo- 
ratory methods, plans of actual practice work, are being rapidly 
devised for use in schools and all classes. Achievements already 
made along these lines lead to the hope that ere long we shall. 


have splendid texts for small rural schools, for consolidated rural 
schools, for agricultural schools, and for agricultural colleges. 
There seems no reason why the consolidated rural school in a 
district five miles square, the agricultural high school accommo- 
dating one county, or, better, several counties, and the agricul- 
tural college in each state, should not be articulated into a system 
for country life parallel to the system of city graded schools, city 
high schools and universities, which are already unified in the 
work of educating: for city life. Nature-study in the rural school 
and in the city graded school will prepare the minds of all pupils 
for scientific and industrial subjects. Because so many drop out 
before the high school, there is every excuse for making this 
nature-study somewhat industrial in its nature. The farms, city 
industries and the homes everywhere will receive benefit from 
nature-study properly taught, and some practical subject-matters 
relating to these industries can be worked into nature-study 
teaching quite as well as subject-matter not industrial in character. 
Systems of text-books and of laboratory practice will no doubt 
so classify instruction as to push the industrial work farther up 
in the course of study, but the resourceful teacher can use much 
out of the daily home experiences of the pupils to reinforce the 
course of study in the prescribed outline. 


Lecturer in Nature-Study, Cornell University 

The Cornell University nature-study movement is primarily an 
agricultural movement. It has had for its object from the first 
the presentation to the child of the more interesting phases of 
life on the farm, and the giving him some inkling of the ways 
of the plants and animals that creep up unnoticed to his very 
doorstone, with the hope that the interest thus aroused would 
later deter his feet from following the broad path that leads from 
the farm to the city. Some there be who have criticized the 
Cornell method and have said, " Why not teach agriculture pure 
and simple from the first?" To this query one might retort with 
quite as much reason, " Why not teach the child grammar before 
it learns to speak so that its first words may be lisped according 

144 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4, july 1905 

to the rules and science of the language?" Nature-study is the 
alphabet and the words of one syllable of agriculture, and that 
is why the child should begin with nature-study instead of 

Another argument has been presented, " Why not make your 
nature-study along the lines of agriculture solely ; for instance, 
why should not a child begin nature-study with the cabbage 
rather than the hepatica." This argument carried out logically 
would provide recreation for the boy in hoeing corn rather than 
in playing ball. Many parents in the past have argued thus, and 
have in consequence driven thousands of splendid boys from the 
country to the city with a loathing in their souls for the drudgery 
which seemed to be all there was of farm life. The reason the 
wild flowers have been selected to begin the nature-study of 
plants is because every child loves these woodland posies nat- 
urally, and his happiest hours are those spent gathering them. 
The very first principle of modern teaching demands that the 
child's intelligence shall be cultivated along the line of the child's 
interest. The child loves the hepatica, the jack-in- the-pulpit and 
the trillium, and is eager to know more about them ; and since 
the fundamental truths of plant life are quite as true in the case 
of the wild wood flower as in that of the carrot or the cucumber, 
why not let the child grow in his knowledge of plant life along 
his natural path instead of forcing him to knowledge along a 
channel obstructed by his indifference or dislike. Never yet 
have we known of a case where a child having gained his knowl- 
edge of the way a plant lives through studying the plants he loves, 
has failed to be interested and surprised and delighted to find that 
the wonderful things he discovered about his wild flower, may be 
true of the meanest vegetable in the garden, or the purslane which 
fights with them for ground to stand upon. 

For a like cogent reason gardening is begun with flowers in- 
stead of vegetables because the young child is more interested in 
flowers than in anything else that grows. But after the garden 
work is well begun and the principles of plant-growing are better 
understood, the interest widens to the vegetable garden naturally. 
Thus in every phase nature-study at its best begins at the point 
where the pupil's interest touches the outside world, and from 
this point widens naturally until it includes his whole environ- 


Both nature-study and agriculture are based upon the study 
of life and the physical conditions, like soil, water, air, etc., which 
encourage or limit life. If we see clearly the relation of nature- 
study to science we may perhaps better understand the relation 
of nature-study to agriculture, which is based upon the sciences. 
Nature-study leads to a knowledge of the sciences of botany, 
zoology and geology as illustrated in the door-yard, the corn 
field, or the woods back of the house. Some people have had an 
idea that to know these sciences one must 2:0 to college, and do 
not understand that nature has furnished them with material and 
laboratories on every side and close at hand. So by beginning 
with the child in nature-study we make for him a laboratory in 
the wood, the garden or along the roadside or in the field, and 
his laboratory materials are the wild flowers, or the weeds of the 
garden, or the insects that visit the golden-rod, or the bird that 
sings in the maple tree, or the woodchuck that sits up and whistles 
in the pasture. The child begins to study living things anywhere 
and his progress is always along the various tracks laid down by 
the laws of life, along which his work as an agriculturist must 
always make progress if he is to make it an intelligent and suc- 
cessful work. The child through nature-study learns the way 
the plant grows whether it be an oak, or a turnip, or a pigweed; 
he learns how the root of each is adapted to the needs of the 
plant ; and how the leaves place themselves to get the sunshine, 
and why they need it ; and how the flowers get their pollen carried 
by the bee or wind ; and how the seeds are finally scattered and 
planted. Or he learns about the life of a bird whether it be a 
chicken, an owl, or a bobolink ; he knows how each bird gets its 
food and what its food consists of : where it lives and where it 
nests, and its relations to other living things. Or he studies the 
bumble bee, and discovers its great mission of pollen carrying 
for many flowers, and in the end would no sooner strike it dead 
than he would voluntarily destroy his clover patch. While learn- 
ing all these things we call it nature-study, and not science or 
agriculture. But the country child can never learn anything in 
nature-study that has not something to do with science, and that 
has not its own practical lesson for him when he shall become 
a farmer. 

Some have said to us, " We, as farmers, care only to know 
what concerns our pocketbooks ; we wish only to study those 

146 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 4. July 1905 

things which we must, as farmers, cultivate or destroy. We do 
not care for the butterfly, but we wish to know about the plum- 
weevil ; we do not care for the trillium, but we do care for the 
onion ; we do not care for the meadow-lark, but we do care for 
the gosling." To say nothing of the sordidness of this view, it 
is a physical or mental impossibility for any one to discriminate 
between two things when he sees only one. In order to under- 
stand the important and economic relations to the world of one 
plant or animal, it is absolutely necessary to have a wide knowl- 
edge of other plants and animals. One might as well say to 
begin with, " I will look at the approaching cyclone, but never 
see the sky ; I will look at the clover but never see the dandelion ; 
I will look for the sheriff when he comes over the hill, but will 
not see any other team on the road." 

So in nature-study we strive to keep the child's eyes open to 
all things so that when he becomes a farmer he may be able to 
see all things and discriminate wisely. To one thus trained the 
farm is the most interesting place in the world, and the farmer 
has the best opportunity for continuing his education in connec- 
tion with his work of any man in any vocation. All of the scien- 
tists of the world have spent their lives solving problems which 
nature presents ; and as agriculture is based upon the sciences, 
and as nature is the impartial teacher, so she ever presents prob- 
lems to the farmer, and well is it for him when he is able to 
solve them successfully. Such an one feels that on the farm is 
a life work that demands all his intelligence, and the widest 
knowledge, and in exercising these he finds supreme satisfaction. 

Nature-study is the effort to make the individual use his senses 
instead of losing them ; to learn to keep the eyes open to all things 
whether it be the thunder-head piled up in the western sky or the 
flash of oriole gold from the elm ; to keep the ears open to the 
voices that call, whether it be the song of the cricket in the path, 
or the song of the hen on the sunny side of the barn. Eyes open, 
ears open and heart open are all that nature, the teacher, requires 
of her pupils, and in return she will reveal to them the marvels 
of life, the riches of the world, and the beauty of the universe. 

Nor is the appreciation of beauty in nature's realm the least 

. valuable factor in nature-study. While dollars and cents are 

necessary to success and must be looked after, yet the man or 

woman who looks for them alone is narrow and sordid, and lives 


in a prison of thick walls of selfishness, and looks ont on the 
world through a window darkened by the bars of avarice. The 
man who goes into the field in the morning with the conscious- 
ness of the sunshine, and the song of birds, and the growing 
green of the forests and meadows ; he who understands and is 
a good comrade of the cunning old crow grubbing in the corn 
field, or the meadow lark singing in the meadow ; the man who 
is conscious of all the life and beauty about him will do his 
work better, and know better how to protect his crops, and he 
will have a richer harvest than the one who sees the dollar mark 
on every leaf, and hears the chink of coin in every sound. 

Some years ago we received here a letter from a Canadian 
farmer boy, and in this letter he says, " I have read your leaflet 
entitled, ' The Soil, What It Is," and as I trudged up and down 
the furrows every stone, every lump of earth, every sandy knoll, 
every sod hollow had for me a new interest. The day passed, 
the work was done, and I at least had had a rich experience." 
Who would doubt that such a man having such thoughts would 
plow a straighter furrow that he who sees only the earth he turns 
and the horses which he perchance swears at as he goes on his 
dull routine blinder than the mole whose wonderful galleried 
house his plow disturbs. 

The ideal farmer is not the man who by chance and hazard 
succeeds ; but he is the man who loves his farm and all that sur- 
rounds it because he is awake to the beauty as well as to the 
wonders which are there ; he is the man who understands as far 
as may be the great forces of nature which are at work around 
him, and, therefore, he is able to make them work for him. 
For what is agriculture save a diversion of natural forces for the 
benefit of man ? The farmer who knows these forces only when re- 
stricted to his paltry crops and has no idea of their larger applica- 
tion, is no more efficient as a farmer than would be an engineer 
who knew nothing of his engine except how to start and stop it. 
In order to appreciate truly his farm the farmer must needs begin 
as a child with nature-study ; in order to be successful and make 
the farm pay he must needs continue in nature-study ; and to 
make his declining years happy and content and full of wide 
sympathies and profitable thought he must needs conclude with 
nature-study ; for nature-stud)- is the alphabet of agriculture, and 
no word in that great vocation may be spelled without it. [From 
The Conic!/ Countryman.] 

148 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1. 4. julv 1905 


Professor of Botany, North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 

Agriculture, dealing with plants and animals, is of all the arts 
most often confounded with nature-study. When agriculture is 
abstracted to teachable principles it becomes a science, and the 
science of agriculture may be differentiated from nature-study by 
the criteria cited in the first number of this journal. The art of 
agriculture furnishes numerous and valuable illustrations for na- 
ture-study work, but as an art it cannot be nature-study. The art 
of agriculture and nature-study may overlap so that part of 
nature-study may rest entirely upon agriculture. Indeed agri- 
culture is so vast that enough subject-matter may be drawn from 
it to constitute an entire course of nature-study. Then this 
course would be agricultural nature-study. It would be the 
method of nature-study applied to the teaching of agriculture, but 
that would not make nature-study and agriculture identical any 
more than a selection of the subject-matter for nature-study solely 
from the field of mineralogy would make mining and nature-study 
identical. Nature-study is broad, inclusive, comprehensive. It 
is an invaluable aid in the teaching of agriculture. It opens the 
way to agriculture in the schools by awakening interest and quick- 
ening observation, and creating a love for all out-doors, but it is 
not agriculture. 


Superintendent of Education for Nova Scotia 

[Editorial Note. — The article in No. 1 of this journal on " Nature- 
Study and Agriculture in Canada " indicated great interest in nature-study 
lines at the present time. But the new movement centered at Macdonald 
Institute is not the beginning of nature-study in Canada, as the following 
historical account shows. It is certainly interesting to learn that eighteen 
years ago a Canadian journal was started with the object of giving special 
attention to the work which we now call nature-study. The publication of 
this paper, written several months ago, has been delayed; and meanwhile 
essentially the same paper has been published in the Ottawa Naturalist. 


However, it still deserves a place in this journal, where it will be read by 
many, especially in the United States, who do not see the Naturalist.] 

A systematic course of oral and objective study was outlined 
in the first conspectus of a course for the schools of the province, 
which was presented to the Provincial Educational Association 
at Truro on the 14th day of July, 1880, by the Principal at that 
time of the public schools and the Historical Academy of Pictou. 
This was done on the invitation of Dr. David Allison, then Super- 
intendent of Education for the province. After due discussion 
the conspectus was referred to a committee for amplification and 
presentation at the convention held next year, where it was 
further discussed and passed practically in the form in which it 
was soon after prescribed by the Council of Public Instruction 
for the first eight grades of the public school system, known as 
the common school grades. 

In 1887 The Educational Review, which has ever since been 
continuously published at Saint John, N. B., was started with the 
object of developing the nature-study side of the course, as well 
as serving incidentally as a teachers' organ for the Atlantic Prov- 
inces of Canada. Illustrated lessons on natural objects were pre- 
pared, the most continuous being the series under the title " Fern- 
dale School." The whole environment of common-school life 
was more or less covered, instruction for teachers on various 
subjects including even the evening sky which was illustrated 
by a series of star maps. The Ferndale series dealt with the 
biological side mainly ; but other papers covered mineralogy, 
physical phenomena of common range, and so forth, before any 
similar effort appears to have been made in any other province 
of Canada. 

A little later, 1 901, a science building was erected in connection 
with the Provincial Normal School, and the Provincial School of 
Agriculture, founded by the Government a few years earlier, was 
then more completed affiliated with it. An extra course of two 
years in the sciences underlying the art of agriculture was given 
to teachers who could take this extra time, for which a special 
diploma and scholarship were awarded, and an additional provin- 
cial grant of $100 given when engaged in teaching in an efficient 
rural school. This idea was carried out in a fuller manner by Dr. 
Jas. \V. Robertson, director of the Sir William C. Macdonald 
Rural School Fund, when $175,000 was appropriated to build the 

150 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 4, July 1905 

Macdonald Institute at Guelph in Ontario, and to provide additional 
funds for nature-study teachers and school-garden demonstrations 
[see this journal, No. 1, pp. 20-22]. 

For about twenty-four years the nature-study idea has been 
in the public course of study, developing gradually from mor- 
phological to biological observation — from the observation of 
forms to the observation of action. For a number of years rec- 
ords have been made in the public schools of the biological and 
meteorological facts capable of being accurately observed by 
pupils and verified by teachers, such as the dates of first flower- 
ing, leafing and fruiting of plants ; the migration of birds ; thun- 
derstorms, frosts, high and low water, etc. These have proved 
so valuable as scientific records that for some years they have been 
annually compiled into averages for the different regions of the 
province as well as for the whole province. The schedules have 
to some extent been utilized in the other provinces of Canada, 
and a similar system has been introduced in imitation of it into 
some of the schools of Denmark. The main object of the scheme 
originally was to give some objective work to the pupils on their 
way to and from school, to be reported to the teacher in school. 
These schedules are being carefully bound up into annual volumes, 
for the benefit of future students of climatic and ecological condi- 
tions of the province. 

In the provincial course of study special directions are given 
for each of the eight grades of the common schools. The general 
directions published in each school register gives in brief form 
the general character of the special directions published annually 
in the Journal of Education, which is the official bulletin of the 
Education Department sent free twice a year, in April and 
October, to each school-board in the province. These general 
directions, which indicate the view taken by the Nova Scotian 
Education Department of the character and importance of this 
elementary work in the public schools, are as follows : 

Official Directions for Nature-Study in Nova Scotia 
"Nature Study — The noting, examination and study of the 
common and more important natural objects and laws of nature 
as they are exemplified within the range of the school section or 
of the pupils' observation. Under this head pupils should not be 
required to memorize notes or facts which they have not. at least 


to some extent, actually observed or verified for themselves. 
Many books on the list recommended for school libraries (see 
October Journal of Ed., 1903) are useful guides to the teacher for 
portions of the work prescribed in some of the grades. There 
should be a short " Nature Lesson " given every day on the 
daily collections and observations of the pupils themselves — not 
on the statements of teachers or books — the lesson always being 
based on the objects or observations. These guide books are to 
be used only to show the teacher how to give such lessons. They 
are entirely prohibited as text-books for either pupil or teacher, 
for under no circumstances should " notes " from the books be 
given to pupils. All such studies must be from the objects. Ob- 
servations under this head form some of the best subjects for 
English composition or drawing exercises in all grades.' 

" In schools with pupils of several grades under one teacher 
(as in most rural schools) many of these lessons may profitably 
ensraee the whole school. In nearlv all, either the whole senior 
or whole junior divisions of the school can take part. A skilful 
teacher can thus give profitable object lessons to several grades of 
scholars at once; at one time giving a Grade Y lesson, at another 
time a Grade VI or Grade VII or Grade YIII lesson, which 
will also contain enough for the observation and interest of Grade 
I, Grade II, Grade III, and Grade IV pupils. An object lesson 
given to the highest class can thus to a certain extent be made 
a good lesson for all the lower classes. The older pupils will see 
more and think more. 

" It must be remembered that the memorizing of notes and 
facts merely stated to pupils is strictly forbidden under this head. 
Such memorizing is pure cram, injurious instead of being useful. 
The teacher may not have time to take up in class every object 
indicated in the Nature Lessons of the course. In such cases 
the pupils should be given two or three objects nearly related to 
the typical specimen examined in school with directions to search 
for and examine them at home as illustrated in the specimen class 
lesson. "Without much expenditure of time the teacher can note 
that this work has been honestly attempted to be done by each 
pupil. The lessons must be direct from nature itself, but under 
the guidance of the teacher who can save time in bringing the 
pupils to the point desired by his more mature experience. They 
are intended to train the observing and inductive faculties, to 

152 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 4, july 1905 

show the true way of discovering something of the nature of the 
world which immediately surrounds us and which is and will 
continue to be reacting upon us in one manner or another. This 
knowledge is so much power over nature, from which we have to 
win our material existence. It is also essential as an element 
in any true and useful system of philosophv. 

" More stress has been laid here on the natural history of 
each section than on elementary physics and chemistry. Not be- 
cause physical phenomena are less important, but because the ele- 
ments of these sciences are the same all the world over, and there 
is no end to the cheap and well illustrated guides to practical work 
in them which will well suit a section in Nova Scotia as well 
as one in England or in the United States. But there are no such 
simple guides to the biology of each section, and many of its 
other scientific characters. The teacher must become a student 
and master them himself ; for such exercises have special power in 
developing the habit of accurate observation (which is the sound- 
est basis for any career ranging from that of the poet and pro- 
fessional man to the tiller and lord of the soil, the tradesman, the 
manufacturer, the inventor ) and in developing in connection with 
history and civics an intelligent attachment to both the material 
and ideal features of our country." 


Notes from a paper by J. Dearness, of the Normal School, London, Ontario 

A pamphlet on bees recently circulated among nature-study 
teachers in Canada has been criticised because of a number of in- 
accurate statements. This has led to the question, " Suppose it is 
wrong, what harm will it do?" Professor Dearness comments 
as follows (in Farmers' Advocate, Jan., '05) : 

''' I should say that in those schools where nature-study is supposed 
to be information about bees and other natural objects, to be learned 
by the pupil as so much history, the part that is wrong will do very 
little harm, and the part that is right will clo very little good. In 
ten years, unless learned again in real life, most of it will be for- 
gotten, and the rest will be too vague for practical use. 

' Take, for example, what is called ' a very wild statement,' that 
when the honey reaches the hive ninety per cent, of it is water. 

dearness] FACTS IN NATURE-STUDY 153 

Think of a lot of public-school children at their nature-study lesson 
— a lesson that is supposed to train their powers to observe and to 
reason about what they observe. What good or what harm will 
come from their learning, as book statements, that the bee ' laps up 
the nectar.' and carries a ' load twice its own weight,' nine-tenths of 
which is water. If these are facts, but facts which cannot be 
learned by the children's own investigation, then they are not suited 
to the nature-study lesson. If they can be discovered in a reasonable 
time by self-active investigation, then the training thus derived vastly 
outweighs the facts reached. Had the " Story of the Bees " shown the 
teacher and pupils how to discover these facts with the means at 
hand in a public school, it might have legitimately been labelled 
' nature-study.' The proper point of view is the effect that the 
lesson has, not in diminishing the mountain of scientific knowledge 
lying outside of the child's memory, but the effect it has upon the 
development of the child's power to observe, to reason about what he 
observes, and to sympathize with the sentient world around him. 

' The hive-bee may be made a capital nature-study lesson in a 
school where an observatory hive, suited to receive one Langstroth 
frame, is set against a slightly-opened window, guarded at the side so 
that a bee cannot escape into the schoolroom. Such a hive may 
be made or bought ready-made from some dealer. Instead of a 
story of the bees, even the most faultless one, what the nature-study 
teacher needs is explicit direction how to make or where to obtain 
such a hive, how to set it up and ventilate it, how to manage the 
light, etc., and a series of questions that will guide himself first, and 
then his pupils in their observations, the answers to be sought, not 
from a book, but from the bees themselves. The bees will tell no 

" As a nature-study teacher, of nothing else do I feel more certain 
than that the harmonious development of the child in heart, as well 
as head and hand, either for the future farmer or town-dweller, is 
vastly more important than all the collections and knowledge of 
weeds and insects that he can possibly get at the public school. In 
other words, that the how these facts of nature are learned is far 
more important than the what. If my position is wrong, I hope 
some one will show the reason why." 

154 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4. July 1905 



Superintendent of Schools, Raton, New Mexico 

In the multiplicity of books, charts and devices for instruction in 
nature, we are losing sight of nature-study, and are diverting the 
time and purpose, so intended, to reading and talking about nature- 
study, thus defeating the end which it, above all else, was intended 
to subserve. 

Nature-study came to us as the maid of honor, or at least the 
devoted companion, of the laboratory method, which has so en- 
trenched itself in the sciences of the secondary schools and col- 
leges. And while the latter has taken extreme ground, nature- 
study has become perfunctory, or worse, it has encased itself in 
a shower of devices and books. The teacher goes before her 
classes with these, and reads or talks to them about the subject, 
always with much joy to them, and sometimes with more or less 
interest to herself ; in scarcely an exceptional case, though, does 
she grasp the very value it was, and is, intended to bestow. This 
failure is not the fault of the teacher, but the error of those who 
have felt called to write and publish books on this subject of grow- 
ing popularity. 

Well, to the remedy : Wash off the slate and begin over. Put 
aside your devices, your nature-story books, and adopt the labora- 
tory method and the field practice. 

If you can control your pupils when out of the room, take 
them to the school-yard, the mountain side or the forests, and 
there see and study nature as she is. But do not look for good re- 
sults from your pupils romping among or running over nature. 
Romping and running are of inestimable value to children, but 
cannot fill the place of teaching. The youthful, growing and 
grasping mind must be first directed to the little points of interest, 
and therefore, after the turbulent vitality has somewhat subsided, 
after a season of romping and play, call attention to the charac- 
teristics of trees, weeds, rocks, animals, birds and insects. Not 
all at one time, nor at one outing. One specimen may be quite 
enough for each child on a single excursion, and better, as a rule, 
if all study the same specimen at the same time. 

This, however, is merely suggestive. You will probably get 


better results if you transform your schoolroom, for the time 
being, into a laboratory. 

Bring in, if possible, enough individuals of any one specimen 
to supply each member of the class with an object for examination. 
For example, let us take a cottonwood leaf. What is its shape : 
What the condition of its surfaces — upper and lower? What 
the character of its margin ? Examine its veining. Lead the child 
to discover these characteristics and others, and report them to 
you. Xext day examine a maple leaf in the same way. If in two 
sittings you exhaust the study of the two specimens, bring both 
for the third day, or when you have finished study of each, with 
the two specimens before you and your pupils, have them study 
likenesses and differences. Have members of the class point out 
features in common, and points of difference. This practice of 
comparing and contrasting, I believe to be of more value to the de- 
velopment of the child mind than the first study of the speci- 
mens. In fact, the former is but the preparation for the latter. 
By it he learns to distinguish and discriminate, and from it he 
must draw conclusions. Most of you, no doubt, have met people 
who have seen or have found petrified potatoes, petrified corn- 
cobs, etc., which, when investigated scientifically, had no resem- 
blance whatever to the potato or corn-cob, except in contour. 
What was the trouble with the finder's observation? He — and he 
is the nine hundred and ninety-nine out of one thousand — has 
never had his powers of discrimination developed. The man or 
the woman who is without this power of discriminating, either 
from the want of the faculty, or the lack of its development, is 
incapable of rendering a judgment; and conversely, the more 
highly it has been developed, the sounder are the judgments 

These studies, investigations and mental excursions for knowl- 
edge, to be of the greatest value to the child, must employ all 
the human organs of knowledge-getting — seeing, hearing, feeling, 
tasting, smelling. In fact, nature-study easily affords all neces- 
sary sense training. 

It were belittling nature-study, however, to abandon her when 
one has beheld her beauty, observed her parts, torn the object of 
observation — perchance of admiration — asunder, named and fixed 
the relation of organs, or even determined the occasion of their 
existence, function or destiny. As an educational scheme, no 

156 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 4. july 1905 

greater element has yet been named in this paper than that of 
giving expression to the knowledge attained, or the conclusion 

The teaching of English composition is the bug-bear of the 
pedagogue. Make the failure of nature-study as appalling as 
you may, and it still stands only a close second to the failure in 
elementary and intermediate English. 

The remedy that I have to offer is to begin, pursue and finish 
the drill in composition, by telling orally or in writing, the observa- 
tions we have made for ourselves, instead of reproducing what 
we have read or have been told. Let us use our five or six 
senses for the acquirement of knowledge (as I have indicated 
for nature-study), and after it has been acquired, communicate 
it to others. As we advance in the grades, pupils should be led 
to draw conclusions and form judgments from knowledge ac- 
quired through observation of nature, these conclusions and judg- 
ments to be formulated into compositions. 

The nature-study, the field work, the laboratory, the experi- 
ences of life, the rubbing against men and things, should be made 
the source of knowledge and the source of data from which ideas 
are drawn. I do not mean to say that reading as a source of 
knowledge should be tabooed, but it should be left largely until 
the child has acquired the habit of informing himself through his 
God-given organs for that purpose — the sense organs. 

I am deeply under the conviction that until we revise our 
methods of composition, instruction and training, we shall con- 
tinue to dwarf the intellectuality of the generations, and I believe 
that the procedure which I have herein endeavored briefly to out- 
line, if followed, will add no small increment to the intellectual 
capacity of the manhood and womanhood of the future. [From 
Colorado School Journal.] 


Professor of Biology in Lafayette College 

The interesting and valuable results furnished by the use of 
silk-worms in nature-study work encourages me to report some of 
the information gained for the benefit of those interested in this 

davisox] THE SILK-WORM 157 

phase of education. The slight cost and trouble involved in 
securing and caring for an abundance of material make it avail- 
able for schools of all classes. Eggs may be purchased at the 
rate of twenty-five cents per hundred of T. Keleher, 662 Massa- 
chusetts Avenue, X. E., Washington, D. C. ; Dr. W. H. Hill. 
Peoria, 111. ; and Mrs. Carrie Williams, 1245 Logan Avenue, San 
Diego, Cal. Two hundred eggs are sufficient for twenty pupils. 
As the worms feed only on the leaves of the red, white and black 
mulberry trees and the osage orange, two or three of these trees 
should be planted on the school-ground if none occurs in the 
locality. The white mulberry is most desirable. 

The eggs should be secured a fortnight or more before the mul- 
berry leaves appear and stored in a moth-proof box or glass 
jar in a cool dry cellar or other room where the temperature is 
not above sixty degrees Fahrenheit. When the first minute leaves 
appear on the food trees, the eggs placed in a box about a foot 
square must be kept under daily observation in the schoolroom 
or living room where the temperature is from sixty-five to seventy- 
five degrees. As soon as the hairy black larvae, less than a 
quarter-inch long, break from the eggs, a dozen tender leaves 
smaller than the human finger-nail should be given them five 
times daily at intervals of about three hours. If small leaves are 
not obtainable, larger ones may be cut into strips less than one- 
eighth inch wide. Leaves with dew or water on them ought not 
to be used. The rate at which the worms grow depends upon 
the temperature and the number of times they are fed daily. 
Those furnished leaves only twice daily and kept cool will not 
reach full size in less than forty days, while a warm room and 
five or six daily feeds will mature the worms in from three to 
four weeks. They may be fed to advantage as early as six 
o'clock in the morning and as late as ten o'clock at night. 

When a week or ten days old, ten worms should be given to 
each pupil providing a box four or five inches square. Covers 
need not be used, as the worms make no attempt to escape. 
During the first few days they merely suck the juices from the 
leaves, but later bite off and swallow particles of leaf-tissue. 
When they are two weeks old, full-sized leaves uncut may be 
fed, and these can be gathered once daily and kept fresh by 
placing in a bucket covered with a wet cloth. 

Some of the features to be observed in the growing worms are 

158 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 4. julv 1905 

the molting process, manner of taking food and amount consumed 
and the external appearance at different ages. During the fourth 
week the amount of food taken may be quite accurately reckoned 
by cutting the leaves into pieces an inch square and keeping a 
record of the number of squares eaten. Other data furnished by 
the United States Department of Agriculture will enable the 
pupils to work out the number of leaves required to make a silk 
dress. Two dozen worms will consume about one pound of leaves 
during the five days succeeding the last molt. Interesting results 
may be obtained by rearing some worms in a cool room and with 
a limited amount of food. Care should be exercised that accurate 
records of observations are made by the pupils daily. 

Eiq-ht or nine davs after the last molt, when the larvae become 
restless and wander about the box, two or three small bushy 
twigs should be supplied to afford fastenings for the cocoons, as 
those spun along the sides of the box are sometimes imperfect. 
In from fifteen to twenty days after the formation of the cocoon, 
the adult moth comes forth if the temperature has been about 
seventv degrees. Cold lengthens the period greatly. One 
cocoon should be cut open the third day after the spinning was 
begun ; another, on the fifth ; and another, on the thirteenth day, 
so that the changes in the inmate may be studied. These indi- 
viduals, even when removed from the cocoons, will in some cases 
give rise to moths. 

Within a few hours after the moths emerge, the female will 
begin to deposit its batch of five or six hundred eggs, which of 
course will not be fertile unless union with a male has occurred 
previously. It is therefore important that a male moth, easily 
recognized by its smaller abdomen, should be placed near a female 
within a few hours after breaking from the cocoon if the eggs 
are to be used the following year. Fertile eggs will become 
grayish a few davs after being laid, while others remain white. 
The moths take no food and die within a week or two after birth, 
but the eggs may be preserved for hatching the following spring 
by keeping them in a vermin-proof box placed in a cool dry cellar 
or other room having a temperature not above sixty degrees and 
not below the freezing point. A temperature as high as seventy 
degrees before Christmas will do no harm. 

A few days before the moth issues the fiber forming the cocoon 
may be uncoiled on a spool or pencil by removing the loose outer 


silk and soaking' the cocoon a few minutes in hot water, per- 
mitting- the thread to be loosened with a pin. 

Any one expecting to rear the silk insect should request the 
I nited States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, to 
send him Farmers' Bulletin Xo. 165, by H. A. Kelly. It is free. 

The value of the silk-worm for nature-study work cannot be 
overestimated. The pupils may be taught so effectively the im- 
portant lesson of how life responds to the patience and care 
bestowed upon it. They may witness the transformation of vege- 
table material into animal tissue and be brought into intimate 
association with the indirect process by which mother earth is 
transmuted into the most beautiful of fabrics. A contact point 
is secured for giving a lesson teaching the miserable condition of 
the lower classes in Italy, China and Japan where silk-worm 
raising can be carried on commercially because of the starvation 
wages accepted by the peasants. The interesting history of the 
origin and spread of the silk industry may give the child a yearn- 
ing to know more of oriental life. The four stages in the devel- 
opment of the insect are the same as those occurring in about 
half the species of the animal kingdom and the remarkably quick 
changes in the external features of the animal prevent the pupil 
from losing interest in his study. Moreover abundant oppor- 
tunity is afforded for cultivating the powers of observation and 
expression in sketching and describing the numerous phases of 


Review of an article by John Burroughs 

Attempts at explaining the uses and meaning of natural objects 
and processes are much more common in nature-study teaching 
than in elementary science of high schools and colleges, and it is 
common to find teachers and pupils in search of a use for every- 
thing. Perhaps no phase of nature has been the subject of so 
much attempted explanation as has color, particularly that of 
animals and of plants in relation to animals. Accepting almost 
unreservedly the Darwinian hypothesis that colors of many ani- 
mals play an important part in the life-and-death struggle, we 
have grown accustomed to finding some correspondence between 
the color of an animal and that of its environment. We have 

l6o THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4, july 1905 

found animals closely resembling their immediate environment 
in color and thereby more or less concealed from our human eyes ; 
and we have concluded that the purpose of the color harmony is 
protection from enemies. Other animals, carnivorous ones, seem 
to be hidden from approaching prey. Still others display colors 
contrasting strongly with the environment and the conspicuous- 
ness has been taken to mean warning colors or danger signals 
associated with qualities unpleasant to enemies. And more inter- 
esting than all these, similarity between two animals (c. g., two 
butterflies) has been given the interpretation that one is protected 
from enemies by its warning colors backed up by disagreeable 
qualities which enemies have learned to avoid, and the other is a 
helpless impostor who by virtue of his resemblance lives on the 
notoriety of the one whose conspicuous colors are danger signals. 
Thus the Darwinian suggestions have given us most interesting 
interpretations, and we have felt confident that we had the reasons 
why most animals are colored as they are. 

And now come the doubting critics and serious questions are 
raised. For many years biological literature has contained doubts 
concerning the wide application of the theories of color interpre- 
tation as advocated by Darwin and Wallace. Observations in 
nature have in many cases failed to prove that the life of animals 
alwavs depends upon colors as the theory demands. Because a 
harmonious blending of colors is practically concealment from our 
human eyes does not prove anything so far as animals are con- 
cerned. We must know from critical study just how far color 
relations mean anything in connection with habits of animals ; and 
many biologists have doubted the all-sufficiency of the explana- 
tion offered by the color theories, because in very many cases 
color and habits of life of certain animals are antagonistic so far 
as the protective theory is concerned. 

In a popular article, " Gay Plumes and Dull," in Atlantic 
Monthly for June, 1905, John Burroughs expresses his own doubts 
concerning the wide application of the color theories, and many 
of his views are quite in line with criticisms pointed out by biolo- 
gists within recent years. 

First, Mr. Burroughs points out that " nature plays fast and 
loose " with colors. One animal has concealing colors and 
another similar one, often of the same family and even the oppo- 
site sex, is conspicuous by its brilliance. ' If dull colors are pro- 


tective, then bright colors are non-protective or dangerous, and 
one wonders why all birds of gay feather have not been cut off 
and the species exterminated." 

Second, neutral concealing tints are protective from the point 
of view of the human eye, but many of the most destructive pre- 
daceous animals depend upon scent to locate their prey. Birds 
of prey are not fooled by color disguises. White rabbits are con- 
cealed on snow and gray ones are conspicuous, but where is the 
advantage since their natural enemies — foxes, minks, weasels, 
owls — hunt at night ? There are numerous similar facts which 
make us feel decidedly uncertain concerning this phase of the 
color theory. 

Aggressive coloration (concealment from prey) is also capri- 
cious. ' Why should the owl, which hunts by night, be colored 
like a hawk which hunts by day?" "The lion is desert colored 
too. Is this for concealment from its prey? But it is said that 
horses and oxen scent the lion long before they can see him, 
as doubtless do the wild creatures of the desert upon which he 
feeds. Their scent would surely be keener than that of our 
domesticated animals, and to capture them he must run them 
down or ambush them where the wind favors him." 

Warning colors or danger signals are likewise variable. The 
skunk's contrast of black and white is said to be of warning 
value ; but why does the porcupine, who is able to compete with 
the skunk in making life disagreeable for his attacking enemies, 
not have warning colors also? 

Concerning concealment of nesting birds and their nests, Mr. 
Burroughs thinks that this is not for the sake of the mother 
birds, but for the sake of the eggs or helpless unfledged young. 
The obscure color of the female tanager, cardinal and similar 
birds plays no part in protecting her from crows, weasels, hawks, 
etc., which explore trees looking for young birds. The enemies 
of the ground builders hunt at close range and capture, not the 
nesting female, but the eggs and young. 

Materials for nests are not chosen for protective colors, as we 
have fancied. Anyhow, could marauding crows, jays or squirrels 
be deceived by nests which to our eyes seem to be protectively 
colored ? 

The brilliant colors of many males are, according to Darwin's 
theorv of sexual selection, to be attributed to the selection bv the 

1 62 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4. july 1905 

females. But here also numerous observed facts have Ions: 
caused many biologists to doubt ; and Mr. Burroughs thinks that 
" it is incredible that the taste of females in fashions, their pref- 
erence for the gay and the ornate, should have played any con- 
siderable part in superinducing these things." 

Thus far in his line of questioning the general applicability of 
the color theories Mr. Burroughs is in line with suggestions by 
various students of evolution. That colors may play some part 
in the struggle for existence is still generally accepted by biol- 
ogists, but there are few who do not recognize the difficulties in 
explaining such facts as Mr. Burroughs cites. The question now 
is, How far are the color theories applicable ? More than ever 
before we need to study animals in nature as well as in the labo- 

But if the remarkable color resemblances which we see around 
us do not mean adaptation which is valuable in the struggle for 
existence, what is the explanation ? This is the question which 
Mr. Burroughs faces. He is " more disposed to regard them as 
the result of the same law or tendency that makes nature in 
general adaptive and harmonious ; the outcome of the blendings, 
the adjustments, the unifying processes, or tendencies, that are 
seen and felt all about us." This is interesting, but really only 
another way of stating the observed facts which originally sug- 
gested to men of science the color theories as an attempt to give 
the reason why there are blendings and adjustments in nature. A 
" tendency to oneness " is not the answer wanted. If the color 
theories do not explain a particular case of animal color, then at 
present we might as well confess that we do not know. This 
we have long done in the case of the gorgeous hidden colors of 
molluscan shells and the details of color patterns of insects and 

Xature-study teachers will certainly do well to continue calling 
attention to the colors of animals as related to their surroundings, 
and suggest investigation concerning the effectiveness of the 
color ; but as a general principle it does not seem wise to state 
that harmonious blending means protection and contrasts are 
danger signals. At least we must be somewhat cautious until our 
information is less open to question. 

With colors as with so many other things touched in nature- 
study of schools it seems best to keep close to observed facts 


and not worry much about why and what for things are as we 
see them. Thus we will avoid the perplexing situation caused 
by the boy who added a climax to the lesson on the use of black- 
berry prickles by remarking that pigweeds got along and flour- 
ished without prickles as protection from grazing animals. 

M. A. B. 


Facts Discovered by Children. I was astonished to read the fol- 
lowing sentence quoted with approval in The Review, p. 132: 
** To-day it is almost beyond the bounds of human possibility that a 
child should discover an unknown fact in the sciences, and the 
thought that he can do so will either engender in him an arrogant 
self-conceit, or it will entail a cruel awakening which may convince 
him that all effort on his part is useless." 

So far is this from being true, that in some subjects, at least, it 
would be quite impossible for him to avoid discovering new facts. 
Take, for example, the relations between insects and flowers. In 
this country comparatively little work has been done in this branch 
of study, and it is safe to say that there are several hundred species 
of plants at present blooming in the vicinity of New York, the insect- 
visitors of which have never been observed. Even in the case of 
those which have been studied, almost none have been observed in 
that locality, and without doubt new observations there would yield 
new facts of interest. It may be true that the children have no time, 
as a general thing, to make such observations ; it may be true that 
few of the teachers are competent to direct them therein; but it cer- 
tainly is not true that the facts themselves are out-of-reach or diffi- 
cult to observe. Of course it would be necessary to send the insects 
to specialists to get them named ; but Hermann Midler, the author 
of the greatest work on the fertilization of flowers, had to do this 
very thing. 

So again, there are at this moment flying in and about New York 
hundreds of species of bees and wasps, and the nesting of the great 
majority is unknown. With the work of the Peckhams as a guide, 
there is no reason why any intelligent person, young or old, should 
not discover numerous new facts. It takes time, and it needs 
patience ; and it is necessary to have the cooperation of some one 
who really understands the subject; but the door is wide open for 
those who care to enter. 

1 The announcement of this department was published in No. I, January, 

164 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4, july 1905 

It is of course true that not very many children have the zeal and 
perseverance to accomplish a good piece of research ; not many, for 
instance, will sit for an hour in the hot sun watching a wasp pro- 
vision its nest. Yet I am inclined to think that under favorable 
circumstances, and with suitable direction, the number of children 
who would and could make careful observations is greater than the 
number of adults. In such subjects as I have mentioned, where broad 
results must be based on exceedingly numerous observations of a 
comparatively simple character, I do not see why a considerable 
portion of the necessary facts might not be gathered by children of 
high-school age, and even younger, acting always in a cooperative 
manner and under direction. 

I may add that as a matter of facts I have learned much from 
specimens and information supplied by the young people I have had 
to do with, as is duly recorded in my various published papers. 

t. d. a. cockerell. 

University of Colorado. 


Experiments with Plants. By W. J. V. Osterhout. New York, 
Macmillan. 1905. Pp. 493, figs. 250. 

Professor Osterhout's book, ' Experiments With Plants," 
begins with two excellent chapters giving directions for experi- 
ments on the germination of seeds. Then there follow chapters 
on the work of roots, of leaves, of stems, of flowers and of fruits. 
A general chapter on the influence of environment upon the 
growth of plants ; one on fungi, particularly bacteria, molds, rusts 
and smuts ; and a final one on the modern methods of plant 
breeding complete the book. 

The book, according to Professor Bailey's preface, is intended 
to supplement the latter's " Botany " and " Lessons With Plants," 
suggesting and explaining problems for experimentation. It is 
not arranged, however, to serve especially as a laboratory manual, 
for the experiments are not separated from the text and the chap- 
ters also contain much information in addition to the experimental 
work. In the chapter on roots there is discussion of soils and the 
relation of plants to soil and to water, bringing in the agricul- 
tural side of plant natural history. The structure, both internal 
and external, of roots, leaves and stems is rather thoroughly 


examined and directions are given for preparing the necessary 
materials for study. It is the function of the parts, their " work " 
as members of a living organism which is, however, constantly 
made prominent. 

The book may be used, the author states, by both teacher and 
pupil. For the former we should heartily recommend it. As a 
text or reference book for college or high-school classes it is 
also excellent, though it would doubtless have to be used with 
omissions, for the experiments are very numerous and go into a 
good deal of detail. They are planned to use only familiar and 
simple materials, and the object and results are made as clear 
and definite as possible. Certain ones, therefore, selected by the 
teacher, could well be used in the nature-study of the elementary 

The last chapter is especially useful to teachers or advanced 
pupils in emphasizing the economic importance of experimental 
work with plants as shown by the labors of Luther Burbank and 
other horticulturists. The author closes with a brief but clear 
summary of Professor De Vries' researches and their bearing on 
important biological problems. A. Watterson. 

House, Garden, and Field. By L. C. Miall. London, Arnold; 
New York, Longmans. 1904. Pp. 316, ill. $1.50. 

This is " a collection of short nature studies," dealing with a 
great variety of subjects — c. g., many insects, birds, fishes, spiders, 
plants, etc. Each chapter is a study of some one form, c. g., 
glowworm, barnacles, water-lilies, house-flies, banana, herring, 
monkey, house spider, a chalk hill, grasses, buttercup. In fact, 
the book is a collection of over fifty talks by a naturalist ; and 
there is no suggestion of a connected series. Taken indepen- 
dently, the talks are all interesting and full of information for 
general readers. There are certain " studies " in the form of 
school lessons, but most of the chapters are simply natural-history 
essays in the familiar style of the author's earlier book entitled 
" Round the Year." It is primarily a contribution to the litera- 
ture for encouraging the popular movement for interest in natural 
things, rather than a book for the direct use of teachers who want 
guides for school work. ( )f course, like popular natural his- 
tories, this book will help the teacher in getting the fundamental 
information about common things with which school nature-study 
must deal. 

166 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4. July 1905 

How to Keep Bees. By Anna Botsford Comstock. New York, 
Doubleday, Page. 1905. Pp. 228, 32 pages photographic 
illustrations. $1.00 
There are numerous guides to bee-culture but most of them 
are adapted to the reader who has already learned something about 
bees in the school of experience. For the beginner who wishes 
to learn the essential details from reading, this is certainly the book 
to be obtained first. " It is not intended to be a complete treat- 
ise for the professional apiarist, but rather a handbook for those 
who would keep bees for happiness and honey, and incidentally 
for money. It is hoped, too, that it will serve as an introduction 
to the more extended manuals already in the field. - ' Especially 
commendable is the fact that this volume is based on practical ex- 
perience gained in a small apiary, and the disputed points concern- 
ing bee life and the technique of manipulations which burden 
larger manuals are here avoided. 

Chapter I, " Why keep bees," urges honey, perhaps money, 
recreation, love of nature-study, and the need of bees in " a per- 
fect garden," as good reasons for keeping these domesticated in- 
sects. The second chapter tells us " how to begin " in a small 
way ; and having begun we may get all necessary detailed direc- 
tions for management from later chapters, arranged in order of 
demand for information. It appeals to the reviewer as just what 
the beginner wants to know. 

This brief review would be incomplete without referring to the 
literary qualities of the book. It is all interesting, and the plain 
facts are far from prosaic technical directions. As examples we 
quote : " A bee-veil facilitates work and encourages a serene 
spirit," " bee-gloves keep the disturbed little citizens from crawl- 
ing up our sleeves, thus saving both them and ourselves from a 
most embarassing situation," and '* a little smoke is as efficacious 
in preserving pleasant relations with the bees, as was the smoke 
from the pipe of peace in preserving similar relations between 
our forefathers and the savages." 

Moths and Butterflies. By Mary C. Dickerson. Boston, Ginn. 

1905. Pp. 344, 200 photographs. $1.50. 

The publishers' announcement that this book was in preparation 

raised the question, " Why should there be printed another book 

on Lepidoptera in addition to the thousand and one already in the 


field ?" But an hour spent in reading this new book by Miss 
Dickerson, of the Rhode Island Normal School, convinces that it 
fills an unoccupied place in the popular literature on these most 
popular insects. Here we have in a book of convenient size more 
of the kind of information wanted by the average beginning stu- 
dent than can be found in any other two volumes. We have other 
good books on common butterflies, e. g., Comstock's " How to 
Know the Butterflies," Scudder's " Everyday Butterflies," and 
Holland's " Butterfly Book," and on moths we have Holland's 
•' Moth Book " and Eliot and Soule's " Caterpillars and their 
Moths " ; but no recent volume including both types of the lepi- 
dopterans. Ballard's " Moths and Butterflies " has for many 
vears been popular, but in illustrations and contained information 
it does not meet the needs of readers who are attracted to books 
like those named above. Dickerson's " Moths and Butterflies " 
has many of the characteristics which have made the books by 
Comstock, Scudder and Holland popular, and for the average be- 
ginning student of these insects the book may take the place of any 
two volumes named above, because it gives special attention to 
about a dozen butterflies and as many moths which are most com- 
mon, and therefore best for beginning study. The two hundred 
photographs from life make it possible to identify caterpillar, 
chrysalis or cocoon, and the adult stage. The book closes with a 
very practical chapter on how to collect, keep, and study butterflies 
and moths. This will be especially useful to teachers of nature- 
study in September and October. 



Tutor in Biology, Teachers College, Columbia University 

[Editorial Note. — The bibliography for the year 1904 and to April. 1905, 
has been published in No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 of The Review. See any 
of these also for statement of the aims and explanation of this bibliographi- 
cal guide.] 

i68 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4. July 1905 


Jackman, W. S. Nature-study and religious training. Educ. Rev. 30: 
12-30. Je. '05. 

Latter, 0. H. Biological side of nature-study. I. Plant life. School 
World. (Eng.) 7:123-5. Ap. '05. (Materials and methods.) 

Nature work with sciences in the kindergarten. Kind. Mag. 17: 549-51. 
My. '05. 

Term plans in nature-study for the spring term. (Arranged according 
to grades.) School Work. (N. Y.) 14:1-19. Ap. '05. 

Wolcott, R. Nature-study. School Science. 5:316-21. My. '05. (Aims 
and methods.) 




Beard, D. How to make a land and water aquarium. Outing. 46: n 5-7. 
Ap. '05. 

Burroughs, J. Are animals sympathetic? — Protective coloration. Out- 
ing. 46 : 247-8. My. '05. Gay plumes and dull. Atlan. 95 : y 21-^,7. Je. 
'05. (Protective coloration of animals.) 

Mackenzie, M. Nature notes. Dept. in Kind. Rev. 15. Ap. '05. 

Rabbit, Peter (pseud.). Do animals think? Harper. 111:59-62. Je. 
'05. (A criticism of Burroughs' opinions.) 


Comstock, A. B. The workers in the hive. C'try Life in Amer. 8 : 
215-17. Je. '05. 

McCook, H. C. Huntress wasps. Harper. 110:894-9. My. '05. 

Sharp, D. L. Spring cleaning with the bee-keeper. Country Cal. 1 : 
24-6. My. '05. 

Stene, A. E. The gypsy moth. Nature Guard (R. I.). Lesson 42. 
My. '05. Pp. 173-6. 
Lower Vertebrates 

Burroughs, J. Fatal spawning. Outing. 46:371-2. Je. '05. ( Lam- 
prey eel. ) 

Geare, R. I. The cobra. Sci. Am. 92 : 420. My. 2J, '05. 

Chapman, F. M. Photographing flamingos in their rookery. C'try Life 
in Amer. 8:41-4. My. '05. 

Comstock, A. B. Beginning bird study. Chant. 41 : 259-63, 369-74. My., 
Je. '05. 

Davis, J. E. Some birds useful to the Southern farmer. Hampton 
Leaflet. 1, No. 4. Ap. '05. Pp. 12. Also published in Southern Work- 
man. 34 : 342-9. Je. '05. 

Dutcher, W. The American barn owl. Bird-Lore. 7:185-8. My. '05. 
(Audubon Educational Leaflet 14.) 

Finley, W. L. The golden eagle of Mission Ridge. Country Cal. 1 : 
41-6. My. '05. Humming-bird and her home. 1:136-9. Je. '05. 


Fuertes, L. A. Birds at home. (Nesting habits.) St. Nich. 32:744-6. 
Je. '05. The return of the birds. (Migration.) 32:648-9. My. '05. 

Hegner, R. W. Nature studies with birds for the elementary school. 
Ele. School T. 5:408-18, 462-72. Mr., Ap. '05. 

Job, H. K. The extermination of the egret. C'try Life in Amer. 7 : 
627-9. Ap. '05. 

Lottridge, S. A. The bluebird. St. Nich. 32:610-13. My. '05. The 
great horned owl. 32 : 530-5. Ap. '05. 

Scott, W. E. D. Turtle-dove: a story of meadow-larks. Outlook. 80: 
325-9. Je. 3, '05. 


Barney, C. W. The use of dogs in war. Scribner. 37 : 689-97. J e - '°S- 
(Red Cross aids after battles.) 

Burroughs, J. A beaver's reason. Cosmo. 39:216-22. Je. '05. The 
miraculous beaver. Outing. 46:118-9. Ap. '05. The rabbit's most bitter 
foe. (Weasel.) Outing. 46:371. Je. '05. 

Comstock, A. B. The cow. Chant. 41 : 166-71. Ap. '05 

Hutchinson, Woods. The weapons and tools of the dog. Open Court. 
19 : 205-26. Ap. '05. 

Lottridge, S. A. Photographing a wild fox. St. Nich. 32:721-4. Je. 


Seton, E. T. Secrets of the trail. C'try Life in Amer. 8 : 202-5. Je. 



Beal, W. J. Plants that hide from animals. Pop. Sci. Mo. 67 : 178-83. 
Je. '05. ( Adaptations to environment. ) 

Beeson, E. B. The miracle maker of gardens. Ind. 58 : 997-1004. My. 
'05. (Luther Burbank.) 

Brainerd, E. B. Lesson on the wild carrot. N. Y. Teachers' Mono. 
7 : 40-7. Mr. '05. 

Cook, M. T. Tropical fruits. I. The banana. School Science. 5 : 478- 
80. Je. '05. 

French, F. The brook. Harper. 110:691-8. Ap. '05. 

H., E. B. How some flowers got their names. St. Nich. 32:725-31. 
Je. '05. 

Harwood, W. S. A wonder-worker of science. Cent. 69:821-37. Ap. 
'05. Every man his own Burbank. Country Cal. 1 : 21-3. My. '05. 

Sharp, D. L. Birds and flowers of June. Country Cal. 1 : 133-5. Je. 
'05. Woods and meadows in May. 1 : 32-5. My. '05. 

Trees and Forestry 

Beede, V. V. M. Legends of the trees. Chaut. 41:306-11. Je. '05. 

Brown, J. P. The Catalpa speciosa. Chaut. 41 : 364-8. Je. '05. 

Foster, E. W. Our friends the trees. St. Nich. 32 : 577-83, 703-8. My., 
Je.. '05. 

French, F. The awakening of the trees. Scrib. 37 : 597-603. My. '05. 

Hall. Mrs. H. J. Some historical trees. Chaut. 41 : 316-18. Je. '05. 

I jo THE XATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 4, July 1905 

Harger, C. M. Foresting the prairies. World's Work. 10:6255-61. 
Je. '05. 

Hawes, A. F. Trees and forests and how to plant them. Prim. Ednc. 
13 : 164-5. Ap. '05. 

Hegner, R. W. Program for arbor day. Ele. School T. 5 : 468-72. 
A p. '05. 

McFarland, J. H. The awakening of the trees. Outlook. 79:803-10. 
Ap. 1, '05. 

Millspaugh, C. F. The story of a tree as told by its log. Chant. 41 : 
303-6. Je. '05. 

Millspaugh, Mrs. C. F. Tree protection in the United States. Chant. 
41 : 3-'6-34- Je. 05. 

Rogers, J. E. Dooryard trees. Prim. Educ. 13: 168. Ap. '05. 

Songs of the trees. (Four, selected.) Chant. 41:362-3. Je. '05. 

Suter, H. M. Fighting forest fires. Chant. 41 : 348-54. Je. '05. 

List of available publications of the Bureau of Forestry, U. S. Dept. 
of Agric. Chant. 41 : 378-9. Je. '05. 


Bailey, L. H. Some present problems in agriculture. Science. 21 : 
681-9. My. 5. '05. Quest of nitrogen. Country Cal. 1 : 27-8. My. '05. 

Barron, L. Planting-table for flowers. Garden Mag. 1:117-8. Ap. '05. 

Casey, D. V. Unconventional veranda and window-boxes. Garden Mag. 
1 : 228-9. Je. '05. 

Cromwell, A. D. Should elementary agriculture be taught in the pub- 
lic schools? Pop. Educator. 22:381-2. Ap. '05. 

Fullerton, E. L. Planting-table for vegetables. Garden Mag. 1: 110-3. 
Ap. '05. Thinning and transplanting vegetables. Garden Mag. 1 : 174-6. 
My. '05. 

Fullerton, H. B. Gardening tools and implements. C'try Life in Amer. 
7:634-5. Ap. '05. 

Gillan, S. Y. Lessons in elementary agriculture. Amer. Jour, of 
Educ. 38 : 300-2. Ap. '05. 

McAdam, T. The best tall perennials. Garden Mag. 1: 1 19-21. Ap. '05. 

Maynard, S. T. Spring work in the garden. Outing. 46:92-101. Ap. 
'05 • 

Mumford, H. W. Study of animal husbandry. School News. 18 : 
360-3, 422-5. Ap., My., Je. '05. 

Rogers, J. E. A wild garden at school. Pop. Educator. 22 : 383. Ap. '05. 

Sutherland, A. Farming vacant city lots. R. of Rs. 31 : 567-71. My. '05. 


Friedman, H. Earth study : the classification of minerals. School Work. 
3 : 396-400. 

Grosvenor, G. H. Our heralds of storm and flood. Cent. 70:161-78. 
Je. '05. (Work of United States Weather Bureau.) 




Primer of Forestry. This important bulletin by Pinchot, director 
of the Bureau of Forestry, is now available in the complete form, 
Part I having been reprinted and Part II recently issued. Part I 
deals with the general principles of forestry and Part II with prac- 
tical management. The price, cloth binding, is 35 cents for each 
part: for sale by Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 
An extract of Part I is also published as a Farmers' Bulletin for 
tree distribution (apply to Secretary of Agriculture). 

Maple Sugar Industry. An interesting pamphlet of 56 pages has 
been published by the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. It treats of sugar 
making by the Indians, white settlers, and recent improvements; the 
various kinds of maples ; the management of sugar groves ; maple 
sap ; and adulterations. The pamphlet will be useful to teachers who 
refer to maple trees. The price of the pamphlet is 5 cents ; for 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 

Key to Forest Trees, based on their leaf characters, has been pre- 
pared for Indiana by Professor Stanley Coulter and H. B. Dorner, 
of Purdue University. The pamphlet of ten pages is very convenient 
and could easily be modified to fit trees of other states. 

Cleveland Home Gardens. The fifth (1904) report of the Home 
Gardening Association of Cleveland, Ohio, indicates continued prog- 
ress in the work of that organization. The sale of seeds alone is 
a good sign of the extent of the movement ; 237,393 packages of seeds 
and bulbs, 57,857 to schools outside the city. Four gardens for 
schools were established, and this work is being extended during the 
present summer. As in former years, flower shows aroused great 
interest ; and shows were held in forty schools. Many more citizens 
have been persuaded that the work is valuable and their contribu- 
tions of money and of land for gardens have aided in extending the 
work. Those interested in home gardens — and every city and town 
should have an organization for encouraging gardening — will find 
the fourth and fifth reports of the Cleveland Association helpful and, 
in fact, indepensable. They may be obtained from President E. W. 
Haines, 262 St. Clair St., Cleveland, O. Twenty-five cents per copy 
should be sent. 

Boys' Agricultural Clubs. A circular with this title is Extract Xo. 
362 from the 1904 year book of the Department of Agriculture. It 
describes an interesting phase of the great movement forward in 
agricultural education. It is interesting to learn that in Illinois, 
Ohio, Iowa and other states of that region the boys have many well 
organized clubs for study of farm problems and that thev take full 

172 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i. 4. July 1905 

charge of special sessions at farmers' institutes. We see in the 
clubs another way of teaching agricultural nature-study. 1 he pam- 
phlet is free; apply to the Secretary of Agriculture. 

Photographs of Wild Game. Some of the most interesting photo- 
graphs of large animals living under natural conditions are those of 
elk reproduced in the September Country Life in America. One 
photograph includes fifteen hundred of these animals, which in enor- 
mous herds are said to be making their " last stand " in a great valley 
of the Rockies, to which 20.000 to 40,000 come from the mountains 
to pass six months of winter. 

Non-Stinging Bees. The Caucasian bees imported from Russia in 
1902 by the U. S. Department of Agriculture are said to be so gentle 
that they rarely sting; and a writer in the September Country Life 
in America thinks that they will surely take the place of other races, 
even the Italians and Carniolans which in gentleness are children's 
pets in comparison with the common brown German bee which our 
forefathers spread throughout this country. 


Nature-Study in New York City. The daily papers report that the Board 
directed by Professor Stanley Coulter, of Purdue University. Mrs. Com- 
stock, of Cornell, conducted courses at the University of California. Pro- 
fessor Hodge, of Clark University, lectured at the Connecticut Agricultural 
College and at the Macdonald Institute of Ontario. Dr. E. F. Bigelow, 
of St. Nicholas, lectured in Michigan Normal Schools and at Wooster 
University (Ohio). Courses relating to nature-study were directed by 
Professor Stevens at the N. C. College of Agriculture; by Dr. A. J. Grout, 
of the Boys' High School of Brooklyn, at Hyannis (Mass.) Normal School; 
by Professor Jackman at the University of Chicago ; by Miss Watterson 
and M. A. Bigelow at Teachers College, Columbia University; and by 
Professor McCready at Macdonald Institute. Advertisements indicate that 
very many other summer schools offered special work for teachers of 
nature-study, but specific information regarding instructors has not reached 
this ornce. 

Nature-Study in Summer Schools. At Cornell University the work was 
of Education has removed nature-study froir. the recpiired list of studies and 
placed it on the elective list. The difficulties of getting material, training 
teachers and overcoming public opinion against " frills and fads " has made 
the nature-study problem a serious one during the past two years. Obvi- 
ously, it is not wise to force nature-study suddenly into a complex school 

Forest Service. This is the new name of the Bureau of Forestry, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. In addition to its regular work the service will 
undertake to encourage teaching of elementary forestry in public schools. 
Later information on this point may be expected to appear in this journal. 




Vol. I SEPTEMBER, 1905 No. 5 



Author of " Stories of our Mother Earth," " Home Geography," " Stories of Rocks and 

Minerals," etc. 


It requires but a slight experience with educational problems 
to discover that there exists a very wide divergence of opinion 
as to what should be included under the terms geography and 
nature-study, and the relationship, if any, which exists between 
their respective fields. A part of what in one school is called 
geography is in another included under the head of nature-study. 
In one school geography and nature-study are taught as though 
they had nothing in common, while in another they are more or 
less closely correlated. Still farther, the instruction in nature- 
study, or science as it is often called, is given from different 
standpoints and with widely different objects in view. On the 
one hand it is the informal introduction of the child to the phe- 
nomena of his environment, while on the other hand the methods 
and aims of science dominate the instruction. 

There is a wide-spread feeling on the part of teachers that 
the work in geography does not produce satisfactory results, and 
the subject has been condemned in some quarters as merely an 
agglomeration of facts from many unrelated fields ; while the 
progress of the nature-study idea has suffered from the lack of 
a distinctly formulated purpose or unifying principle to serve as 
a basis for its expression under varying circumstances in different 
pants of the country. 

174 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

It is the object of the present paper to inquire briefly into the 
existing differences in school practice, determine if there is not 
ground for a more uniform and rational treatment of geography 
and nature-study, and express the conclusions reached in an out- 
line course of study. The work involved in the preparation of the 
paper was under the direction of Prof. E. E. Brown in the Semi- 
nary of Education, University of California. All the general liter- 
ature accessible was consulted, and in addition the courses of study 
of more than twenty leading cities and practice schools in the 
United States. 

Development and Scope of Geography 

Before we can analyze our subject properly and determine the 
relation which should exist between geography and nature-study 
we must first inquire into the development and present significance 
of each. 

We may define geography as the science of the earth as an 
organic whole whose parts are continually reacting upon each 
other. The materials of geography, drawn from all the sciences, 
are not combined as in a mosaic, but are interwoven in a new 
synthesis of a higher order. The study of the phenomena of the 
air, of the ocean, and the origin and meaning of land forms, is 
not undertaken for the purpose of furthering the sciences of 
meteorology, oceanography, and geology; but rather, that we 
may understand the part which each of these subjects plays in the 
complicated inter-actions between physical forces and life. When 
plants and animals are studied with the object in view of dis- 
covering their nature and affinities the work is properly biology, 
but when we seek to find out their part in the general economy 
of the world it becomes geography. Any fact which is looked 
at from the standpoint of its earth relationships may be properly 
included in a discussion of geography. 

Geography has been called a composite of many unrelated sci- 
ences, a dumping ground for vagrant facts, a relic of medievalism, 
but from the standpoint given above its individuality seems as 
real as that of any other subject. 

Geography, as the name signifies, was originally descriptive. 
The earth and its inhabitants were supposed to be parts of a 
fixed system and order of things, and no other method but that 
of description was possible. Now we know that perpetual change 
and adjustment is the law of the world. No branch of learning 


can be considered scientific which does not attempt to discover the 
laws of these changes, to discover the laws of cause and effect 
under which all phenomena follow each other in orderly suc- 

Geography, then, is comprehensive, dealing not only with the 
earth-relationships of facts as they are now open to observation, 
but in seeking causes and consequences in an attempt to arrive at 
a rational conception of them, reaches back into the past and for- 
ward into the future. 

Geography has its special standpoint and problems of its own 
to solve, just as have geology and biology; and because it neces- 
sarily draws upon these sciences for a portion of its materials, 
we must not look upon this fact as weakening its individuality. 
Physical geography is not geology in disguise, for although in the 
study of the meaning and origin of earth forms it deals with a 
part of the same materials as geology, yet it has a very different 
end in view. 

Geography as thus defined is a science and worthy of the 
prolonged investigations of the advanced student, while in its 
non-technical elementary stage, it is of all studies in the curriculum, 
the most important as giving an outlook over the world, and a 
general view of the phenomena with which the life of every one 
is intimately bound up. 

Historically, geography formed the starting point of many 
of the sciences. Its content was at first ill-defined and it em- 
braced much that was mythological and legendary. From this 
undifferentiated beginning one science after another has grown 
up and gone on its independent way, while at the same time the 
real problems of geography, as well as its scope, have become 
more clearly defined. 

The child in his mental growth goes through in epitome the 
history of the race. He is first interested in folk-tales and nature 
myths and in getting answers to the meaning of things about 
him. Then he wants to know about people and things in other 
parts of the world, and finally undertakes with definite purpose 
to widen and deepen his knowledge and to establish principles of 
universal application. 

Geography proper begins in the elementary school with an 
attempt to grasp the obvious relations exhibited by the earth, 
the sky, water and the living things in the local environment. As 

176 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 5, sept. 1905 

the years pass the subject is viewed in its wider relations, it be- 
comes better defined and its purposes more consciously in view. 
There is just as much difference in method and object between the 
geography of the primary school and that of the university as 
there is between nature-study and science. 1 

What is Nature-Study 

Educational leaders have voiced for three hundred years the 
importance of going directly to nature for our knowledge of her, 
rather than to books. This thought has been partly expressed 
in geography teaching in the growing attention paid to the study 
of the home. It also appeared in object teaching which was so 
prominent in the schools a generation ago. The influence of the 
older natural history and the expansion of science in recent years 
in the college and high school has also had a very important effect 
upon the attention paid to the study of nature in the elementary 

Although object teaching was too often formal and lifeless, yet 
it seems to have furnished the fundamental conceptions of the 
nature-study of today, and that is the placing of emphasis upon 
the general culture of the pupil rather than upon the acquisition 
of facts. The influence of the science teaching of the higher 
schools was however in the opposite direction. It frequently intro- 
duced quantitative and analytic methods of mature minds be- 
lieving that nature could be profitably studied only in this man- 
ner. It tried to bend the children toward its own methods, rather 
than to adapt them to the children ; so that the latter have often 
been set at the study of natural phenomena from a standpoint 
which was far beyond their understanding. The consequence 
was that interest disappeared and the study lost all its value. 

In the place of the formal methods of object teaching, and the 
more precise and exact methods of science, there has grown up 
the conceptions covered by the modern term nature-study. This, 
although in practice still ill-defined and often poorly worked 
out, contains some fundamental truths which place it far in ad- 
vance of the earlier efforts. 

Although discarding the ways of science, nature-study does not 

thereby become unscientific. It merely adapts its methods to the 

needs of children. If we would develop in them an intelligent 

1 See discussion in this journal, No. 1, January, 1905. — Managing Editor. 


interest in their environment we must go at it from their stand- 
point. We may look at the child as a possible future scientist, 
but that should not affect our present method of treating him. 

It is generally agreed that the materials of nature-study, ex- 
cept perhaps in the upper grammar grades, should be drawn 
from what is actually open to observation and experience on the 
part of the child. These must not be trivial, but such as appeal to 
his sense of worth and value. In choosing the material, it is well 
to recognize the fact that there are certain aspects of life which 
are particularly interesting to young children ; while on the other 
hand there are many physical facts which are taken up to better 
advantage in the upper grammar grades. There is, however, 
a vast fund of materials, both of organic and inorganic nature, 
suited to any grade. Much depends upon adapting the method 
of treatment of these materials to the degree of development of 
the child. 

There can be no one course of nature-study suited to all schools, 
since we are to deal with materials at first hand, and these are 
not the same in any two districts. Notwithstanding these differ- 
ences there is a common ground upon which all teachers can 
meet, and this is the attitude assumed toward nature. 

The child is naturally alive to what is taking place about him. 
The work in nature-study directs these interests along rational 
lines and toward some end. Interest should be consulted at 
every step, but not blindly followed by the teacher. In many 
cases interest must be aroused in children whose home influences 
have been such as to dull their natural and spontaneous delight 
in tilings about them. 

In each school there must be a definite system or plan based 
upon the surroundings and upon the age and capacities of the 
pupils. The special interests of the teacher must also not be 
neglected. It is not important that every phase of nature in the 
neighborhood be touched upon. It is important however that 
every topic taken up have a vital living interest for the children 
as well as for the teacher. It is only thus that good will come of 
this work. 

Nature-Study and Science 

The courses of study consulted in the preparation of this paper 
reveal the fact that much confusion exists as to the use of the 
terms nature-study and science in the elementarv school. In some 

178 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

cases they are used as though synonymous. In some one of the 
terms is used throughout the course, and in several the work is 
spoken of as nature-study in the primary grades and as science 
in the grammar grades. 

While the science in the higher schools has to do with the 
same phenomena as the nature work of the elementary school, 
are the methods and aims the same in both cases? Is nature- 
study another name for elementary science? Is it merely science 
made simple, or does it express a fundamentally different con- 
ception and aim ? 

An examination of the leading educational movements which 
have been concerned in the development of the modern nature- 
study idea would aid in answering these questions, but it cannot 
be entered upon in detail in the present paper. It must suffice 
to say that the influence of " object teaching" was in the direc- 
tion of the general training of the mental powers, while that of 
college and high-school science fostered exact and systematic 

Modern nature-study takes what is best in both these move- 
ments. It is less formal and artificial than object teaching, and 
attempts to lead the child directly to nature, rather than to take 
nature to the child. The first thought is to bring about a familiarity 
with, and a love for the world about us. and to develop in the 
pupil self-reliance, reason and judgment in the presence of the 
various physical problems of actual life, instead of presenting ab- 
stract problems for solution. 

A simple understanding of the meaning of the common facts 
about us as they are related to our every-day life is very far from 
being consciously organized and classified knowledge. The for- 
mer is suited to the child's needs, his capacities and his interests. 
Science as such does not appeal to him, and the attempt to use 
its methods has brought the study of nature into disrepute in 
numberless instances. One cannot help but be impressed while 
examining courses of study from all over the United States, with 
the feeling that many of them have been planned from the 
standpoint of the scientific student rather than from that of the 
child. The courses are filled with a multitude of topics from every 
science, as though the number presented was the important thing. 
It seems as though the idea was widely current that it would not 
do to let the child leave the grammar school without having 


been crammed with facts about every conceivable phenomena of 
nature, whether of any worth and interest to him or not. This 
we may truly call dabbling' in science. It is poor science and 
does not deserve the name of nature-study. 

The lack of mental development and training on the part of 
the pupil precludes the methods of science in the elementary 
school. The study of natural phenomena for the purpose of 
classification and the formulation of law will come in its proper 
time, but it is sufficient for the pupil of the grammar grade to 
interest himself in and become familiar with the facts of nature 
about him without attempting a formal organization of his 

Nature cannot be studied from exactly the same standpoint in 
the grammar grades as it is in the primary, while in the high 
school and college, methods must be still different. Our school 
periods are purely artificial divisions, and we cannot say that 
nature-study pure and simple stops with the eighth grade and 
science begins with the first year in the high school. The grade 
should determine the manner in which the problems of nature 
are taken up. The methods of nature-study of the upper gram- 
mar grades must logically blend into the science work of the 
high school with no break between them. It follows then that 
much of the work in the high school cannot be as formal and 
scientific as the work in the college or university. 

What the pupils need in the elementary school is to see the 
concrete side of natural phenomena. A physical principle should 
not be worked out for its own sake as in the advanced schools, 
but as an illustration of some fact or experience in the pupil's 
own life. In short physics as physics has no place in the gram- 
mar school, botany as a formal analytic study is out of place, 
and so with similar phases of other sciences. It would also be 
much better if the history work in the grades was less formal and 
closely interwoven with the geography throughout the course. 
Any method which tends to relate facts as they are related in 
actual life adds to the vitality of the work of the elementary 

The plan of the work of the grammar grade should be such as 
to enable the pupils to get the most out of nature from both the 
aesthetic and practical standpoints on the supposition that their 
schooling ends with that period. 

I So THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

Geography and Nature- Study 

Geography, as we have seen, should begin with facts open to 
observation in the home district, and the pupils when thoroughly 
grounded in the meaning of the relations existing there are then 
prepared to extend their studies intelligently over the world. 

One of the first principles of nature-study is that it shall deal 
with facts open to the personal experience of the pupils, and 
these are necessarily bound up with his home surroundings. 
Geography and nature-study then, in the earlier years of school 
life, deal from the same standpoint with practically the same 
materials. For the first three years, at least, we cannot differen- 
tiate them in practice. Possibly in the fourth year it may be best 
to do so, although even here both subjects continue to deal with 
the home, but from somewhat different standpoints. 

There appears to be a deeply rooted tendency, in planning 
courses of study for the elementary school, to separate closely 
related facts in order to make them fit into our artificial systems. 
The child sees things as wholes and understands much better if 
related facts are presented in their natural associations. 

Another mistake constantly made is to expect too much of young 
children in the way of forming ideas and mental images of what 
is outside of their experience. How can we expect them to com- 
prehend world relations, or to make other than parrot-like re- 
sponses before they understand the meaning of similar relations 
in the little world about them. The fifth year is certainly early 
enough to begin the formal study of the earth as a whole, al- 
though this is far from implying that all reference to the world 
as a whole be omitted up to this point. Through nature-myths, 
folk-tales, stories of children and life in other lands the pupils 
will imbibe incidentally general notions which will form a setting 
for the more advanced work when they are advanced sufficiently 
to take it up. Even after general geography has been begun the 
home must still continue to be the datum mark to which the 
pupils will constantly refer for comparison what they are attempt- 
ing to learn about similar relations elsewhere. 

This undifferentiated work of the first four years, through 
which the pupils come to understand their surroundings, we may 
call either home geography or nature-study, preferably the latter, 
for it conveys a wider and more generalized meaning. It would 
be better still if we had a comprehensive term similar to the Ger- 


man " heimatskunde," or " home-lore " as it has been translated. 

The criticism that geography is a mere jumble of facts from 
different sciences and that to modernize the subject these should 
be segregated in primers, each dealing with a particular science, 
is wrong in theory and has been shown to be so in actual prac- 
tice. Geography, as we have seen, has a definite content and a 
particular purpose to fulfil. If we separate its component parts 
we are destroying the subject and the higher outlook upon the 
phenomena of the earth which their synthesis affords us. 

Marked differences in practice exist in different cities of the 
United States as to the time of beginning geography, although 
nature-study wherever taught is usually found in the first grade. In 
Chicago the two subjects are combined for the first three years. 
In Boston and New York nature-study begins in the first grade 
and geography in the fourth, while in the former city the study 
of natural phenomena from the fourth grade upward is termed 
" elementary science." In the Horace Mann School of Teachers 
College, New York, work under geography is begun in the 
third grade. The University Elementary School of Chicago 
closely correlates both geography and nature-study throughout 
the course. It is probable however that the differences in prac- 
tice are not as great as they appear upon paper, for much that 
is really geography is often included under nature-study. 

Beginning with the fifth year, geography has to do mainly with 
facts beyond the experience of the pupil, while nature-study is 
still largely confined to the home district. It is apparent that as 
a usual thing little attempt is made in arranging courses of study 
to correlate nature-study and geography. After the two have 
separated at the beginning of the grammar-school period it is 
evidently not possible to make a complete correlation because the 
fields covered are not the same, and yet, these studies are nearly 
related and should be made to harmonize and mutually support 
each other as far as possible. Such an arrangement would aid in 
giving a plan to the nature-study work, for the lack of system has 
been a partial cause of the frequent failures. 

Such topics from the home district as the relation of the cli- 
matic conditions to the features of the land, to bodies of water, 
to the direction of the wind, etc. ; the relation of plants and ani- 
mals to their environment ; the dependence of man upon the vari- 
ous physical conditions about him ; are phases of nature-study 

l82 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

from one point of view, while from another point of view they are 
clearly geographic. 

The carrying ont of experiments in evaporation, solution, and 
crystallization is nature-study, but when this is done in connection 
with the study of the great deserts of the world it aids in the 
acquirement of real geographic knowledge. The deposits of salt 
soda, borax, and nitre are governed in their formation and dis- 
tribution by the principles exemplified in the physical phenomena 
referred to. Numberless other examples could be given if it were 
necessary, to show how nature-study can support and elucidate 
the facts of geography. 

If the infinite detail, too often present, could be omitted from 
all courses of nature-study, as well as all those topics which cannot 
appeal to the child mind, and the work be so shaped, particularly 
in the upper grades, as to throw light upon the geography the 
work in both subjects will be made more satisfactory. 

Nature-study dealing with the phenomena of our environment ; 
geography beginning with the same phenomena, but ultimately 
extending its scope to take in their world relations ; and history, 
the development of man under various physical and sociological 
conditions; should be considered as practically one subject in 
the earlier half of the elementary-school course, and as closely 
related subjects in the later half. Although we are still very far 
from being perfect in practice, yet one important step has been 
gained in the growing consciousness that the only way in which 
the child can gain any real benefit from his study of the facts of 
the phenomenal world is to deal with them in their natural 

With the differentiation of nature-study and geography at the 
beginning of the grammar-school period there are new problems 
to be solved. How shall the geography of distant regions be 
treated so as to produce the most distinct and permanent mental 
images? In the first place we must abandon the method of the 
present text-books, and cease skimmirg over the world in a 
formal and almost meaningless manner. We must, rather, take 
up the study of the world as a living organism whose parts and 
functions are mutually dependent. 

The relief, climate, the plants and animals of the home district 
and man's relation to them must be made the starting point for 
the study of similar things in remote districts that the child has 


not visited, and must continue to form a constant source of in- 
spiration for such study, as long as it lasts. 

The attempt at memorizing the disconnected facts of geog- 
raphy has generally proved a failure. To avoid this waste of 
energy these facts must not only be presented in their causal 
relations, but also in such a manner as to arouse the attention 
and interest. History, stories of adventure and discovery, current 
events, and a familiarity with the natural phenomena of the home 
region all aid in vitalizing the facts of geography. 

Geography and History 

The intimate relation existing between geography and history 
is clearly recognized and a close correlation has been worked out 
in the courses of study of a number of the leading cities of the 
United States. Because of this fact a discussion of the nature 
and scope of geography appears to necessitate some consideration 
of history also. 

The legends and myths suitable to the lower grades do not 
appeal to any particular time or place, but the stories of primitive 
man carry the children back in imagination to conditions which 
they love to reproduce in their work and play. 

Stories of discovery and of the hardships and adventures ex- 
perienced by the pioneer settlers of the home region fit in ad- 
mirably with nature-study and the beginnings of geography. 

In the grammar grades there is no good reason why history 
and geography should not be carried out in parallel courses, each 
adding interest and enlightenment to the other. The grouping 
of topics from both subjects about certain central themes gives 
the mind a better opportunity to grasp and retain them. 

The study of the history and geography of a region taken up 
side by side makes it clear that these two subjects are closely in- 
terwoven and that the former in particular cannot be fully un- 
derstood without a knowledge of its geographic conditions. 


Notes on the Outline of Study 

It is hoped that the underlying principles involved in the following 
course of study will be found in some degree to answer a natural want. 
It should be recognized, however, that the course is an outline merely, and 

184 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

that it will have to be filled in and changed more or less to suit the needs 
of different localities. 

The nature-study topics are grouped under a number of heads for the 
sake of clearness, but this classification should not be carried out in actual 

Manual training, hygiene and sanitation, and civics, are related to nature- 
study and should have a place in a complete course of study. 

Little is expected in the way of memorizing of facts, but an earnest 
attempt is made throughout to group these according to their relations and 
so build up a connected and rational whole. 

Strong emphasis is laid upon the necessity of the pupil acquiring a thor- 
ough understanding of the meaning of the maps and relief models of his 
home region before taking up the study of maps of distant regions. Map 
diawing as an exercise cultivates the hand and eye and aids in forming 
mental images of position, but unless this work is based upon facts open 
to observation the map symbols will appear to the child as little more than 
so many lines, and a mental picture of the reality for which the map stands 
will not be formed. 

The formal survey of the continents as presented in the text-books is 
omitted as being of little value, but the geography of history, of industrial 
expansion, and of current events is important, because through such asso- 
ciations the facts worth knowing become fixed. The geography of current 
events carried on through the last three years of the grammar school period 
is quite sure to cover all the important parts of the world. 

No abstract or technical work in physical phenomena is recommended, 
only such problems as are illustrative of the experiences of every-day life. 

Nature-Study — First Grade 

Institutional and Industrial 

Talks about our homes, materials of which they are made. Homes of the 
first settlers. Homes of the Indians. Stories of primitive life. Building 
of play homes of various kinds. 

Wild animals and fish obtainable in the neighborhood. The natural 
vegetable products of neighborhood suitable for food, such as fruits, berries, 
nuts, roots and other parts of plants. Vegetable products which have been 

How men subsisted before the discovery of fire. Advantages of fire. 
How fire may have been discovered. 

How much we depend upon other people for the comforts of life. Talks 
about doing necessary work with primitive means. Making of clay dishes 
and weaving of mats from bark or roots or rushes. 

Implements used by Indians for killing game, fishing, and for their own 
protection. Making of bows and arrows. 

Various ways of traveling which the children have observed. Traveling 
long ago. 

Stories and poems introducing holidays and festivals. 


Biological and Physical 

Homes of the smaller wild animals of the neighborhood. The coverings 
of these animals. The uses to which these coverings are put by man. 

Pets kept by the children, comparison of the kind of food which they eat, 
and their bodily structure and habits. Dogs and wolves. Animal stories. 
Wild animals once found in the neighborhood. Observation of the habits 
of a few common birds. 

The effect of cold upon animals of different kinds. The effect of cold 
upon small plants and trees. 

Excursions to ponds or streams to observe the living things in them. 

Plant several kinds of large seeds and note conditions necessary for their 

Talks about the plants that children have seen growing that are useful 
for food, for medicinal purposes, or that are merely ornamental. 

Stories about the young of animals. 

Nature-myths as introductory to talks about the winds, the storms, and 
heavenly bodies. 

Talks about rain, hail, snow, fog and clouds in connection with the ap- 
pearance of these phenomena. 

Talks about direction, using the magnetic needle. 

The gathering of stream or shore pebbles and talks about them. 

Nature-Study — Second Grade 

Institutional and Industrial 

Talks about fishing and the means employed for catching fish by both 
civilized and primitive peoples. Kinds of fish in the home market and 
where caught. How fish and other meats are preserved. 

Talks and stories about people who live by hunting and fishing. Why 
such people do not have permanent homes. Conditions of pastoral life. 
Why we are enabled to have permanent and costly homes. 

Continuation of the work of making primitive utensils. Make sun-dried 

Discuss various uses of trees. 

Read Hiawatha and discuss his ways and means of doing. 

Stories of life and adventure in new lands, especially those dealing with 
children. Stories of child life in other countries. Stories and poems re- 
lating to holidays and the heroes of the nation. 


How animals were domesticated. With aid of pictures and visits to 
zoological collections, compare our domestic animals with the nearest re- 
lated wild ones. 

Observations and talks upon the familiar animals that store up food. 
The migrating animals familiar to the children. Chickens and ducks as 
adapted to different conditions, their food and method of procuring it. 

Observations upon the life-history of a silk-worm or other moth ; prepa- 
ration of silk. 

l86 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

Study of an insect such as the ant — its home, food, young. Obtain a 
colony of ants for study in school. 

Observations upon the fish in the aquarium. 

Using suitable stories, inculcate sympathetic care for animals. 

Prepare a bird calendar. 

Gain a familiarity with the more common wild flowers, and their char- 
acteristic habitats. Prepare a flower calendar. Teach care for the wild 

The unfolding of leaves and flowers in spring. Methods of dissemina- 
tion of a few common seeds. The different kinds of trees in the neighbor- 
hood, their behavior in winter, their flowers and fruits. 

Grow corn and squashes. Prepare corn for eating, using . primitive 
methods. Observations upon sprouting and growing of a horse-chestnut 
or other similar nut and the use of the " meat " of the nut to the growing 

Simple talks and observations upon the differences between plants and 

With talks and pictures illustrate how animals in different parts of the 
earth are adapted to their surroundings. 

Talks about the lands to which the birds migrate. Summer homes of 
geese and ducks. 


Observations in home district as to where plants grow most luxuriantly. 
Visit vegetable gardens. 

Reach conclusions from observations and pictures as to what kinds of 
products different slopes are best suited for. Seek reasons for conclusion. 
Talks about the situation of farm houses and buildings. 

The preparation of soil for seed. The need of moisture and warmth. 
Harvesting of crops in the neighborhood. The most important agricultural 
products. What is done with these products. 


Continuation of nature-myths and poems. 

Poems about the seasons, winds, etc. 

Talks and observations upon the weather. 

Simple talks about the influence of the sun and the causes for the seasons. 

Water and the effect upon it of heat and cold. 

Nature-Study — Third Grade 
Institutional, Industrial, Historical 
Reading of Robinson Crusoe and discussion of his ways and means of 
doing work. 

Study of the customs, implements, and home of some group of Indians 
or other primitive people represented in some accessible collection. 

Pictures and descriptions of the cliff dwellers, their homes, implements, 
water and food supplies. 


Picture writing of savages and origin of writing. 

Division of labor now and in primitive times. Leading occupations in 
the vicinity dependent upon natural resources. 

The building materials in the home district, early buildings compared 
with those now used. 

Means of lighting now and long ago ; primitive lamps. 

Talks about how people govern themselves in savage and civilized con- 
ditions. Government of the home district. 

Stories of the pioneers and explorers of the home district. 

Excursions to landmarks in the vicinity. 

Nature-myths, Greek and Norse myths, stories of explorers. 


Study of the harmful insects of the home. Insects affecting plants. 

Conditions fostering growth of flies and mosquitoes. 

Bees and honey making. Plants most useful to bees. 

Continue observations upon the plants of the aquarium. Plants that will 
grow in water without soil. 

Grow from seed several common trees. 

Compare tropical plants in greenhouses with native ones as to sensitive- 
ness to cold. Why trees shed their leaves. Condition of plants in the 
tropics during the different seasons of the year. 

Experiments as to effect of light upon plants. Study of a desert plant 
such as a cactus. 

Observations upon the life-history of a frog. The life and habits of frog 
at different seasons of the year. 

Garden work in season. 

Make a study of the origin of soil through excursions to road or stream 
cuts. Separate the clay, bits of rock or sand, and organic matter in soil 
by washing. 

The work of various animals which enrich the soil ; artificial enrichment. 
Plant barley and corn in rich soil, sub-soil, and crushed rock and find out 
reasons for difference in growth. 


Whale oil, how obtained, use. Petroleum, how obtained, natural ap- 
pearance, origin. Products of crude petroleum. Talks about different 
kinds of coal and their origin. 

Evaporation and condensation of water, solution of substances to illus- 
trate various facts of every-day life. Manufacture of salt. Story of rock- 
salt. Visit any quarries or mines in the neighborhood. Talks with speci- 
mens of the mining and reduction of iron and copper ores. Uses and 
properties of these metals. 

Careful study of the various uses of the wind. Construct weather-vane. 
Keep a record of direction of winds during stormy and fair weather. 

Mark the movements of the sun from 'week to week by the shadow of a 
vertical stick. 

Investigate the water supply of the home. Visit springs and reservoirs. 

1 88 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 


Origin of trade and commerce. Note from a study of the home district 
how slopes of the land and position of waterways influence travel, and the 
position of the roads. 

If we had only what was produced in the neighborhood, what would we 
have to do without. 

During winter study life in cold regions, in summer that in warm re- 
gions, discussing homes, dress, food and ways of traveling. 

Observations upon the effect of rain-water upon unprotected surfaces. 
Note the character of stream channels and whether they flow in broad or 
narrow depressions. Distinguish the various land and water forms within 
reach. Make a rude model of the home region in sand or clay. 

Develop notion of a map by first studying the relief of the district familiar 
to the children, then pictures showing the same, and finally a relief model 
of it. From this lead to the conception of a map by drawing to scale the 
relief model, and comparing sketch with the real landscape studied. 

Continue work upon known material until the children are conversant 
with the meaning of a plain map of the home district and its various 

Talks about the important physical features of the state with aid of 
pictures and descriptions, including stories of travel and adventure. Com- 
pare features portrayed with those of the home region. 

Discuss the products of the various parts of the adjoining region or the 
state with aid of pictures and compare results with what would be ex- 
pected from the study of the features of the home region. Give reasons 
for different products and occupations upon different kinds of land surfaces. 

Nature-Study — Fourth Grade 
Institutional, Industrial, Historical 

Stories of the lives of some of the pioneer Americans. 

History stories and stories of early exploration in connection with the 
relief map or model of the state. 

Continue talks upon government. 

Study various means of transportation upon land and water, basing work 
upon the children's observations. Descriptions of traveling in the early 

The making of graded roads and pavements. How the features of land 
and water affect position of roads and trails. How they have determined 
the position of the railroads. 

Study of how the rocks, soil, features of the land and water, and the 
climate have determined what shall be the leading local industries. In what 
other parts of our country are similar conditions found. 

The relative importance of stock raising in the home-district. Study 
by means of pictures and descriptions the important stock-raising regions 
of our country and find out reasons for its predominance in these localities. 

Continuation of hand work and making of simple articles. 



Continue study of the aquarium and of water insects. Make a study of 
the various water organisms, especially molluscs and crustaceans made use 
of by man. How and where they are obtained. 

Continue observations upon birds, their value to us, their food, and 
manner of nesting. Make a study of familiar water birds. 

Find out all about the uses to which the native plants of the neighbor- 
hood are put. Study plants with reference to the uses of various parts of 
the plant to itself, roots, leaves, etc. 

From a study of the plants of the home and from pictures and descrip- 
tions discuss the effect upon them of heat, cold, dryness, moisture, rich and 
poor soil, of various parts of the earth. 

Talks about and observations upon the struggle going on among the 
plants and animals around us; the food of animals, the food of plants, the 
need of sunlight. 

The production of sugar from cane, maple trees and beets. If possible, 
grow sorghum, extract the juice, make molasses and sugar. 


Study different kinds of soil as to which takes up most water and which 
holds it the longest. Experiment with sand, clay, loam, brick, solid rock. 

Shape in which plants take their food. Is it all obtained from the soil? 
Wash some soil, evaporate water and note if there is any solid residue. 
Find out its nature. 

Reasons for keeping soil loose about plants, effect of too much or too 
little moisture. Poor soil and how improved. 

Experiments with plants to see if all need soil. Study of water plants. 

Garden work and care of plants. 

Study of what is most essential to plants, soil, warmth, sunlight, or 
moisture. How man changes these factors to suit needs of plants. 


Experiments showing circulation of the air. Study of ventilation of the 
schoolroom. Origin of the winds. 

The various kinds of clouds. 

Begin collection of minerals of the neighborhood. 

Carry out experiments in the preparation of lime, plaster, and plaster of 
paris. Study the minerals from which these substances are made. 

Study the different minerals of a piece of granite, the uses of mica, 
feldspar and quartz. 

Talks about gold and gold mining, and reduction of the ores. Study with 
aid of pictures and descriptions. 

Origin of clay and sand. Base study upon a piece of crumbling granite. 
Uses of these substances. 


Study the paths of the explorers of the home region and how these were 
governed by the features of the land and water and by the climate. The 
occupations of the first settlers. 

190 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

Model the features of the home upon a skeleton of rock to illustrate 
rocky elevations with little soil and valleys with deep soil. 

Make a map of the relief model of the state. 

Continue study of the relief model of the state, and basing conclusions 
upon local conditions, discuss the probable climate and productions. From 
knowledge of local climate or observations elsewhere discuss climate of 
mountains and plains, distribution of rainfall. Aid by use of pictures. 

Continue study of food and other supplies produced in home district. 
Conditions in those countries from which the imported necessaries come. 

Reasons for the location of the nearest trade centre. 

Ancient and modern ideas as to the shape of the earth. 

Extension of view area shown by climbing a hill or building, particularly 
if there are any large areas of land or water at hand. 

Illustrate farther by use of a relief globe. 

Locate upon the relief globe the various peoples previously read about, 
and the influence of the relief and bodies of water upon communication 
between them. 

Study the work of running water in the vicinity; other influences wear- 
ing down the hills. Take samples of muddy water, let stand and determine 
what it contains. 

Observe the conditions of waterfalls and rapids and their uses. 

Observe formation of miniature deltas and upon what sort of slopes they 
are found. 

Study the main rivers in the drainage basin of the home region from the 
relief model, note extent, character of streams and slopes about borders of 
basin. Aid with pictures. 

Find illustrations as complete as possible in home district of formation 
of the main geographic features of the earth. 

Using pictures of typical regions of the United States in connection with 
a study of the relief model, lead children to judge of the climate, produc- 
tions and industries which should characterize them. 

Nature-Study — Fifth Grade 

Uses of the trees in the neighborhood. How lumbering in different parts 
of the United States is influenced by physical conditions ; aid study with 

The character of homes, fences, etc., where lumber cannot be obtained. 

The decay of wood; manufacture of charcoal — the latter illustrated 

Talks upon coal and coal mining, using specimens and pictures. De- 
scriptions of the different regions where coal is mined in the United States. 

Primitive and modern methods of lighting, natural gas, manufacture of 

Hunting and trapping upon the Great Plains and in the Rocky Mountains. 



Excursions to study effects of forests upon life. Effect upon its animal 
inhabitants of cutting down a grove or forest. 

The distribution of trees in the home region. 

Conclusions as to the absence of trees upon the Great Plains ; the enemies 
of trees. 

The distinction between the broad- and narrow-leaved trees (conifers). 
Those found in the home region. The most important areas of North 
America characterized by coniferous trees. Particular uses of coniferous 

Develop from studies in the home region an understanding of zones of 
vegetation upon mountain slopes and the causes which produce them. 

The wild animals once found in the neighborhood and their distribution 
over the continent. The fur-bearing animals still found and their habitats. 
Necessity for the care and protection ot the animals and birds. 

The protective forms and colorations of animals. 

How water animals spread. Zones of life in the oceans. 

A study of the winter birds. 

The fishes sold in the market, where caught, character of people engaged 
in catching them. 

The domestic animals of the native Americans. 

The food-plants furnished us by the Indians. 


Different ways in which plants spread and are propagated, seed, runners, 
bulbs, cuttings, budding and grafting. 

Observations upon the effect of plant roots upon seamed and partly de- 
cayed rock. Determine soluble contents of a fresh rock as compared with 
a decayed one. Compare soils of deltas and hillsides in regard to lux- 
uriance of vegetation. Effect of " alkali " in soil. 

Note general effect of man's disturbing influence in beginning of erosion 
and carrying away of rich surface material. Effect of killing grass by stock. 

Study of agriculture in all its aspects of influence upon man. 


How the rainfall determines occupations in different parts of the country. 

Readings and discussions of the great floods in the United States. Means 
of avoiding them, construction of reservoirs. Navigation upon streams in 

Examination of different kinds of lava, uses of various volcanic products. 
Readings and talks about the volcanic regions of the United States, Mexico 
and the West Indies. Probable reasons for volcanic action. 

The keeping of a weather record, rain-gauge, temperature record. 

Talks about the heavenly bodies and their movements. 

Forces of nature working about us — heat, cold, water, frost, ice, gravity. 

192 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW |i, 5. sept. 1905 

Geography and History — Fifth Grade 
General Survey of North America 

General study from the relief globe of the position of North America 
with reference to the other grand divisions of the earth. 

Study from the relief model the position and character of the typical 
features of the continent. 

Continue studies upon the erosion and deposition of rock material in the 
neighborhood, until by inference the meaning of the rugged or gentle slopes 
of the different mountain ranges, the canons, valleys, plains and great deltas 
can be explained. 

Carry on observations upon the kinds of shore lines produced by the 
rising and sinking of the water in some shallow pond to illustrate the 
different kinds of shore lines of the continent. 

With the aid of observations in the home region and pictures, form con- 
clusions as to the general climatic conditions of the continent. 

Reasons for such a marked difference in climate of the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts in same latitude. 

Discuss from observations the effect upon the air of a body of water in 
regard to both temperature and moisture. The effect of elevation upon 
temperature. The prevailing direction of the winds. 

Use conclusions in forming correct notions of the climate of different 
parts of the continent, the situation of the moist regions, the deserts, the 
distribution of the forests, the Great Plains and prairies. From what has 
been learned of mining, locate the areas where that occupation is important. 

Make a relief model of the continent and draw outline map of same. 

Discussions and readings about the native inhabitants found in different 
parts, and how their ways of living, of traveling, and customs are related 
to the climate and physical features of their homes. 

Stories of exploration and adventure. Conditions leading to the settle- 
ment of New England and the South Atlantic states. Character of the 

Spanish exploration, conquest of Mexico and Peru. 

Voyages of discovery upon the Pacific. 

Compare coast-lines of the opposite sides of the continent and their influ- 
ence upon settlement. 

Influence of the Appalachians upon the westward spread of the colonists. 
By what paths did they reach the Mississippi Valley. The importance of 
the chain of Great Lakes. The work of the French missionaries and ex- 

If the rugged Rocky Mountain system had occupied the position of the 
Appalachians, what would have been the effect upon the settlement of the 
continent? What effect would low mountains upon the Pacific border have 
had upon the climate and settlement of the continent. 

Study the character of the streams upon the opposite sides of the con- 
tinental divide. Mark out the great routes of the pioneer from the Atlantic 
to the Mississippi, and from this river to the Pacific coast. Describe the 
great obstacles presented in the Cordilleran region. Discuss in detail the 
natural routes of travel and trade. 


Reasons for the rapid settlement of the Pacific Slope. Location of the 
chief cities of the country and reasons for the same based upon geographic 

Stories of pioneer life and adventure. 


Observations upon the relative ease with which the land and water sur- 
faces of the earth are heated. Which gives off heat more rapidly? Discuss 
with reference to the temperature of the oceans and interior portions of 
the continents. 

Winds and their effect upon the surface. Formation and movement of 
dunes. Wind storms of the great deserts. 

The pressure of air, construction of barometer. 

The different states of water, water pressure, observations upon the con- 
ditions which give rise to springs, artesian wells. Study of the pump, dif- 
ferent kinds of pumps. 

The boiling and mineral springs of volcanic regions. Discussions as to 

Mineral matter in solution in water, deposits in tea-kettles. Study of 
the Yellowstone Park from pictures and descriptions. 

Salt, soda, and borax mining. Conditions surrounding the nitre fields of 
South America, and the salt and borax deposits of the North American 
deserts. Experiments in separation of soda and salt from one solution. 

Beach sand, sandstone and quartzite, acids, alkalies and salts and how to 
distinguish them. 

Coral and coral islands ; limestone and marble. 

Different methods for getting mineral substances buried in the earth, 
where most easily accessible. Base conclusions upon study of home region 
if possible. Distribution over the world of most important metalliferous 
deposits. Great coal fields. 

Nature-Study— Sixth Grade 

Industrial, Institutional 

Discovery and invention — the harnessing of water, air, steam and elec- 
tricity. Visit any accessible illustrations. 

Talks about local, state and national governments. 


Distribution of animals, causes of their migrations. 

Distribution of plants, various agencies concerned in, influence of cli- 
matic changes. 

Study of plants with reference to their improvement by cultivation, com- 
parison of wild and cultivated rose, wild and cultivated apple, etc. 

Study of tropical plants, comparison with any of their representatives in 
temperate climate open to examination. 

Study of insects with especial reference to their harmful and beneficial 
influences. Tropical insects compared with their local representatives. 

194 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

Study of mosses and lichens and other plants representative of Arctic 
and semi-Arctic conditions. 

Plants and animals of desert regions, aid by pictures and descriptions 
and any accessible specimens. 

Peculiarities of island life. Characteristic animals of Australia. 

Life in the tropic seas ; aid by use of specimens. 


Importance of irrigation. Methods of. Aid by use of pictures. 

Importance of the forest cover in preserving the summer water supply. 
Carry on practical studies on wooded and unprotected slopes. 

Adaptation of plants and agricultural crops to different climatic zones. 

Soils according to origin, residual, transported, wind soils. 

Continue garden work. 

Study the common grasses. The importance of grasses upon the vast 
plains of the earth's surface. 

Geography and History — Sixth Grade 
The World as a Whole 

Study of the relief globe. Contrast nature of ocean floor with the land 
surface, deepest depressions and greatest elevations. Meaning of conti- 
nental masses. 

The peculiarities of different shore lines. Review in connection the shore 
lines produced in a pond by raising or lowering the water. 

The prevailing winds of the earth, how the climate of different coasts is 
affected by them, contrast with interior regions. 

Reasons for the irregularity of the isothermal lines. 

The climatic conditions under which the great civilizations have devel- 
oped. How extremes of climatic conditions affect people as shown by 
natives of Terra Del Fuego, the Esquimau, and many tropical peoples. 

The boundaries of the tropics, nature of vegetation, animals, and occupa- 
tions of the people. 

The polar regions — tales of exploration and discovery. Recent explora- 
tions about south pole. Study of Iceland and Greenland, physical charac- 
teristics, glaciers, people and their occupations. Vegetation. 

How the nature of the coast and the presence of deep or shallow water 
adjacent affects the industries, commerce and nature of the inhabitants. 

The Phoenicians and Norsemen as representatives of maritime people 
of earlier times. 

Character, extent and position of the great plains of the earth's surface. 
Occupation of early peoples who dwelt upon plains. 

Reasons for absence of trees upon many plain-like areas, contrast with 
desert plains. 

The causes which produce deserts ; base conclusions upon a study of 
conditions in our own country. Distribution of deserts over the world, 
surface and life. Aid by use of pictures. 

Contrast plains with deltas, distribution of delta plains. Soil of deltas. 


Influence of deltas upon the development of civilization in the eastern 

Reasons for the light rainfall of the Great Plains of the United States, 
contrast with those of South America. 

The vast plains of northern Asia and their inhabitants. 

Various kinds of mountains, illustrate. 

Climate and products of mountains compared with adjacent lowlands in 
same latitude. Character and occupations of mountain people, illustrate 
in case of Switzerland. 

Distribution of the highlands and plateaus of the globe. The highlands 
of Mexico and South America and their primitive people. Thibet and its 

Connection between mountains and mining. From a study of our own 
country, say what minerals are generally found in mountainous regions 
and what in lowlands and plains. Give reasons. 

Influence of mountain barriers upon trade and communication. 

The primitive peoples of different parts of the earth. 

Geography of current events given importance throughout the year. 

Nature-Study — Seventh Grade 

Study of industrial operations in different parts of the world as related 
to the character of the people and their physical surroundings. 


Economic importance of birds based upon observations of pupils. 

Adaptation of birds to different conditions, ostrich, wingless birds, 
wading birds. 

Adaptation of animals to different environments, camel, mole, seal. 
Habits and relationship of the bat. 

Observations upon the animals of Africa and Asia as far as they are 
represented in accessible collections. Supplement with pictures of their 
native habitats. 

Study of several water plants including the lily; the lotus in ancient 

Study of minute water organisms with the microscope, care of the 
water-supply, purification of water. 

The growing and care of grapes, making of raisins and wine. The 
extent of this industry in southern Europe. 


Experiments and observations upon the phenomena of evaporation and 
condensation, to illustrate the moisture in the air, formation of clouds and 

Solution, saturation, and crystallization illustrated by some salts such as 
hyposulphite of soda and common salt. How salt is prepared from sea- 
water, from salt wells. The important salt deposits of the world in Poland 

196 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 5, sept. 1905 

and America. Illustrate how a bed of salt may be formed from sea water 
in some lagoon. 

Continue collection of the rocks and minerals of the neighborhood, and 
gain a familiarity with their physical properties and uses. 

Sulphur, its occurrence in various volcanic regions ; its preparation upon 
the slopes of Alt. Etna in Sicily. 

Descriptions of the mining of gold and diamonds in South Africa. The 
tin mines of Cornwall. 

Geography — Seventh Grade 

Eastern Hemisphere with Especial Reference to Europe 

A general survey of the physical features. 

Climatic conditions of Eurasia compared with North America. 

The importance of the Mediterranean Sea. 

The pre-historic inhabitants of Europe, cave and lake dwellers. 

Ragozin"s Earliest People. Queber's Stories of the Greeks and Story of 

The geography of the world as known to the ancients. 

The farthest points reached by the ancient navigators, their ideas as to 
the shape and size of the world. 

The spread of Christianity and Mohammedanism. Study with reference 
to the character of the peoples and the physical geography of the countries 

The Crusades and the age of Chivalry. 

The story of the Norsemen; the character of their country. 

The various peoples concerned in the founding of the English race. 

The Moors and their civilization. Spain in the fifteenth century and her 
explorations by sea. 

The importance of the chief mountain ranges of Europe and the influ- 
ence which they have exerted upon the development of its people. 

The importance of the irregular shores of the northern Mediterranean 
and eastern Atlantic in affecting the development of their inhabitants. 

Reasons for the slower development of the people of the interior and 
northeastern portions of Europe. 

Causes of the early development of manufacturing in England. 

Situation and physical surroundings of the leading cities of Europe. 

Constantinople and the Dardanelles. 

Situation of Russia with reference to outlets to the sea. Conditions 
which have made it possible for her to spread eastward and southward in 

Influence of the Himalaya Mountains and Plateau of Thibet upon the 
history of Asia. 

Causes leading to the marked differentiation of the Chinese and Japanese. 

Effect of slow sinking of coast of northwestern Europe. Features and 
occupations of people of Holland. 

The forests of northern Europe and their wild animals. 

Geography of current events throughout the year. 


Nature-Study — Eighth Grade 

Development of industries in connection with the settlement and growth 
of communities. 

Taking different sections of the their characteristic indus- 
tries as related to climate, physical features, soil, and means of communi- 


Study from observation and illustrations specimens of the main groups 
of animals. Detailed study of how animals have become adapted to the 
various conditions of land and water existence. 

Observations upon the most important plant groups. 

Food of plants contrasted with that of animals. 

Study of a few flowerless plants, mushrooms and fungi. 

Lowly organisms source of disease. How to guard against. 

Influence of man in distribution of plants and animals. 

Characteristic plants of the different life zones of North America. Life- 
zones of the high mountains. 

Various problems of forestry, growing, cutting and preservation from 
fire and disease of forest trees. Characteristics of forests of different por- 
tions of the United States. 


Different forms of matter. Experiments in changing matter from one 
form into another. 

The study of chemical reactions involved in various common phenomena. 

Air, heat, light, electricity as concerned in various problems and activities 
of life. All work, both observational and experimental to be closely con- 
nected with actual problems confronting the pupils or experiences which 
they may undergo. 

Geography and History — Eighth Grade 

More thorough study than previously attempted of the processes at work 
building up and tearing down the features of the earth's surface. Illustrate 
as far as possible by observations, experiments. Supplement by reading 
and use of pictures. 

Review main facts of Colonial life and development, explorations and 
settlement of different portions of the North American continent. 

Connected study of the history of the United States from the Revolution 
down to the present. Carry on this work with relief models and maps con- 
stantly at hand and seek at every step to bring out causes and relations. 

Bring out in connection with every event in the internal relations of the 
people, in the expansion of the territory of the United States and in the 
development of its industries the geographic factors concerned. The most 
important of these factors are the original inhabitants, character of the 
new comers, climate, soil, natural products of the soil and rocks, presence 
of mountain barriers and deserts, mountain passes, lakes, navigable streams, 
water power, etc. 

198 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

Show the relation of the expanding nation to the peoples to the north 
and south and the geographic reasons for the position of the final bound- 
aries established. 

Geography of current events throughout the year. 


A Symposium by many Writers 

[Editorial Note. — The question whether there is value in knowing the 
names of natural objects is easily and satisfactorily answered so far as 
very common objects are concerned, but it must be obvious to all science 
and nature-study teachers that as our list of names tends to become ex- 
tensive it is a question whether memorizing names is valuable. In order 
to draw out definite statements of opinions from naturalists a circular 
letter was sent last July requesting brief discussions of the question, " Is 
it worth while that pupils should learn the names of natural objects?" 
The answers, in the order received, are given below.] 

In answer to the question " Is there value in knowing the names 
of common natural objects," I would say that there is a decided 
value, provided it is not pressed too far. It is a source of satis- 
faction and hence of additional interest to be able to name things. 
The only objection that could be made to this kind of informa- 
tion, so far as I can discover, is that the name may become the 
end of the investigation rather than its beginning. I like to have 
my students think of names as necessary appendages to plants, 
just as names are to individuals whom one meets and wants to 
know. No one would think that an introduction to an individual, 
which gives the name, means an acquaintance with the individual. 
The name, therefore, as I look at it, is the preliminary stage to an 
acquaintance. John M. Coulter. 

University of Chicago. 

There is a value in mere names. As naturalists we might dis- 
pense with names and books, but as educators we cannot. Cul- 
ture and education come chiefly through names, books and the 
literary concomitants of the subject. I have known many good 
naturalists — wood-choppers, basket-makers, hunters, trappers, 
fishermen, farmers — with knowledge of things, but evidently not 
educated by them. I have known many skilled bird-stuffers, who 
were far from being good ornithologists. Don't lay too much 
stress on natural objects alone. We want names, books and other 
literary and scientific accessories. Edward F. Bigelow. 

Stamford, Conn. 


The question " Is there any value in knowing the names of 
common natural objects?" reminds me forcibly of the story of 
the German botanist who collected quantities of material of which 
he did not know the name, but which a brief microscopical ex- 
amination showed him would yield rich histological results. Over 
it he worked for a long time — years, in fact — and each day with 
increasing enthusiasm. His first diagnosis had only touched the 
outside of its scientific wealth and value. Finally he was ready 
to publish. But he had used up all the material and had no idea 
of the name of the plant which he had been studying ! 

The names of the common objects about us are of the first im- 
portance ; for after all, with things as with persons a knowledge 
of the name is an invariable preliminary to acquaintance and 
affection. Imagine saying to a child : " Do not bother with the 
names of your schoolmates, their real character is of much more 
importance." It is of use, but to know the name does not 
mean to know nothing else. The name is a key which unlocks 
many doors — books, for example — and the knowledge of other 
people. Keys are essential just because they unlock things, not 
because they are keys. 

L. L. W. Wilson. 

Philadelphia Normal School. 

The names of common natural objects should be known. It is 
not of much importance to know the scientific name, really of no 
importance at all to the layman, unless the scientific names be- 
come so common that they become the common names. Nor is it 
seriously important whether the common name used be the one 
most widely known. If the object is known locally by some par- 
ticular name, which is not the common name most widely used, 
it is best in that section of the country to use that local name. 
Some name, however, should be known and used. The more dis- 
tinctive and general the name be the better. A widely used name, 
however, is of little value in a place where there is a local name 
that is well known and where the more widely known name is 
unfamiliar. It is, of course, highly desirable that a uniformity in 
common names be attained, but this under the present conditions 
seems practically unattainable. The confusion is far worse than 
that experienced with scientific binomials, and the machinery to 
remedy the defect far less adequate ; a gentle pressure toward uni- 
formity is commendable but ruthlessly to attempt to force uni- 

200 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

formity of usage would be to retard the growth of popular knowl- 
edge of common things. 

It is useless to discuss the necessity of having a name for ob- 
jects. The proposition is axiomatic. An object cannot be re- 
ferred to definitely without a name, and when it cannot be re- 
ferred to it cannot be discussed, and its use and injuries caused 
by it cannot be attributed to the proper source. Without a name 
it is nothing in its community. 

F. L. Stevens. 

North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 

In regard to the question " Is there a value in knowing the 
names of common natural objects," I should say emphatically yes. 
I think it is far better to teach children something of the things 
about them than a good many facts about India, China and Japan. 
I believe we all should know all we can about the common things 
about us, and be able to observe and to see some of the things we 
look at, and to understand something of what we see, and that by 
so understanding these things our life will be broader and more 
interesting not only to ourselves but to others. There is far too 

H. D. Hem en way. 

much ignorance concerning common things 

Hartford School of Horticulture. 

My answer to the question whether there is value in giving the 
names of common objects, is taken from my ' Nature-Study 
Idea " : ' Would you tell the child the names of the things ? 
Certainly, the same as I would tell him the name of a new boy 
or girl. But I should not stop with the name. Nature-study 
does not ask finally 'What is the thing?' but 'How does the 
thing live ? ' or ' What does it do ? ' or ' How does it get here ? ' 
or ' What can I do with it ? ' The name is only a part of the 
language that enables us to talk about the thing. Tell the name 
at the outset and have the matter done with. Then go on to vital 

L. H. Bailey. 

Cornell University. 

The recognized common names of natural objects are of great 
value to young people as they afford a means of communicating 
many facts of interest as, for example, in describing what they 
saw on a journey or a walk. The Latin names are out of place in 


nature-study, because that phase of study of natural things is 
untechnical. When the child is i 11 f rod need to a new flower, bird, 
or fish, he wishes to know its name. After that he feels ac- 

Winfield S. Hall. 
Northwestern University. 

Is there value in knowing the names of common natural ob- 
jects? On this question I have already published my views in 
my book " Education Through Nature." I have found no reason 
to change my opinion since. A name is a label by which we 
identify bundles of facts, conveniences of which the teacher at 
least cannot afford to be ignorant. The president of a Chicago 
medical school said once in addressing his graduating class : 
' If you ever encounter a disease which you are unable to identify, 
by all means give it a name.'' This certainly expresses a shrewd 
man's opinion of human nature. Many patients feel a sense of 
relief as soon as their ailment has received a name. So we never 
feel that we have been properly introduced to a person till we 
have been made acquainted with his name. Indeed we are often 
made to assume that we know a man when his name has been 
presented. Whether the name is Latin or Greek, Italian or Ger- 
man matters little. In nature-study we cannot fail to note the 
same tendency in pupils — a desire to know the name. Any " old 
thing " of a name seems to satisfy. Too often we are satisfied 
with the mere name ; and if care is not taken, nature-study is apt 
to degenerate into a mere learning of names. If this tendency is 
properly counteracted, I consider it very desirable to teach pupils 
how to find the names of objects by proper use of reference- 
books — the most convenient often being the unabridged diction- 
ary and encyclopedias. 

J. P. Munson. 

State Normal School, 
Ellensburg, Wash. 

In regard to your question, " Is there value in knowing the 
names of common objects," it seems to me there can be but one 
answer, which is very obvious. We should know the name of 
things for the same reason we like to know the names of people 
with whom we have to deal. There is nothing in a name that is 
to be worshipped, but it is a very convenient thing to have at 

202 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

hand. One of the first things I teach therefore by the shortest 
possible method, unless for some special reason it is withheld, is 
the name of the object. Wilbur S. Jackman. 

University of Chicago. 

To my mind this is no more a question than, " Is there any 
value in nature-study?" How can you know nature without 
knowing names ? But it must be borne in mind that the knowing 
of names is a means, not an end. 

Suppose you go to a new school or a new town. One of the 
first things you do is to learn the names of the people. You can- 
not have very much of usefulness or interest in that town until 
you know the people by name. You cannot talk concerning the 
town and its people. 

You cannot communicate any great number of ideas without 
words and you cannot teach much nature-study without names. 

Moreover it is natural for the young child to learn the names 
of things. That is the first step in the education of the infant. 
Nouns are always the first parts of speech learned. Teaching the 
names of things is the first nature-study to be taken up. Later 
the names will be used as pegs on which to hang facts about 

I have found by personal experience that one of the most suc- 
cessful ways to interest boys and girls in nature is to teach them 
the names of natural objects such as flowers, birds, minerals, etc. 

A. J. Grout. 

Boys' High School, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Stamford, Connecticut 

In a booklet published by The A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio, 
and distributed by that corporation free of charge to those who ask 
for it, I have explained why a bee-hive seems to be needed for edu- 
cational purposes, a hive that shall be worthy of the interest sure to 
be aroused by the instructive and often unknown or unappreciated 
habits of the honey-bee. 

1 [The hive described in this paper has been named by the manu- 
facturers after the inventor, who writes this article. — Managing Editor.] 




Complete hive with covers removed. Main hive in front consists of base, observation chamber 
super with four sections, and two'" travelling hives " at top In the rear is the flying cage. 

204 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW \i, 5. sept. 1905 

In that booklet I have briefly set forth the main points of this 
special hive. What I have there stated regarding its advantages I 
trust will be made clearer by the accompanying illustrations, their 
subjoined legends, and this additional description. 

The structure is not so much a hive, which is a mere home for the 
honey-bee; but rather a complete, elaborate, handsome apiarian appa- 
ratus or laboratory supplied with every facility for observation, in- 
struction and experiment. I have long been of the belief that full 
justice — if not more than justice — has been done to cheap, home- 
made, simple contrivances for keeping and observing these most fas- 
cinating and useful members of the insect world. That it is an 
expensive hive I admit. That I have purposely made it so, I also 
admit ; and I strongly advise that it be ordered only in oak or in 
ash, the wood to be as highly polished as possible. No patent has 
been put upon the hive and the purchaser pays only for the material 
and the labor. I have made such arrangements with the company 
which manufactures and places it in the market, that I am convinced 
they are* doing it without any pecuniary profit, trusting for that to 
come from an increasing interest which this hive will excite in bees, 
and therefore an increase in orders for the ordinary apiarian goods. 

The Complete Hive: — As set up in my laboratory, there are placed 
in the entire hive ten frames in base, ten in observation chamber, 
three in "travelling hives" (at top) and twelve in flying cage — thus 
a total of thirty-five. The flying cage holds twenty frames, but it is 
preferable to put in not over twelve — two sets of three each on each 
support. It would be even better, perhaps, to put fewer frames in 
the flying cage when it is used in connection with the rest of the 

It is also intended that usually only one frame shall be put in each 
half of the two observation chambers. This arrangement brings 
under full observation the outsides (half of whole frame) as follows 
— two in base, two in observation chamber, four in travelling hives, 
four in flying cage. There will also be seen fairly well the inside 
surfaces of the four frames (one of each set) nearest the center of 
the flying cage. Thus there are visible sixteen sides of frames or 
an equivalent in sides of an entire eight-frame ordinary hive. But 
in actual practice, this Educational Hive gives an equivalent of two 
eight-frame hives, .fully under observation, because as the two sides 
of any one frame are usually about the same, a full observation of 
an ordinary hive would show eight different combs, or stages of 
progress in the work, while this Educational Hive shows sixteen dif- 
ferent frames under observation at once. And as has been previously 
explained, if it is desired to crowd the hive to fairly full capacity, 
there would be a storage or " base of supplies " in nineteen additional 




frames (not visible), a total of thirty-five. Thus it will be readily 
seen that the hive is of enormous capacity for observation or work, 
and admits of a great variety of combinations and arrangements, to 
meet the needs of experiment, or to suit the fancy of the operator. 

The entire structure full of frames would hold forty-three, of which 
twelve sides would be easily under observation at one time. (When 
the flying cage is filled with frames, of course no interior surfaces 

fc 7T*T 





Side view of the Bigelow Educational Hive, showing storage of honey in outside frame at base, 
three rows of developing queen-cells in observation chamber, four full sections of honey in super, 
and brood, honey and bees working in " travelling hive" at top 

are visible. When fewer than twelve frames are put in. if separated, 
more than four interiors may be seen.) This is in addition to eight 
outside sections in super, and gives full facilities for exhibition of 
the stages of comb making, the storage of honey, the cell structures, 
the queen, the drone and the worker brood, and a variety of novel 

206 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

There is ample room under, above, and between the two tiers of 
frames in the Hying cage for any form or for several forms of base 
feeders such as the Page, or the Miller. 

Between the one frame and the two frame hives at the top of the 
main division are two glass-jar feeders, in which the bees are suck- 
ing downwards (feeding from underside) the syrup. In all others 
they are sucking it upwards (feeding from top). The hive as a 
whole is designed to be set up at some distance from the window or 
other exit through the wall of a building, for temporary exhibition at 
a fair, a museum or for special visitors' day at a school (when it is 
not convenient to take a large number of visitors to the regular loca- 
tion of the hive in another part of the building). 

In devising this form, I have bad in mind also an exhibition in 
the center of large stores. To the store keeper this would be a novel 
and excellent advertisement to attract people to the store, to the 
apiarist a source of income for the placing and the renting of the 
hive and contents, and to the advancement of bee-keeping, because 
producing an increased interest on the part of the public. 

Bod\ of Hive: — This holds ten regular frames, a "base of sup- 
plies," a brood chamber and force of bees. One side of each of the 
two outside frames is visible. It is recommended that stored honey 
in full (as in the illustration) be shown in this. 

Observation Chamber: — Designed especially to show processes of 
queen rearing. This chamber is of extra depth, and the glass (as in 
body and super) are readily removable. Frames may be taken out 
or put in at the side. These chambers (two made by an especially 
deep padded division board) are automatically filled or emptied (as 
are the one frame and two frame " travelling hives " above the 
super). This is done by a system of slides — a long slide covering 
plain slot and a Porter bee-escape slot in base of chamber to be filled, 
and a long plain slot corresponding in length to both above it, in the 
base below the operating chamber. 

When the slide in the base of the operating chamber is out, bees 
go in or out. When the slide is half way in, bees go out only; and 
by pushing the slide fully in, bees go neither in nor out. Thus one 
or more brood-frames in either chamber may be isolated or emptied 
of bees by manipulating this slide. The same principle is applied to 
the bases of the one-frame and the two-frame travelling hives and 
to the magnifying feeder. 

Super: — This has thirty-two full sections, each four by five inches, 
the entire one side of eight being plainly visible. 

One-Frame and Two-Frame Travelling Hives: — These have the 
automatic filling, emptying and isolating devices by a system of two 
slots, two slides and bee-escape, as explained under the head of obser- 




o >> 


3 S 

3 u 

-> B 



• B 



THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

vation chamber. They are fastened by hooks to the super cover, and 
are easily isolated or carried to any distance. I have carried a one- 
frame with the queen, and about five thousand workers and one hun- 
dred drones, to the four normal schools in the State of Michigan. I 
spent a week at three of these schools and a day at the fourth. 
When the frame was not in use before public audiences, the bees 
went out to view the country and to gather material. The hive was 
placed on the lawn, or by an open window in schoolroom or in my 
room at the hotel, and the sliding wire net before the entrance at the 
lower part of one end was drawn out. When I arrived home the 
entire swarm was in better condition than it was when I started. 

A large reading glass, preferably one five inches in diameter, makes more interesting and easier to 

observe all the activities of the hive. 

Magnifying Feeder: — This is regarded by many persons as the 
most original, novel and interesting part of the hive. It is fully 
described in the booklet previously mentioned. 

Fixing Cage: — Three sides of this are of glass, the fourth being 
of wire netting. Ordinary frames may be placed in it, but it is made 
of special depth so that rustic sticks may be placed on supports, so 
that the bees may build natural combs, and not the shallow, square- 
cornered combs of the artificial frames. When thus used separately 
with the exit open into the free air (not into the main portion of the 
hive) it becomes an observation box hive, or the interior of the 
original bee tree, with combs on any sort of sticks, and of any length 


that the bees see fit to build. By having a hole in the center of the 
cover board, a super or any other apparatus may be placed above it. 
But for this purpose the writer prefers the original straw hive, and 
thus in one complete structure would be shown the interior of the 
original bee tree, the first steps in hive making (the straw hive above 
it) and at the left a complete modern hive with most improved ex- 
perimental apparatus and accessories. 

The use of a hand-lens five inches in diameter makes any part of 
the hive, or of any structure, or the movements of the bees more 
readily and effectively seen and is strongly advised. 

I believe this hive to be worthy of the subject. It is a great and 
unusual convenience. Its facilities are unlimited, and it will soon 
become a joy to the purchaser, especially if he will use it for the 
study of the Apis mellffica. 

My best wish to you, my reader, is that you may obtain as much 
instruction and enjoyment in the use of this hive as I have found. 
I own three complete with about forty-five sides of frames under con- 
stant observation. 

If you can't get the whole, start with the one-frame travelling hive. 
Watch the two sides, and be happy — and dream of getting more hives 
and more happiness. 



Lecturer in the University of Colorado 

One of the last papers written by Dr. A. S. Packard was on 
the origin of the markings of organisms, with criticisms of the 
commonly-held theories regarding mimicry in butterflies. 1 I do 
not propose to discuss this essay in detail, but merely to point out 
how well it exposes our ignorance of common things — things 
which any intelligent child might observe. The whole of it (58 
pages) is interesting and suggestive, and whatever one may be- 
lieve as to the validity of Dr. Packard's deductions, it is well 
worth reading. 

It is well known that certain butterflies exhibit a wonderful 
" cryptic coloration " — that is to say, they resemble their sur- 
roundings to such an extent that they can hardly be seen when at 

1 The Origin of the Markings of Organisms (Poecilogenesis) Due to the 
Physical rather than the Biological Environment ; with criticisms of the 
Bates-Muller Hypotheses. Proc. Amer. Philosophical Society. Vol. 43, 
No. 178. Read Dec. 2, 1904. 

210 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

rest. The Asiatic leaf-butterfly ( Kallima ) is quite familiar in 
museums, and from pictures in nature books ; but our own hedge- 
rows provide sufficiently good example among the comma-butter- 
flies (Grapta) and others. It has further been observed that in 
numerous instances different species of butterflies resemble one 
another ; and when this is so, usually one of the pair is apparently 
protected from the attacks of birds by its nauseous taste. It is 
not necessary to go into further details about protective coloration 
and mimicry — there are plenty of available discussions of these 
matters — but we may say at once that those who have paid most 
attention to these phenomena believe that they result from the 
action of natural selection preserving those individual butterflies 
which most resemble their surroundings, or most closely resemble 
species which are recognized as inedible. By a succession of 
such choices, extending over a long period, the butterfly-type is 
supposed to have been gradually altered, until the results that we 
see today were produced. Various modifications of the theory 
thus briefly outlined have been proposed, but all depend in the 
main upon the assumption that butterflies are habitually eaten by 
birds — so much so as to make the avoidance of such a catastrophe 
one of the chief cares, as it were, of butterfly existence. 

Now comes Dr. Packard and asks, are butterflies eaten by 
birds/ It is admitted, of course, that birds do sometimes eat 
butterflies; but do they do so habitually? If butterflies are in no 
more danger from birds, the world over, than men are from lions 
and tigers, let us say, then do not these theories of mimicry and 
the like fall to the ground? 

Dr. Packard says that in July, 1901, for the first time in his 
life, having for over forty years observed and collected insects, he 
actually saw a bird chase a butterfly. Dr. J. B. Smith, the well- 
known entomologist of Xew Jersey, affirms that only once has he 
seen a bird chase a butterfly. Dr. W. M. Wheeler, of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History in New York, has never seen 
birds pursuing butterflies. Dr. Needham, of Illinois, a most ex- 
pert observer, has never seen a bird chase and eat a butterfly, nor 
have any of his students seen it. Dr. S. H. Scudder, author of 
the greatest work on American butterflies, affirms that only once 
in New England has he seen proof that birds catch butterflies. 

There is some evidence on the other side. Thus Prof. J. Ken- 
nel, of Dorpat, watched a pair of warblers feed their five young 

cockerell] BIRDS AND BUTTERFLIES 21 1 

all day long with butterflies. One of the species caught, how- 
ever, was Vanessa urticae (the tortoise-shell butterfly), which at 
rest exhibits decidedly " cryptic " colors. Taking the whole of 
the facts as presented, we are forced to admit that the opinion 
that birds habitually eat butterflies to such an extent as to pro- 
duce the results that current hypotheses demand, is much more a 
" pious opinion " than a statement of known facts. 

However, when we go again over the evidence, with a more 
critical eve, there is one thing that strikes us at once. Nearlv all 
of it has been gleaned accidentally, at haphazard, as it were ; or 
(in a minority of instances) is the result of careful observation 
continued only for a very short time. Birds and butterflies are 
everywhere : but who has really gone at this problem seriously ? 
Did the reader ever see a hawk catch a bird or a mouse ? Did he 
ever see a butterfly hatch from the chrysalis in the wild state? — 
there are many things which occur constantly all around us, to 
our certain knowledge, but we do not see them. Naturalists are 
not much better than others, for they are usually on the lookout 
for their particular " game," to the exclusion of everything else. 
Who, in these busy days, will sit still somewhere for a couple of 
hours, and just see what happoisf Probably the most important 
testimony, so far as it goes, is that of Mr. S. D. Tudd, of the 
Department of Agriculture, who has spent so much time examin- 
ing the stomach-contents of birds. He says : " I do not know of 
a kind that feeds upon butterflies during any month of the year 
to the extent of one-tenth of one per cent, of its food." It may 
be urged, against this, that butterflies are hard to recognize in 
birds' stomachs (the wings having usually been discarded), and 
also, that a small per cent, of the food of a common bird means a 
great many butterflies. 

I believe that the argument that birds are not often seen to 
chase butterflies is a fallacious one. The flight of butterflies 
usually protects them from capture on the wing, and the very fact 
of the development of so many colors which are " cryptic " when 
the insect is at rest, points to the time of the greatest danger. 
Who can find the butterflies on a dull day? Here is an exercise 
for sharp eyes, and if followed up by taking photographs of the 
resting insects among the foliage, would be both exciting and 
profitable to science. 

Probably the best facts for or asrainst the theories discussed are 

2 12 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

to be obtained by watching birds feed their young, as Professor 
Kennel did. What children will volunteer to watch a bluebird's 
nest or a sparrow's for a week, and note every butterfly brought 
there by the old birds ? 

For myself, I believe that the selection theories are correct. 
But whether they are or not, we want the facts, and plenty of 
them. What we need so much in biology is an adequate series of 
little observations, accurately made. Those little things which 
are "hardly worth noting" become the very basis of broad gen- 
eralizations. We may not all devise new theories, but everyone 
who has a good mind and is honest may make new observations. 

What is worth noting? What is of interest? That depends 
so much on the way we look at it. Perhaps you have read Ham- 
merton's directions for conversing about a rat, in "The Intel- 
lectual Life "? We may borrow the thought, but change the in- 
stance. Here is a piece of information, which I promise yon is 
new: — When in Roswell, New Mexico, a few years ago, I bred 
a fly, Frontina frenchii, from Anosia plexippus. A trifling and 
uninteresting piece of information, yon say; everyone knows 
about the parasites of Lepidoptera. But let me try again : — The 
milkweed butterfly (Anosia plexippus) is one of the protected 
forms, trenerallv understood to be inedible. Scudder at first be- 
lieved that it was also protected from parasites in the larva and 
pupa state, and W r allace cited this opinion in his " Darwinism." 
Smce then, however, it has been found that it has some parasites, 
and four species have been recorded. One of them was named 
Frontina archippivora, from archippus, a name by which the 
butterfly used to he known. When at Roswell, New Mexico, a 
few years ago, I was so fortunate as to breed from A. plexippus 
an additional parasite, closely allied to the one just mentioned. 
It was Frontina frenchii, of Williston, and was kindly determined 
for me by Mr. Coquillett of the National Museum. 


Extracts from 24th Annual Report of Public Education Association of Philadelphia 

No subject ever taken up by the Association has met with such 
popular interest and support as has the school-garden movement, 

'Attention of those interested is called to the story of the Gardens by 
their Supervisor, in the April Booklover's Magazine. 


now entering on its second season. The part of the Association 
in it has been that of the friend only; for from the beginning the 
Board of Public Education, and especially Mr. H. H. Hubbert, 
Chairman of the Committee under whose charge it came, listened 
to the plea for this work to be undertaken. In Councils it has 
found warm friends and none more so than Mr. George Mc- 
Curdy, the President of Common Council. The history of school 
gardens in Philadelphia already well shows that it matters not so 
much whether the ideas of one or another group of individuals 
are carried out as that the work shall be sanctioned and supported 
by the people. It is because school-gardens have from the start 
been conducted as a legitimate part of free public education in 
Philadelphia that the pride and interest in them have been so 
widespread and immediate. There is no interest more potent 
than that bred of ownership, and there is no question but that the 
response of the educational and financial authorities of the city to 
the movement for school-gardens in Philadelphia, which has come 
in an astonishingly short time, is due to their pride that this work, 
which was immediately successful, is being conducted, not pri- 
vately, but as a part of the public school system. It appears that 
the public is really interested in a movement only when public 
money is invested in it and the prestige of the city at stake. An 
amusing incident at the West Philadelphia Garden this year 
shows that even the children appreciate the assumption of this 
work by the city. 'Who's givin' us this garden?" said a little 
girl one day. " The Board of Education," was the Supervisor's 
reply. " H'm ! Gettin' wiser every day," was the comment. 

One of the respects in which we feel most definitely the wisdom 
of the school-garden experiment is in its reaction upon the schools. 
The introduction of industrial education into the schools is a sub- 
ject that is being much discussed in America to-day. The public, 
generally, is demanding it, and the subject is under discussion in 
one of our committees, but some experienced teachers of manual 
training, notably the principal of our Central Manual Training 
High. School, Mr. William L. Sayre, do not believe such a course 
wise. Thev caution us against overtaxing the mental and bodily 
strength of children, believing also that the educational value of 
manual training is best conserved by restricting it to the high 
school period. School gardening is a very practical form of in- 
dustrial training, and to its introduction no educator has given 

214 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

aught but encouragement. We believe the effect of the gardens 
upon the schools will be seen next fall in the Taggart School, for 
the 250 children of the 5th and Porter Streets School-Garden 
practically all come from that one school. 

On March 8, 1904, our Association petitioned the Board of 
Public Education to establish two school gardens, and the Coun- 
cils to provide the money for them. An appropriation for the 
purpose was finally passed on May 5, and on May 24 and 28 
respectively, two gardens were planted, with radishes, beans, 
lettuce, and other vegetables, arranged around a central plot of 

The first garden was in the heart of the most crowded foreign 
district of the city, at Weccacoe Square, 5th and Catherine Streets, 
the property of the city. The second garden was at 56th and 
Lansdowne Avenue, on private property which was lent for the 
purpose by Mr. John Wanamaker. 

At each garden were 250 individual plots 4^ x 11^ feet, each of 
which w r as assigned to one of the boys or girls of the upper gram- 
mar grades, who applied by hundreds, from the schools near the 
gardens. In addition to the individual plots, there were eighteen 
general plots at each garden, where were grown grains for the 
observation and instruction of all. About one-third of the space 
at each garden was devoted to a playground. These playgrounds 
proved of benefit chiefly to boy and girls of about tw r elve years of 
age, for whom the street is the only alternative — since the thirty 
or more playgrounds opened in the school-yards each summer, by 
the Board of Public Education, are used almost beyond their 
capacity by the young children of the neighborhood. The shaded 
playgrounds served to hold the children during the hot hours of 
the summer between the morning weeding, picking, and planting, 
and the evening watering. 

Between May 15th and June 30th, and again from September 
8th to October 8th. the little farmers were at school, when the 
hours from four to six were the only times that the children could 
work in the gardens. For the teachers, however, all the hours 
were fully occupied ; in the spring they had to prepare lessons, 
seeds, roll-books, etc., and in the fall to explain the methods and 
purpose of the work to the numerous eager visitors, and to teach 
the classes brought by the teachers of neighboring schools for 
observation. In the early hours they also prepared the nature- 


study materials for the schools. Nature-study lessons were given 
to the visiting classes by the garden teachers, and materials for 
nature-stud}- were grown and sent to schools when requested. 
On Saturdays, both teachers and pupils were occupied at the gar- 
dens all day. By the 535 individual plots, farmed in the course of 
the summer by ~-$ children, by the playgrounds — open to the 
neighborhood, by the 48 visiting classes from schools, and the 
nature-study materials sent to 285 schools, altogether it will be 
seen that several thousand children benefited by the gardens and 
the attached playgrounds. 

The average daily attendance in the Weccacoe School-garden 
was 150. in the playground 100. The total number actually work- 
ing the 250 individual plots in the course of this one summer, at 
this one garden of about a half acre, was 400. The number of 
children who began at the beginning and staid to the end was 71, 
in spite of the fact that others were waiting to take the places of 
any that became irregular or careless. Some waited in vain all 
summer. The estimate of produce per plot from this hard clay 
ground, where even a second dressing and ploughing had brought 
to light only a second crop of bricks, was 225 radishes, 40 beets, 
one peck of string beans, 25 heads of lettuce, 100 small turnips, 
two small heads of cabbage, and peas which, however, failed be- 
cause eaten by the sparrows. The number of schools supplied 
with nature-study materials from this garden was twenty-two, of 
classes visiting the garden, thirty-seven. 

For this year, every one of last year's 400 children, and as many 
more, again have begged for plots, but the Square is not again 
available. The downtown garden is located this year at Fifth and 
Porter Streets, opposite the Taggart School, whose teachers are 
already asking for class plots, and are giving such cooperation to 
the garden work that the educational side of the work, — which 
was the reason for its incorporation in the school system, — will 
probably find a far greater development than was possible during 
the first year. At date of writing, the attendance at this garden, 
purely voluntary, ranges from eighty per cent, to ninety-five per 
cent, per week, showing how the children regard the " work." 

At 56th and Lansdowne Avenue there were 285 individual and 
ten general plots, farmed in the course of the five months by a 
total of 375 children. Average attendance at the playground all 
day was forty, in the garden 1000. One hundred and ninety-one 

216 THE NATURE-STUDY REUIEIV [i, 5, sept. 1905 

of the children that began work at the beginning of the season 
were still there at the end. The produce per lot is here estimated 
at 225 radishes, 1 pint peas, 115 tomatoes, 1^ pecks lima beans, 
10 heads of lettuce, and 10 carrots. Because of the vicinity of 
this garden to the country, in spare moments wild flowers could 
be collected for the schools, and the number of schools supplied 
with materials for nature study, language, and drawing materials 
from this one garden reached the large total of 263. Eleven 
classes from neighboring schools visited the gardens for lessons 
in nature-study. 

This garden is open again this summer, until October 15, and it 
is hoped that a closer connection with the schools may be added 
to the features of its success last year. Already kindergarten 
classes have planted class plots. Visitors are welcome at both 
gardens, and the teachers say that no critic ever remains a critic 
after once seeing the children at work. 

Registered visitors at the two gardens numbered 486. Many 
more came and did not register. Many were teachers ; many 
came from other cities. The public interest in the work is great 
and is growing. How fully it appeals to the children is indicated 
by the numbers from whom the choice for plots was made, in 
order of application : 544 boys and 458 girls made written ap- 
plications for the 535 plots, and every one of them and many more 
have applied for this summer. Donations to the amount of 
$91.09 were made to the Weccacoe School Garden by fourteen 
persons, members of our Association and others, for extra plow- 
ing, for a tent against the hot sun, and for games for the play- 
grounds. The newspapers gave great assistance, frequently pub- 
lishing illustrated news articles. 

The unqualified success of the gardens and the unquestioned 
benefits to children of garden work have spread the popularity of 
the movement until now a garden is asked for in nearly every 
ward in the city. Although the state of the city's finances may 
prevent so large an extension, from two to forty-two next year, at 
least it is hoped that the number of those maintained by the city 
may be increased from two to six. 

Extension of the movement has led to a discussion of the train- 
ing of teachers for garden work and the suggestion has been 
made that a course in the teaching of gardening might be intro- 
duced next winter into the Normal School, as has already been 


done in normal schools in Massachusetts, Illinois, and Missouri. 
Without trained teachers, gardens can have little educational 

The work done by the gardens in supplying nature materials to 
the schools should also be extended. The schools have found in 
the gardens a supply for language, drawing, and nature lessons. 
From the time the schools opened, on September 8, until October 
8, when the gardens closed, the gardens were visited almost daily 
by one or more kindergarten or grade elasses from the various 
public schools near them. Each class filed through the garden, 
and received a lesson from one of the garden teachers on the 
vegetables grown. A part of one such lesson overheard was a 
comparison of one vegetable of which the root is eaten, with an- 
other in which the leaves are eaten, and still another in which the 
fruit, or the seed is used. In addition to those visits to the ear- 
dens, a large number of schools, from all over the city indeed, sent 
requests to the gardens for supplies of specimen plants, leaves, or 
flowers for use at school, to be drawn, studied, and written about. 

This use of the gardens as a supply depot has led to the sug- 
gestion that the city should continue throughout the year this ex- 
cellent method of assistance to its regular school teachers, in order 
to make the work of the schools more alive. By retaining the 
garden teachers regularly through all but the coldest months, to 
supply nature materials to the schools, schools could be supplied 
throughout the fall and spring, and the balance of the time in 
winter be used by the teachers for the necessary study and vaca- 

A further suggestion for the extension of the playgrounds that 
were run in connection with the gardens is that every school-yard 
in the city should be open to the free play of children during all 
the daylight hours. More games are needed for the playgrounds, 
and our readers are asked to see if they have not some unused 
basket-ball, tennis, croquet, or quoit set, or other game to send to 
the gardens. Games, especially team games, are preferred to 
gymnastic apparatus, because they develop social responsibility 
and encourage physical development without endangering life and 

2i8 THE NATURE-STUDY KEl'IEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 


Director of Hartford School of Horticulture 

The United States Department of Agriculture is fostering a school- 
garden enterprise connected with the Franklin Normal School in 
Washington, D. C. The Department has given the use of one acre 
of ground, and a small greenhouse has been turned over to the 
teacher who has charge of the botany and garden work at the normal 

Cleveland, Ohio, was the first city to distribute to the school chil- 
dren seeds in one cent packages. More than 140,000 penny packages 
were sold in 1904, and more than double that number in 1905. Forty 
schools in the city exhibit the fruits of their gardens. 

The Courier of Evansville, Indiana, has given prizes for the 
best flower gardens produced by school children. Also for the best 
essay on " How a school boy or girl by home work can best improve 

The City Federation of Woman's Clubs of Saginaw, Mich., has 
stimulated the children in school-garden work by giving a $25 banner 
flasf to the school which showed the best results with the facilities 
afforded them. This flag remains the property of the school winning 
it for the year in which it is won, but will be put up for competition 
each succeeding year. 

At Amherst, Mass., the experiment of the past two seasons of hav- 
ing gardens for school children has been very successful. The chil- 
dren paid one dollar each for their gardens, instruction, and seeds. 
The gardens were 8 x 50 ft. each. The project was started by Mr. 
Hardy, Superintendent of Schools ; and the practical work was in 
charge of Professor F. A. Waugh and his assistants of the Horti- 
cultural Department of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Joliet, Illinois, has eighty acres in public school grounds. These 
have over 30,000 trees on them. One school lot has a peach orchard 
in which the fruit ripens unmolested. 

Superintendent O. J. Kern, of Winnebago County in Illinois, 
formed a Farmers' Boys' Experiment Club in 1892. This Club now 
has a membership of about 350 boys. Superintendent Kern arranges 
monthly lectures for the club in winter. One or more excursions are 
taken every year. Most of the boys have home gardens. Last season 
Winnebago Co. had school-gardens in 73 districts. 

Ten new school-gardens were started in Minneapolis last spring. 
The University of Minnesota aided in the work. 

It is said that in Cleveland, Ohio, sixty-five thousand children have 
gardens either at home or at school. 

hemenway] SCHOOL-G ARDEX NOTES 219 

Prizes were given at the last West Michigan State Fair for the 
best exhibits of vegetables and of flowers grown in school-gardens, 
and in home gardens under school direction. 

The pupils of one school in Newark, N. J., went into the peanut 
business to obtain money to buy seeds for the school-garden. 

Walter D. Ross of Worcester, Mass., a seedsman and dealer in 
agricultural supplies, gave to the value of over $125 in seeds and 
fertilizers the last season to the Worcester schools for use in their 

Thirteen school-gardens have recently been established at Grenada, 
West Indies, at a cost of about $825. 

Thirtv-five school-gardens, each connected with a high school 
where elementary agriculture and gardening will be taught, have just 
been established in the Philippine Islands by the Board of Education. 

More than one hundred cities and towns in the United States now 
have school-gardens connected with at least a part of their schools. 

School-gardens have been conducted in the Hawaiian Islands since 

New York City has appropriated $5,000 for maintaining children's 
gardens in DeWitt Clinton Park in the summer of 1905. 

The City of Philadelphia set aside $3,500 for maintaining and 
establishing children's gardens in that city. Probably the largest 
school-garden in the United States, if not in the world, is in Phila- 
delphia. It covers four acres of land, and 1,200 children have a 
plot 12 x 15 feet each. It is conducted by the Civic Club. 

The Schoolhouse Commission in Boston bought a lot adjoining the 
Hancock School, tore down the tenement which stood on it, fenced 
the lot and turned it over to the teachers for a school-garden. The 
Street Department furnished the sweepings and the children did the 

Park land is used for children's gardens in New York City, Boston, 
Worcester, Mass., and Hartford, Conn. 

The School-Garden Association, Station A, Boston, Mass., has been 
formed to supply one cent packages of seed to school-children. Its 
work is not confined to any city or state. A booklet of planting in- 
structions is sent with each order. 

The school-garden work at the School of Horticulture in Hartford, 
Conn., is attracting considerable attention. Besides persons from 
various places in the United States who have recently visited the 
gardens, there were a member of the School Board from London, 
England, a lady from Hamburg, Germany, and a lady from England. 
The latter remained for six weeks, taking a regular course. 

220 THE NATURE-STUDY REl'IEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 


[Editorial Note. — The following notes from The Plant World, the official 
organ of the Wild Flower Preservation Society of America, deserve wide 
circulation among nature-study teachers, who in turn can reach the 

It is to the interest of everyone that beautiful and characteristic 
plants be guarded from extermination. It is believed that every 
one will be ready to aid in this work if once he or she fully realizes 
the danger with which these plants are now threatened. 

It is not our wish to discourage unnecessarily the gathering of 
wild flowers and ferns for decorative purposes. We ask only that 
they be picked with care and discrimination. Such a flower, for 
example, as the blue-bell should always be cut with the scissors 
or a knife, rather than picked, to prevent its being uprooted ; and, 
even when cut, care should be taken to gather it only where it 
grows most abundantly, that no picturesque tuft be so completely 
done away with as to set no seeds for another year. Where there 
is an especially fine plant or colon} - , or where there is a single 
plant or a small colony, why not leave at least half the flowers 
for seed, in the one case giving nature a chance to perpetuate and 
develop the best, and in the other helping nature to extend her 
work of beautifying our surroundings ? 

The pink lady's-slipper, or moccasin-flower, the purple fringed 
orchid, the calopogon, pogonia, and indeed all the orchids, should 
be cut (not picked) fairly high up the stem, leaving, whenever 
possible, the lower leaves intact. 

If these flowers are not to be exterminated, they should not be 
gathered at all unless found growing very abundantly, and then 
onlv in moderation. Such fragile blossoms are more effective if 
not heavily massed, but arranged in a few sprays by themselves. 

From the purchase of the rarer flowers, especially of the purple 
fringed orchid, sabbatia, fringed gentians, or mayflower, we urge 
every one to abstain. Children sometimes offer them for sale, 
innocently enough ; but those who buy, and so induce the gather- 
ing and selling, are the most dangerous enemies of all rare salable 

The bunch-berry is another plant which is less abundant now 
than it was a few years ago, owing, we fear, to careless uprooting ; 
and it stands in need of protection. 

Ferns, also, should be picked with care, and not too freely. 


unless in spots where they are unusually abundant. The same 
caution should be used against breaking branches from shrubs 
and trees in so rude a fashion as not only to cause a temporary 
disfigurement, but perhaps a permanent injury. The hobble-bush, 
whose effective leaves and brilliant berries decorate gaily the 
woods of late summer, is frequently a victim to careless picking. 

The flowers growing in the immediate neighborhood of the 
roadside are a joy to the many. Is it too much to ask that these 
be left to delight the eyes of the passer-by, and that the flowers 
desired for decorative purposes be sought a few feet from the 
highway or even from the trail ? These roadside plants are con- 
stantly enjoyed by those who by reason of age or some infirmity 
could otherwise never see them. Were this once realized, few 
would hesitate to take the trouble entailed by half a dozen extra 

Many of the most effective flowers may be gathered, away from 
the wayside, without fear of doing any permanent injury. Daisies, 
buttercups, clover, wild roses, meadow-sweet, steeplebush, asters, 
goldenrod, and other vigorous and abundantly growing plants 
will yield ample material for decoration, and may be gathered 
almost with impunity. 

To sum up we urge: (i) Moderation. (Not gathering too 
many flowers of the same kind in one locality. ) (2) Care. (The 
use of scissors or knife.) (3) Judgment. (Guarding the road- 
side and conspicuous locations.) (4) Occasional total abstinence. 
(In case of especially rare flowers.) 


Bills to prohibit the use of the new automatic shot-gun in hunt- 
ing birds will be introduced in all Legislatures which convene 
next winter. The New York Zoological Society and the League 
of American Sportsmen have decided to send delegations to the 
capitols of these various States, to urge the passage of these bills. 
It will require a large outlay of money for travelling expenses, 
printing, postage, clerk hire, etc., to conduct this campaign prop- 
erly, and all persons interested in the preservation of song, insec- 
tiverous, and game birds, are requested to contribute to a special 
fund which is being created for this purpose. 

A new line of automatic shot-guns, consisting of five different 

222 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

models, has lately been put on the market by the gun trust, which 
is backed by millions of dollars of capital, and it is understood 
that these people will spend any amount of money necessary in 
a desperate effort to defeat the legislation we have undertaken to 

The automatic shot-gun is essentially a market hunter's and a 
pot hunter's weapon. The decent sportsmen of the country are a 
unit in opposition to its use in the field ; but it will require more 
than the combined efforts of any one class of people to shut it out 
of the market. 

This appeal is therefore directed to all humanitarians ; to all 
who believe in decency and moderation in the hunting of birds ; 
to all who believe that a reasonable number of our birds should 
be spared each year in order that they may propagate their 
species ; and finally, to the men and women of America who do 
not believe in the killing of birds for sport at any time. There 
are strong and cogent reasons why all shooting of American 
wild birds should be prohibited, at least for a time ; but this is im- 
possible at present. Then let us curtail the killing. Let us limit 
the number of birds which any man may kill in a day, and by all 
means let us provide by law that whatever killing is done shall 
be done with decent weapons. 

There are good people in this country who are contributing 
millions of dollars every year for the establishment of hospitals, 
libraries, fresh air homes and excursions for the poor of the great 
cities, and for other worthy charities and philanthropies. Why 
should not a few thousand dollars be contributed by such people 
for the preservation of the bird life of this country? If poor chil- 
dren are to be sent into the country each summer ; if consump- 
tives or other sufferers are to be sent to retreats in the mountains 
to escape the ravages of disease ; why not provide something for 
the preservation of birds, in order that these invalids or these poor 
children may be cheered by songs and sights which add to the 
attractiveness of their rural retreats? Why should not the insec- 
tivorous birds, which do so much to save the fruits and farm 
products of this country, be protected from the wretches who use 
automatic shot guns ? 

The great libraries are being provided with hundreds of books 
descriptive of birds and bird life. We should provide that people 
who read these books and who may afterward go to the country 
mav have a chance to see the birds they have read about. 


The automatic shot-gun is one of the most serious menaces ever 
instituted against the bird life of this country. It is a veritable 
murdering machine. Let us legislate it out of existence, and to 
this extent, at least, provide for saving a few of our remaining 
birds from destruction. 

In Europe, where a careful balance is maintained between 
propagation and destruction, it has been found necessary to pro- 
hibit the use of all repeating rifles and guns. Let us not be be- 
hind Europe in this same measure. 

Checks for this war fund should be made payable to the order 
of the New York Zoological Society, and mailed to the office of 
its Game Protection Department, 1269 Broadway, N. Y. 

This appeal is signed by Henry F. Osborn, Vice-President, 
Madison Grant, Secretary, W. T. Hornaday, Director of the 
New York Zoological Society ; and Ernest T. Seton, Vice-Presi- 
dent, G. O. Shields, President, of League of American Sports- 
men. [Shields' Magazine.] 


The following suggestions have recently been issued in the 
form of a circular to the teachers in one of the largest education 
districts in the colony. The suggestions have been adapted from 
an Interim Report to a Committee of the Educational Section of 
the British Association. The circular is intended to indicate the 
Spirit and Method in which teachers are to conduct nature-study, 
rather than to point out the subjects to be dealt with. 

Suggestions for Nature- Study 

Any development of nature teaching in the schools finds an 
easv starting-point in the object-lesson. But the object must be 
present if the lesson is to be real. If the elephant can be repre- 
sented only by a picture, that is a reason for giving lessons about 
something else until it is possible to adjourn to a menagerie. 
Where flowers or stones are required, let them be provided in 
sufficient quantity to give every child a specimen. Let these be 
distributed at once, so that the children may start with their own 
observations. This will require training, and the teacher will 
spend much time in discussing with the children what is seen. 
He can range where he likes, provided he keeps in mind the 

224 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

cardinal principles of observation, experiment, and the spirit of 

A good way of ensuring that children really do observe is to 
ask them to make drawings from the specimens before them. 
Drawings can be corrected more rapidly by the teacher than writ- 
ten accounts : but written accounts should also be asked for. 
Whilst the drawing is being done, there ought not to be any 
sketch on the blackboard which would serve as a guide. 

Several teachers of repute have recently drawn attention to the 
cycle of the seasons as the best ruling idea for the arrangement 
of any scheme of nature lessons. There can be no better guar- 
antee that the teaching really will be based on observation and 
experiment. In summer there is endless material. In winter it 
is more difficult to realize the opportunities of the moment ; but 
the long nights favour astronomy, the bare earth suggests geol- 
ogy, the weather is always a source of anxiety and interest, the 
frost without, and fire within suggest lessons on heat and cold. 

For younger children the topic for the object-lesson may very 
well be chosen from week to week, and may depend simply on 
what is most available ; for the upper standards will rightly wish 
to plan some more systematic course. But this plan should re- 
tain some elasticity in order to fit with the season. 

The study of living things from the experimental side may be 
regarded as suitable for elementary schools. It satisfies the fol- 
lowing important requirements : 

(1) It can be made experimental, and most of the experiments 
are such as can be repeated by the pupils. The experiments are 
often of a continuous character, and afford some training in 
measurement and recording. It is wise to emphasize the quanti- 
tative side of many of the experiments. 

(2) The subject forms a connected series of lessons, the later 
work developing in right sequence out of the earlier. 

(3) The experimental teaching in school is easily linked to the 
outdoor life of field and hedgerow with which country children 
are familiar. Again, it is illustrated readily by practical ex- 
amples drawn from the work on the garden and on the farm so 
that the children learn that school work may have a bearing on 
their after life. 

While plant and animal life form very generally suitable indoor 
subjects for elementary schools, there should be a good deal of 


flexibility about tbe nature of the accompanying outdoor work. 
With some teachers gardening, with others field botany or geol- 
ogy, forms the accompaniment. The teacher should be en- 
couraged to develop a specialty according to his own tastes and 
the advantages or restrictions of his locality. 

It is now within the power of teachers to take the school out of 
doors for a lesson and to count it in the time-table. 

Every syllabus that includes the shadow of a stick at noon or 
the nightly turning of the Southern Cross prescribes topics which 
it is impossible to treat practically in lessons held at 2 130 in the 
afternoon. But this is just the reason why the routine of school 
work may be broken to allow children to witness interesting or 
exceptional natural phenomena the times of the occurrence of 
which are not within our control. 

In schools which possess a garden much can be done in it by 
the children. Simple experiments in assimilation, pollination, 
grafting, &c, can be tried. Where classification is studied the 
making of order beds by the children is a great assistance. When 
it is impossible to work in the garden, experiments may be carried 
on in window-boxes. 

Excursions should be made to roads and fields at all times of 
the year. Even in towns it is possible to study the branching of 
trees and unfolding of buds and to become familiar with the 
aspects of different trees in winter, spring, and summer. 

To give definiteness to outdoor work some questions to be 
answered may be set before starting to talk, and answers to them 
written out afterwards. Composition should be correlated with 
observation and experiment. 

Those who are not naturalists by hobby may do much to en- 
courage children by giving their moral support to the simple in- 
terests of the wayside. Children may be encouraged to firing 
curiosities with them to school. Many schools now have a rack 
of bottles to receive wild flowers picked on the way to school ; a 
slate reserved for nature notes, where the first scholar who sees a 
flower, an insect, a migratory bird, &c, may enter the fact. Pots 
of growing seedlings may occupy the window-sills. Aquariums 
are always interesting, and a caterpillar cage might be tried. 

The collecting instinct is sufficiently strong at the ages we are 
discussing. The collector is often a naturalist in embyro ; he is 
therefore to be led judiciously into the paths of progress. In cer- 
tain directions — notably bird-nesting — restraint more than en- 

226 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

couragement may seem necessary ; but numerous recent books 
illustrated by photographs of birds' nests show the possibility of 
teaching children to watch without destroying. The general line 
is to wean a boy gently from mere collecting to collecting with a 
purpose ; to collecting and observing, and then to the collection of 
observations in a note-book kept for the purpose. Collecting is a 
great help to accuracy of observation, and the boy who brings 
back a collection of pebbles from the seashore or of grasses from 
a field will know far more about what he carries in his hand than 
a schoolfellow who has never troubled to pick up anything. 
Children may be encouraged to try how many different sorts of 
wild flowers they can find along a country road and to write 
notes on their differences and resemblances. 

The collecting instinct is a great motive power, if rightly di- 
rected. It should be used to solve special problems ; and, if prizes 
are offered, they need not be for the largest or best collection of 
wild flowers, but for collections illustrating insect pollination, 
seed dispersal, the habits of climbing plants, and so on. 

Some serious defects which have been noticed in nature-study 
teaching as at present conducted are : 

( 1 ) An attempt is made to cover too much ground, hence ex- 
periments and measurements are shirked because they take time 
and involve preparation on the part of the teacher. Experiments 
are described instead of performed, and a drawing on the black- 
board takes the place of realities. This is the commonest and 
most vicious defect in such teaching. 

(2) Unsuitable objects are often taken, especially with the 
idea of being practical. It is of no use to dictate notes on hay- 
making to a class where there is no opportunity of seeing the 
process carried out. 

(3) On the other hand, there is a great lack of system. A 
lesson on opening buds is followed by one on tadpoles or on the 
motions of the moon. For upper standards we think the course 
should become more systematic. 

(4) When a definite course is chosen it is often overloaded 
with classification. The teacher seems to have the fear of a pos- 
sible examiner before him, and is afraid to omit anything. 
Science is often supposed to consist of big words. : ' Amaryllis, 
fruit, a bilocular loculicidal inferior capsule " need not appear in 
the notebook of a boy of thirteen. [New Zealand Journal of 



Professor of Botany in the Iowa State University 

In his latest book, ' The Outlook to Nature," 1 the distin- 
guished author, Dr. L. H. Bailey, presents us, in pleasing form, 
four lectures delivered in January, 1905, before the Twentieth 
Century Education Club of Boston. The book consists, accord- 
ingly, of four rather lengthy chapters, each devoted to a par- 
ticular subject or group of subjects, each accordingly rather inde- 
pendent of the other. In other words, the book before us was 
written for the platform and not as a volume, and only with dif- 
ficulty can the general title, however well chosen, be made to 
cover the whole. 

" The outlook to nature is the outlook to what is real, and 
heart}" and spontaneous " ; and the whole of the first lecture, en- 
titled " The Commonplace," is a plea for the interest which at- 
taches to ordinary and neglected objects. The un-noted crea- 
tures of the field and farm, nor less the fields and farms them- 
selves — these are the objects on which our lecturer would have us 
lavish our affection. To such appreciation, literature, particu- 
larly poetry, is an aid, although, in the judgment of the author, 
the poetry of the farm is as yet unwritten. Dr. Bailey, however, 
is at his best, not when dealing with these minor objects, but rather 
when he essays those themes which have moved the human heart 
in all the ages ; the best thing in the book is the description of a 
sunrise on Mt. Shasta. 

The second lecture is devoted to a consideration of the relative 
advantages of country and city, with emphasis on country. The 
several sub-divisions, — the garden, why boys leave the farm, 
etc., — contain many excellent and practical thoughts, and are very 
suggestive. Nothing comes amiss in these lectures; the church, 
the state, politics, economics, the public health — all are discussed 
and generally with much sound sense and wisdom. 

The third lecture, " The School of the Future," is a plea for the 
" school of ^affairs." It is urged that our educational methods, 
especially in rural and elementary schools, are less serviceable be- 
cause they have less to do with realities, i. e., with the material 
environment of the child. The school problem as it presents 

1 The Outlook to Nature, by L. H. Bailey. New York, The Macmillan 
Co. 1905. Pp. 296. $1.25. 

228 THE NATURE-STUDY REl'IEW [i, 5. sept. 1905 

itself in rural New York is presented, even to the daily schedule, 
and discussed at length. Unfortunately, while decrying the 
existing schedule our author fails to set up for us a better one to 
take its place, but discourages us by the remark : — " I have no 
desire to prophesy what the means or methods of the schools are 
to be " — this after a long chapter of criticism and many sugges- - 
tions looking toward wider industrial training. Xo doubt our 
country schools may and must be made better, but is it not to 
students such as the author of this book that men are looking for 
some definite, practical suggestions as to how the improvement 
may be ushered in? It is no doubt very true that all phenomena 
and activities about us " are God's agents, relentless and cease- 
less," but how use them? The stream dashes by us forever; but 
unless some one have skill to make a wheel, no flour of wheat 
will ever feed the sons of men. 

The last chapter in the volume, " The Quest of Truth," is in 
defense of the theory of evolution. The chief lines of argument 
supporting the hypothesis are succinctly stated ; and some objec- 
tions, chiefly of a religious nature, are discussed in an optimistic, 
hopeful spirit. 

The style of the volume seems to us very unequal, evidently 
affected by the conditions of original preparation and delivery. 
The writer has his audience before him, an audience that must 
perforce be entertained, and that has, at least for the moment, a 
personal interest in the speaker. This circumstance admits cer- 
tain anecdotes and side-remarks which are less appropriate in 
serious discourse. The influence of Whitman is apparent some- 
times, alike in matter and style, although in his better moments 
our author forgets all masters, and presents his thought in a 
forceful incisive way. 

Dr. Bailey's choice of words is not always fortunate. The 

critical reader encounters " headlonged " on the first page, used 

as a verb intransitive ; he finds scientist in quotation marks, but 

scuddled used as an adjective without any such visible warning. 

In verse, especially, — a form of composition to which our author 

appears by no means disinclined, — a certain nicety of expression 

would seem indispensable. Inaccuracies to be overlooked in 

hastily written prose are less pardonable here. 

I low the earth hung in its ceaseless place 
As it whirls in its orbit old." 

may in form be rhythmic but is certainly less clear in sense. 


But these are minor defects in a volume that will be read with 
pleasure by very many to whom Dr. Bailey's argument for coun- 
try living- and thinking- will come as a personal appeal, on even- 
page reminding of those " enviable early days," for too many of 
us long gone by. But 

'" Whosoe'er in youth 
Hath felt his soul to such delights give way 
Shall fell congenial stirrings late and long." 


Nature-Study. By F. Overton and Mary E. Hill. X. Y. Ameri- 
can Book Co. Pp. 140. 40 cents. 

This book consists of about thirty model lessons designed for 
pupils between eight and eleven years. The authors have care- 
fully planned for the correlation of language with the nature 
work. The book is to be placed in the pupil's hands, and the 
questions for independent work are framed to call for immediate 
observation only — a plan which is more adapted to form a basis 
for English composition than to develop a scientific attitude. 

The " Supplementary " work is unusually wide in its range and 
should form the major part of the work, as it demands continued 
observation and more reasoning than the " Observation " work. 
It will need a wealth of material as well as careful explanation on 
the part of the teacher. 

The illustrations lack detail too often to be of themselves of 
educative value. There is a question whether the drawing de- 
manded may not become monotonous. 

As a rule technical terms have been avoided. Fewer incorrect 
or unscientific statements are given than in most books on ele- 
mentary science, but most of us will take exception to such state- 
ments as "the bill of the honserly " (p. 16), "the petal and its 
seed " (p. 35-36), and " the sap is the blood " (p. 66). 

Many familiar objects are interestingly treated, and the book as 
a whole is very suggestive. If science books are to be given to 
young pupils this is one of the best yet published. 

Jean Broadhurst. 

State Normal Model School, 
Trextox, X. J. 

230 THE NATURE-STUDY REUIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

How to Know the Wild Birds. Special editions for Minnesota, 
Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, New England 
and the Northwest By D. Lange. Boston, Educational 
Pub. Co. 1905. 25c. each. 

These booklets are designated to fill a long-felt want for brief 
introductions to birds in limited localities, especially for school 
use. No previous knowledge of birds is needed by the user of 
these books. The key is exceedingly simple, as follows : Land 
birds — (1) woodpeckers and other climbers, (2) other birds 
marked with red, (3) birds marked with yellow or orange, (4) 
birds marked with blue, (5) birds marked with reddish brown, 
(6) birds of the air, (7) birds chiefly colored black or black and 
white, (8) birds chiefly dull colored, (9) birds chiefly colored 
slate or grey, (10) birds colored brown or streaked, (11) quail, 
prairie chickens, and grouse, (12) eagles, hawks, and owls. 
Water and Shore Birds — (1) large waders, (2) smaller waders 
and shore birds, (3) coots, grebes, gallinules, and loons, (4) 
terns, gulls, and cormorants, (5) ducks and geese. The com- 
mon species under these headings are described briefly and 
simply. Of course a booklet cannot be expected to be satisfac- 
tory in the case of birds difficult to identify, but these need not 
concern the beginner. 

An introduction gives some good suggestions regarding iden- 
tifying birds, " do not collect birds or eggs," care of injured 
birds, and nesting boxes and protection of birds. In some of the 
editions supplementary chapters deal with (1) birds of the 
world's literature — English robin redbreast, skylark, English 
blackbird, cuckoo, nightingale, white stork, and raven, (2) some 
common birds of Europe and their American relatives, and (3) 
scientific classification of the birds named in the book. 

A comparison of the books for Ohio, Indiana and Illinois re- 
sults, as might be expected, in the discovery that the few birds 
credited to one state and not to the other are usually rare and 
irregular. Perhaps a dozen foot-notes would have made it pos- 
sible to unite the volumes for Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and 
probably others. 

Half Hours with Lower Animals. By C. F. Holder. New 
York, American Book Co. 1905. Pp. 236, 250 ill. 60 
In this, the latest addition to the series of the Eclectic School 


Readings, the story of lower animal life, including the protozoans, 
sponges, corals, shells, insects, and crustaceans, is presented 
simply. The narrative is untechnical, and popular in form. The 
volume is interesting and may prove useful as a supplemental-} 
reader in schools. Much of it would be a useful guide when 
spending a summer at the seashore. It is to be hoped that it will 
never be used as a text-book, for which it is said by the author 
to be adapted. A volume to follow will complete the survey of 
the animal kingdom. 

Field Studies of Some Common Plants. Revised Edition. By C. 
H. Robison. Published by author, Mayville, N. D. Part I 
50 pp., paper. 25 cents. 

These " Outlines " are intended to direct pupils in out-door 
study. " They aim to tell the student exactly what to look at, and 
how to do so, without telling him what he is expected to see." 

The topics are foliage leaves, stems, roots and trees in autumn. 
For these general subjects there are arranged outlines which in- 
clude the most interesting points in the elementary text-books of 
botany. The book is certainly useful in connection with high- 
school botany and for nature-study teachers who wish a guide 
for their own studies and suggestions for pupils' work. 

A second part on " Spring Flower Studies " is mentioned in 
the preface, but the reviewer has not a copy at hand. No doubt 
it has the points of excellence found in Part I. 

Nature-Study and Agriculture. Circular No. 60, Office of 
Experiment Stations (free upon application to Department of 
Agriculture), deals with teaching agriculture in rural common 
schools and the progress of the movement for agricultural educa- 
tion is traced. As obstacles to general introduction of agriculture 
into rural schools, the circular cites : conservatism or apathy of 
school officers, teachers with little or no normal training, salaries 
do not attract professional teachers, rapid shifting of teachers, 
short terms. The practical remedy is consolidation of schools. 

In a rural school with program of studies extending over eight 
years, the nature-study should be in six years, and elementary 
agriculture in last two years, each subject at least one hour per 

" During the first two or three years in school the children should 
spend a short time each week in forming an acquaintance with the 

232 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 5, sept. 1905 

birds, insects, flowers, trees, and other animal and plant life of the 
school-yard, the roadside and the wayside pastures and woodlots. 
This very pleasant and profitable way of gaining knowledge has been 
their principal occupation during the two or three years that they 
have been running about out of doors at home, and they should be 
encouraged and aided to extend their knowledge of the things in 
nature with which they are likely to come in daily contact through- 
out their lives." 

" After the first year or two, the time depending on the progress 
the children have made, more attention should be given to studying 
life histories of plants and animals (especially birds and insects), so 
that these may be recognized in all stages of their development, and 
their economic relations determined. This will enable the pupils to 
decide whether a given species is mainly beneficial or harmful and 
will set them to thinking about means of perpetuating or exterminat- 
ing the species. This last consideration is the one which mainly 
determines the attitude of the farmer toward his field crops, domestic 
animals and fowls, as well as toward the weeds and other pests that 
annoy him. When the nature-study teacher and her pupils have 
arrived at this point of view they will be in a position to pass over 
as unimportant such details as color of hair, length and number of 
teeth, number of leaves, length of petioles and internodes, and a hun- 
dred other peculiarities of plants and animals, except as these pecu- 
liarities have a direct bearing upon the perpetuation of the species or 
upon their usefulness or harmfulness to man." 

With regard to elementary agriculture : " A well-arranged and up- 
to-date text-book, with illustrations and suggestions for practical ex- 
ercises, should be adopted as a basis for this study. . . . The instruc- 
tion in the classroom should be supplemented by simple experiments 
with soils, plants, and animals both at school and at home." 

Many other points in this pamphlet will interest teachers. 

School-Gardens. A valuable report on the cooperative work 
between the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the normal 
schools of Washington, with good notes on school-garden meth- 
ods in fifteen other cities, is printed as Bulletin No. 160, Office of 
Experiment Stations. The price is 10 cents; for sale by Super- 
intendent of Documents, Washington. 




In various forms from several hundred persons has come the 
question whether Tin-: NAture-Study Review is valuable for the 
general teachers in the elementary schools as well as for those 
readers — officers, special directors, high-school teachers of sci- 
ence, and college professors — who are interested in nature-study 
from the standpoint of the supervisor. One principal of a school 
in a small town writes : " Nature-study has been introduced into 
our school. Our teachers know nothing about it, and many of 
them can scarcely distinguish a grasshopper from a potato-beetle. 
If The Nature-Study Review will give these teachers the help 
needed, we will subscribe for several copies." Essentially the 
same thought is expressed in more than a hundred other letters 
from teachers who admit that they feel totally unprepared for na- 
ture-study teaching. 

Xow, it must be obvious to all experts in nature-study that a 
magazine can not offer the best form of instruction for teachers 
who are beginners in both the subject-matter and the teaching of 
nature-study. Such persons will certainly do best to study first 
the subject-matter, with instructors if possible, otherwise with the 
guidance of some of the many books and leaflets intended for 
beginners. But those beginners who are earnestly striving to ad- 
vance as far as possible will surely find much of interest and 
value in this magazine, especially in the practical articles which 
are published in every issue and which in the future will be more 
abundant. The editors are doing their best to make The Re- 
view interesting and useful to all groups of readers, beginners as 
well as experts ; but to undertake to make it take the place of 
training-school courses for nature-study teachers would be as ab- 
surd as substituting a few volumes of education reports and 
journals for a regular program of studies in a normal school. 
Educational journals are commonly regarded as valuable for pro- 
gressive teachers rather than for those who are preparing to be- 
gin teaching. 


It must be clear from the foregoing that The Review aims 
primarilv to reach the teachers who have already made sonic 
progress in nature-study and its teaching. But above all, it must 

234 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 5, sept. 1905 

aim to be the organ for exchange of ideas from the leaders of 
nature-study. By leaders we do not mean simply the few people 
in a state who write articles, lecture, and conduct institute classes 
in nature-study, but also the teachers and officers who set out to 
advance the nature-study work in their own schools. Almost 
every school has a leader in the nature-study work. In addition 
to these leaders actually engaged in the work of the elementary 
schools, there are in the United States and Canada several hun- 
dred instructors in normal schools and colleges who are in- 
terested or engaged in the work of training teachers. For all 
these leaders in the nature-study movement The Review is of in- 
terest, because it stands for progress in nature-study. Papers on 
" Relation of Nature-Study and Natural Science," " Criticisms of 
Nature-Study," " Educational Aims and Values of Nature- 
Study," and similar topics will probably be of little interest to any 
but the leaders and special teachers of nature-study; but judging 
from comments so far received many of these agree with the 
editors that such discussions of fundamental problems deserve to 
form a prominent part of the contents of this journal in its first 


For the reasons stated above we have made educational discus- 
sion prominent in this first volume, and subject-matter has been 
somewhat neglected. The time has now come when it seems 
wise to devote considerable space to the facts, and henceforth the 
editors will welcome articles and notes which give information 
concerning natural things of interest in connection with nature- 
studv. A beginning: in this line is made this month in the new 
department entitled " Nature Notes." 


The Review, like every other magazine, may be improved by 
suggestions from its readers. Please write to the Managing 
Editor your views as to the material published. Even a " sen- 
sible abusive " letter, recently suggested by a popular magazine, 
may be helpful, especially if it suggests something which readers 


[Editorial Note. — The unexpected delay in publishing this number 
has made it desirable that the " Guide " be omitted and brought nearly up 
to date in the next number.] 



[Editorial Note. — As shown by our " Guide to Periodical Literature," 
many interesting articles on the natural history of plants and animals ap- 
pear in various popular and scientific magazines. Probably few readers 
of this magazine are able to read even one-half of the articles whose titles 
are attractive. In order to make the most interesting facts available to 
busy teachers, The Nature-Study Review will undertake to publish, as a 
regular department, brief abstracts of many articles on natural history and 
science. Readers are invited to help with this department by suggesting 
articles deserving notes, or by sending abstracts ready for printing.] 

The Stupidity of Bees. A writer in a recent number of the Out- 
look calls attention to the " ignorance or stupidity " of honey-bees, 
citing such facts as the lack of concerted action in pulling and tug- 
ging, and failure to cooperate in releasing comrades from spiders' 
webs; but in building comb "every one helps his neighbor in building 
a cell," and it is well known that there is plenty of concerted action 
in defending the hive against intruders. As another example of 
" stupidity " the author cites the fact that the bees " do not know 
enough " to stay in the hive on cold but sunshiny days and thousands 
venture out and perish. 

All students of the bees will certainly not agree that the above 
facts indicate " stupidity." Entanglement in a spider's web is a rare 
accident, not a regular event, in the life of bees, and one fails to see 
how an instinct leading to united effort in attempted release of an 
entangled companion could be of any advantage in a colony of 50,000 
individuals. The instinct to go about their routine business, leaving 
the entangled individual to its fate, certainly is most valuable so far 
as the community as a whole is concerned. Not so in building comb 
and defending the hive. Here are events upon which depend the fate 
of the colony, not simply of a few individuals, and instincts have been 
developed accordingly. And so with regard to every other act which 
is important for the colony as a whole we find instincts which have 
led writers to comment on the " marvellous intelligence " of bees. 
The facts which suggest " stupidity " really go to prove that bees are 
machines, rather than intelligent organisms, and that the machines 
are " wound up " with instincts which cause them to run for the good 
of the community, perhaps neglecting the individual. A modern 
psychologist of the Lloyd Morgan school would deny that bees are 
" stupid." for this implies intelligence, which insects apparently do 
not possess. 

With regard to flying nut in mid-winter, it seems probably that this 
is due to abnormal conditions. It is well known that bees kept in 
cellars in winter often get restless owing to the over-loading of the 
intestine during the long confinement and a " cleansing flight " on a 

236 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 5. sept. 1905 

bright, sunny day is recommended by keepers as a sure cure for the 
restlessness. It is doubtful whether thousands would venture out and 
perish if the hive allowed freedom of exit at all times and was prop- 
erly managed and protected so as to prevent intestinal disorders of 
the bees. The case appears to have nothing to do with " stupidity." 

Tree Planting by Railroads. The rapidly diminishing supply of 
timber for wooden cross-ties, as a substitute for which metal has so 
far failed, has led the managers of several great railroads to under- 
take the planting of trees to supply ties. The Pennsylvania is plant- 
ing the yellow locust and certain western railroads the catalpa. Dur- 
ing this year the Pennsylvania plans to extend its plantations to more 
than 100,000,000 trees; but these if fully grown would supply ties to 
this single railroad system for less than three years. It is said that 
in order to have a constant supply for the future this railroad must 
set more than a thousand acres with trees each year. 

The Oldest Oak. The famous old oak at Cowthorpe, England, is 
the subject of an interesting article in the August Plant World. The 
tree has long been supposed to be over 1600 years old. In 1700 it 
was 80 feet high and 78 feet in circumference at the ground. It is 
now smaller, owing to decay, and probably can not live much longer. 
Comparing with other oaks, the trustworthy evidence is that the tree 
is not over 500 years old, instead of 1600, estimated on the theory 
that oaks grow one-twelfth inch per year — a statement now known to 
be inaccurate, because individual trees vary and young trees grow 
faster than old trees. 

The Gypsy Moth. This imported (1868) insect which has for 
years been a pest in eastern Massachusetts, the caterpillars destroy- 
ing the foliage of fruit and shade trees and causing great annoyance 
to human individuals with whose skin they came into contact, is 
again attracting attention. In 1900 the State Board of Agriculture 
abandoned the war against the moth, which in ten years (1890-1900) 
cost the State over a million dollars. As competent entomologists 
expected, the insect has developed rapidly since the work of suppres- 
sion was stopped. It is scarcely possible to exterminate this intro- 
duced species, and " eternal vigilance " will be necessary. To ensure 
this there is needed legislation which will organize the fight on a 
permanent basis, and a bill which has been introduced to the legis- 
lature provides for cooperation of the State municipalities and prop- 
erty owners. 

Quacks Among Plant Doctors. Professor Bessey, writing in the 
August Plant World, on Plant Pathology, advises that all patent 
medicines advertised to cure plant diseases be avoided. Write to 
your State Agricultural Experiment Station for free and the best 
advice. Among the causes of common plant diseases, the author 
cites (1) thirst — deficiency of water, (2) starvation — lack of proper 


food, (3) poisoning from gases of the air (in cities) and harmful 
substances in soil ( e. g., excess of common salt), (4) wounds allow- 
ing entrance of injurious organisms, especially fungi, (5) loss of 
necessary parts (e. g., leaves and roots destroyed by insects), (6) 
fungi, the most fruitful cause of disease (e. g., blotches on fruits and 
leaves, rotting of plants internally and externally). It is this last 
class of plant diseases which requires medicinal treatment — most 
commonly by chemicals sprayed over affected parts. 

Flowers which do not open. A recent paper (reviewed in July 
/'/(/;// World) by the German botanist Goebel, cites facts which lead 
to the conclusion that cleistogamous flowers are due to insufficient 
nutrition, and not caused by the lack of pollinating agencies, as has 
been commonlv supposed. In other words, such flowers as the closed 
gentian originally failed to " grow open " because of insufficient suit- 
able food and not as a response to a demand for special adaptation 
made necessary because insects for pollination were wanting. 

City People in the Country. According to the passenger agents of 
several of the great railroad systems centering in New York, the 
present season has witnessed an unprecedented exodus to the country 
for the summer, particularly of people of moderate means. And an 
especially gratifying feature of this exodus, noted by these same 
agents, is the largely-increased number of people who are either 
buying or renting small houses surrounded by a few acres of land for 
gardening and light farming. One agent declares that the demand 
for these small plots along his line, convenient to the city, is far in 
excess of the supply. " They all want a house with a garden," said 
one of these men, " and the bigger the garden, the better it suits." 
How much more sensible and conducive to the comfort, pleasure and 
health of a family is a vacation spent on one of these small farms 
than in the ordinary country hotel or boarding-house need hardly be 
said. And where the distance from the city and other conditions are 
such as to permit a man of family to make his permanent home in one 
of these rural localities, where he may have a bit of ground to till 
in his leisure hours and days, the arrangement is still happier and 
more advantageous all around. — Leslie's Weekly. 

Why our Common Weeds are Introduced Species. The fact that 
practically all the weeds seen growing in vacant lots, along roadsides, 
in cultivated and uncultivated fields in Canada and the United States, 
are introduced species, is known to botanists; but the reason why 
these introduced plants should become weeds and our own should 
not, is not so generally known or thought of. At a meeting of the 
Botanical Branch of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club held last win- 
ter. Professor John Macoun explained the matter to everyone's satis- 
faction. Ontario and other parts of Canada were heavily wooded 
before the settler came and the native plants grew in the woods, along 

238 THE NATURE STUDY REVIEW [1, 5. sept. 1905 

the rivers' banks or in the marshes. When the woods were cleared 
away, the conditions were not favorable to .the woodland species and 
they disappeared ; but in their stead were found the weeds introduced 
from Great Britain and Europe, where for centuries they have been 
growing in field, in hedgerow, and along the roadside. These, find- 
ing suitable conditions, have multiplied with great rapidity in Canada. 
— Ottazva Naturalist. 

The Light-Perceiving Organs of Plants. A German botanist, Pro- 
fessor Haberlandt, has recently published a book on this subject. It 
is well known that many leaves can place themselves at right angles 
to the light rays which strike them. The problems of this book are 
concerned with the explanation of how the leaves turn and curve to 
get into the proper position with relation to light. First, Haberlandt 
shows, by covering leaves with opaque paper, that the leaf-blade is 
most sensitive to light, and next comes the leaf-stalk. In the epider- 
mis covering the upper surface of the leaf, Haberlandt finds the pecu- 
liar cells which he considers light-perceiving organs. He compares 
them with the single eyes of certain backboneless animals, and cer- 
tainly the lens-shaped structures do suggest " eyes." A striking ex- 
periment with nasturtium leaves showed that the natural waxy leaves, 
which are unwettable, will change position, when light falls obliquely, 
but after washing off the wax with weak alcohol (said not to injure 
the leaves, but one feels doubtful) the leaves do not turn. This sug- 
gested to the author the interesting theory that the waxy " bloom " 
and " velvety " of leaves saves them from being " blinded " by rain. 
Of course, all such pioneer work requires more study before it can 
be regarded as established science. Some American botanists have 
expressed their skepticism concerning these statements. 

Game Protection. The well-known leader in the national move- 
ment for the protection of game animals, Mr. G. O. Shields, has 
started a new monthly magazine. Shields' Magazine, which will be 
"devoted to game protection, nature-study [popular], and all legiti- 
mate indoor and outdoor sports." The editor proposes to continue 
the work of securing better laws and their enforcement against the 
butchers of game animals. It will be the official organ of the League 
of American Sportsmen, of which Mr. Shields is the founder and 
president. The magazine takes the place of Recreation, which Mr. 
Shields founded and conducted until last January, when bankruptcy 
proceedings (said by Mr. Shields to have been instigated by enemies 
made by his stand for game protection) forced the magazine into the 
hands of another editor and publisher. Shields' Magazine will, obvi- 
ously, be the new series of the old Recreation as we have known it 
for years. We wish it success in the fight for protection of our game 
animals against the butchers who hunt " out of season " and with the 
barbarous modern rapid-fire guns. 




Vol. I NOVEMBER, 1905 No. 6 



[Editorial Note. — In No. 1 of this journal there was published a de- 
scription of the ant-nests used by Miss Fielde in her researches. Readers 
who constructed the nests and stocked them have requested information 
concerning the habits of the insects. There is no popular account of the 
communal life of ants in the publications commonly available for teach- 
ers and students, and hence the present paper will be a valuable contribution 
to nature-study literature. Very many of the points in this paper may be 
easily verified by careful observation of ants kept in the nests already men- 
tioned. In other numbers of The Review writers have urged that bees 
are suitable for schoolroom observation ; but this and the earlier paper by 
Miss Fielde make it evident that the closely allied ants are scarcely in- 
ferior to the bees as subjects for schoolroom studies.] 

Among the four thousand known species of ants the colors 
range from pale yellow through red, brown and gray to the 
intensest black, sometimes with parti-colored bands, and sometimes 
with iridescent tints of blue, green or purple. In size they vary 
according to species from that of a needle point to a length of 
two inches. Ants do not grow after hatching, the stature of each 
individual being determined while in the larval stage for its 
whole lifetime. 

The ant begins its life in an egg, which resembles a small pearl. 
The eggs are viscid on their surfaces, and the ants put them 
together so that they will adhere in packets, which may be car- 
ried to parts of the nest offering suitable warmth, darkness and 
humidity. After a period of about twenty days for incubation, 
there issues from the egg a glossy, white larva that is transversely 
marked by twenty slight constrictions and that has hooks upon 
its surface permitting it to be securely attached to its fellows so 

Camponotus pennsylvanicus. Magnified four diameters. A winged queen; one major worker 
(lower right) ; three minor workers; two males (on left), one showing the dorsal side and wings and 
one the ventral side (lower left ) ; cocoons, with a worker-ant hatching from one of them ; a naked 
pupa (near major worker) and several larvse. A minor worker is carrying a larva (upper right). 
Photographed by Mr J. G Hubbard and Dr. O. S. Strong at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 

that an ant-nurse can conveniently carry a bundle of a dozen or 
more larvae, holding the bundle in her mandibles, her jaws. 

At the smaller end of the larva there is a mouth, and the young 
larva? are so placed that their mouths project from all sides of 
the bundle. I have often seen two or three ant-workers engaged 
in supporting a bundle of young larva? high above the floor on 
which they stood, while a fourth ant, carrying a drop of regurgi- 
tated food on the end of her tongue, passed along from one 
larval mouth to another, allowing the ant-babies successively to 
suck their fill from the regurgitated drop. 

As the larvae grow older the hooks drop off and the larvae are 
laid in groups, assorted in accordance with size, on the floor of 
the nest. Morsels of insect flesh are sometimes laid by the ant- 
nurses upon the chests of the larvae, who bend their necks and 
partake of this succulent food much as a human infant imbibes 
its bottle of milk. 

The length of the larval stage of the ant varies greatly with 
temperature and nourishment, sometimes being as brief as twelve 
davs, sometimes extending to many months. "VYhen the larva 
has grown to the bulk of an adult ant of its species, it becomes 
lethargic for a few days, then bursts its outer skin, and appears 
as a snow-white, soft, snugly-folded ant. This pupa may be 
naked or may be inclosed in a cocoon spun by the larva just 
previous to its period of repose. 

The pupa-stage is passed in about twenty days and toward the 
close of this period the colors of the adult are gradually assumed. 
Then comes the beginning of active life, with a twitching of the 
legs and a wriggling of the head, that calls the attention of the 
ant-nurses and secures from them such help as may be necessary 
in freeing the young ant from its outer membrane, or for the 
unfolding of its limbs. It is cleansed, fed, cuddled, and tended 
with surpassing assiduity. The callow, the newly hatched ant, is 
usually paler in color than its adolescent relatives, but it soon 
acquires the hues -and the vigor of complete maturity. When 
but a few hours old, the callow worker begins its life-long labor 
in the care of the eggs, larvae and pupae. 

Ants may be either male or female ; and females may be either 
queens or workers. Workers may have different forms and be 
designated as majors, minors or minims. Whether the ant be 

Camponotus castaneus americanus, slightly magnified, showing five workers engaged in the regur- 
gitation of food to their comrades, and four winged queens. From a photograph by Mr. J. G. Hub- 
bard and Dr. O. S. Strong. From the Biological Bulletin, Vol. VII, p. 306. 


male or female depends on the egg in which it has its origin. If 
the egg' be unimpregnated, its issue will be a male ant ; but if 
it be impregnated its issue will be a female ant. ^diether the 
female become a queen or a worker depends on the feeding" of the 
larva, the quality and quantity of nutriment required for the 
making of a queen being a secret known only to the ant-nurses. 

Male ants are always winged, and are generally smaller than 
their queens. They are comparatively short lived, maturing a 
few days after hatching, and dying after a few weeks or months. 
None has been known to live longer than a year. 

The queen is winged at her hatching ; but loses her wings after 
mating. Under the attraction of the warmth and light dis- 
covered at the exits of the nest at swarming-time, she goes forth 
into the bright summer world, meets her mate, seeks a congenial 
habitation, drops her wings, and becomes the founder of a new 
community. She lays a few eggs in the safe seclusion of her 
abode, feeds the larvae with regurgitations from her own internal 
store, and takes competent care of her first brood until the young 
workers are able to make their way into the surrounding area to 
forage for themselves and bring food to their queen-mother. 
With the assistance of her first brood of daughters, who are 
always few in number and diminutive in stature, the queen rears 
a second brood, greater in number and larger in size. As the 
years pass the community grows ever more populous, the daugh- 
ter-queens ordinarily going away to found new colonies, while 
the daughter-workers, wingless and devoted to domestic duties, 
increase to millions in the ancestral nest. A single community 
of ants sometimes occupies an area hundreds of yards in extent, 
although there are species of ants of which the colonies are always 
small. In summer they go far afield foraging for supplies, and 
assiduously rear their young. In autumn they retire with their 
larva? into the deeper recesses of their dwellings and there 
hibernate until spring. 

Queens may live so long as fifteen years, continuing to lax- 
eggs and to rear daughter-ants. Workers may live several years, 
and may lay eggs. 

Every species of ant may be considered as hostile to every 
other species. This mutual aversion is based on differences in 
odor, all unfamiliar ant-odors being offensive to ants. If a fe^- ants 
of one species are crushed upon a bit of sponge, their specific odor 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, nov. 1905 

may sometimes be discerned even by human nostrils. The odor 
may be acid, acrid, rancid, musty, pungent, or like that of some 
vegetable or animal oil. It arises from a substance exuded by 

Camponotus pennsylvanicus worker. Magnification six diameters. From a photograph taken by 
Mr. J. G Hubbard and Dr. O. S Strong, and retouched by Dr. J. H. Macgregor. From the Bio- 
logical Bulletin, Vol. VII, p. 308. 

the ants, and it may be transferred from one ant to another, either 
by smearing one ant with the juices of another, or by soaking the 
ants together in a small quantity of distilled water. If an ant 


be smeared with the blood of another species, it may appear 
among- its former comrades as a sheep in wolf's clothing and 
may be treated as if it were an enemy ; or if it be smeared with 
the blood of a member of the community, it may be introduced 
into that community, where it is truly a wolf in sheep's clothing, 
and may for some days escape detection there. 

It is probable that every species of ant has its distinctive odor, 
borne by every member of the species whether male or female, 
and that this odor excites the animosity of ants of other species 
than its own merely because it is unfamiliar. While ants of 
unlike species, having never before met, will attack and rend 
each other when brought together, it is possible to create a happy 
family including diverse species. In 1903 I took ants represent- 
ing three different sub-families and sequestered them, within 
twelve hours after their hatching, in nests so small that the ants 
would naturally touch each other with their antennae during the 
first five days of their lives, and I found that ants of many 
diverse species thus made acquainted with one another in infancy 
would live amicably together thereafter for months or vears. 
These experiments proved that the natural hostility existing be- 
tween ants of unlike species could be eliminated by a suitable 
education, and it also provided an explanation of the fact that 
mixed colonies of ants are occasionally found in nature. Such 
colonies probably have their origin in conditions that force the 
members into propinquity during the first hours of active life. 

Ants have not only their specific odor, which characterizes each 
species and differentiates it in the ant-world from all other species, 
but the female ants have also a progressive odor which changes 
as they advance in age, and which is the cause of the separation 
of ants of the same species into distinct communities, hostile to 
one another. The male ant, who is welcomed into any community 
of his own species, probably bears no odor beside his specific odor. 
The queen ant doubtless gives to her female progeny her own 
progressive odor, modified by that of their father's mother, latent 
in the male. With an odor that, at hatching, is very nearly the 
same as that of their queen mother, the worker ants gradually 
change their odor, forty days being the minimum of time in which 
there occurs a change so great as to be noticeable by the ants 
themselves. This progressive odor eventually differentiates ant- 

246 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6, nov. 1905 

nests. The odor of the queen, the first occupant, becomes the 
earliest aura of the nest. As the community increases its popula- 
tion, the odor of the workers is added to that of the queen, and 
is diffused in the air. The ant that has been out foraging recog- 
nizes its home through the familiar odor there discerned, and it 
avoids the abodes of unfriendly communities because of its per- 
ception of their strange odor. No ant with a discerning " nose " 
need ever intrude upon an alien household. Should it do this 
it would be attacked and rent limb from limb. The laws of the 
ant-world require from every ant a strict adherence to its own 

If a female ant be dropped into its own nest, it waves its 
antennas and hastens to join its former associates ; but if it be 
dropped into an alien nest it flees away or hides itself. 

The odor of the ant-nest is perceived through the air, but the 
odor or savor of ants, whether friends or strangers, are perceived 
by an application of the " nose " to the subject of examination. 
Ants have two similar " noses," the two antenna; or " feelers " 
that project from the face just below the eyes. These are the 
organs of the chemical sense, dominant in the life of the individual 
ant and in the affairs of the ant community. The uses made by 
the ant of this sense are singularly diversified, while the minute- 
ness of its discriminations are almost inconceivable. Associated 
with the great power of memory possessed by the ants, it enables 
them to prosper greatly in the world, though they lack the sense 
of hearing, and have but very imperfect vision. 

Within the ant community the queen is chief, probably be- 
cause her comparatively large size makes her a center of familiar 
odors. Her odor is unchanging, and her daughter-workers recog- 
nize her thereby, even after years of separation from her. Ant 
workers will also recognize their queen-mother and identify her 
among several other queens, even when these workers have never 
before met her. They remember the odor that they themselves bore 
in their own infancy which is also the odor of their queen. They 
would likewise recognize their mother's sister-queen. The queen 
exercises no authority in the nest, but is always the object of chief 
devotion, and of sedulous attention. She abides at home, except 
at or near the time of her nuptials. 


Worker ants of the same community enjoy each other's odor, 
lick and pat each other, cuddle, and exchange nourishment by 
regurgitations. They take care of the young, the product of the 
queen's eggs or of their own eggs, with no manifest partiality 
except for the largest. If their nest be raided by alien ants or 
prowling human creatures, the workers, if there be leisure for 
choice among the immature young, will flee with the oldest, the 
objects on which most labor and care have already been expended. 
The rearing of the young is a constant occupation which is fol- 
lowed with an amazing diligence by the workers. The defense 
of the nest is also constant, and intruders are attacked with a 
ferocity equal to that shown by any other creature in defense of 
its offspring. I have seen two ants battle through eighteen con- 
secutive hours. 

Food is brought to the nest from distances extending to forty 
yards or more. When an ant goes out it lays a path under its 
feet, and in returning it follows its own scent as laid down. If 
the path be washed or overturned for a space longer than the body 
of the ant, the returning traveller loses the way and runs to and 
fro until the scent is picked up. This scent is perceived through 
the air ; for a very thin layer of earth may be made to overlay 
the path without it interfering with the traveller's homeward 
progress. Every ant lays down and pursues an individual path ; 
but like causes, such as shade, temperature, or topography may 
impel a multitude of ants into the same route. 

Ants probably orient themselves on their journeys by the sense 
of smell, as a blind man might orient himself on a known road 
by a compost-heap, a glue-factory, a hop-field and a rose-garden. 
But these directing odors come from very short distances, prob- 
ably less than an inch at most. When ants go forth from the 
nest, they sometimes go back repeatedly, gradually extending 
their journey, and appearing as if trying to familiarize themselves 
with their means of orientation. The path laid down by an ant, 
if left dry and undisturbed, may be followed by her unhesitatingly 
after five days of imprisonment elsewhere. 

Insects have had few tests applied to their power of memory, 
the shortness of insect life being generally preventive of long con- 
tinued experiments in proving their mental capacities. Among 
the insects, ants are remarkable for longevity, and they therefore 
present exceptional possibilities for the work of the comparative 

248 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6, nov. 1905 

psychologist. After several years study of the habits and activi- 
ties of ants, I undertook, in 1904, to induce the ants to tell me 
through actions, which always speak more loudly than do words, 
whether they remembered past experiences. When such an in- 
quirv is to be addressed to an animal, it is but fair that the ap- 
peal should be made through the leading sense of that animal. 
If it be to the eagle it should be through the sense of sight ; if to 
the mole it should be through the sense of hearing ; if to the 
caterpillar it should be through the sense of touch ; if to the sea- 
anemone it should be through the sense of taste. The leading 
sense in the ant is olfactory, and through this sense I naturally 
put my question to the ants. 

Among the ants, the workers have been shown by dissection 
to have the largest brain, and I therefore chose the workers for 
my tests of power of memory. That I might know whether the 
action of an ant was influenced by memory, it was necessary for 
me to know not only the customary behavior of the ant but to 
know its individual experiences during its whole lifetime. I 
therefore took from among the many nests in my formicary such 
ant-workers as hatched in segregation at the same time, and 
sequestered two or more species together in a very small nest 
where their natural activities would cause them to touch each 
other with the antennse during the first hours of life. Ants of 
species ordinarily inimical were thus made friendly, forming a 
mixed family whose congeniality was manifested by all sorts of 
serviceable offices customary among ants of the same community. 
After these ants had lived happily together for periods ranging 
from twentv to forty days, I sequestered each species represented 
in the mixed nest, putting each group into a new nest. I then 
kept each group in strict segregation up to the time when the 
odor of the other species, encountered only in their earliest days, 
should again be presented to them for recognition. 

One mixed family consisted of large black ants and small 
brown ants, and these were separated for seven months. In 
bringing them together an extraordinary factor had to be 
reckoned with, the afore-mentioned fact that worker ants change 
their odor with advancing age, and that neither the black ants 
nor the brown ants would bear the same progressive odor that had 
characterized them when associated with the other species seven 
months earlier. So great in fact had been the change of odor 




that when T introduced one of either segregated group into the 
nest of the other, the visitor was attacked with all the virulence 
that marks a meeting of strangers of these two species. But 
when I introduced into either group an ant of the same age, the 
offspring of the same queen as were their quondam associates in 
the mixed nest, then the. visitor was received with every sign of 
ant esteem, including that of granting a participation in the care 

A happy family of ants of four species. Photographed from one of Miss Fielde's mixed colonies 
established at the Marine Biological Laboratory. 

of the cherished larvae. It was plain that the ants recognized an 
odor that had not heen encountered for seven months. 

Into another mixed nest I put newly hatched small jet-black 
ants with amber-yellow ants, the two sorts being of different sub- 
families. When they had spent about forty days together, I 
sequestered these ants, according to their species, in new nests. 
When the two groups had been separated for a year, each group 
received with cherishing hospitality the newly hatched offspring 
of the queen-mother of their former associates ; but they killed 
their former comrades when these were introduced into their 
nest. These ants thus showed that they could remember a certain 
odor at least one vear. 

25° THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, nov. 1905 

In four nests, I kept brown ants that were all of one colony, 
and sequestered at their hatching. One of these groups had been 
segregated three years, one group had been segregated two years, 
one group had been segregated one year, and one group consisted 
of newly hatched ants, when I introduced marked members of 
each group, one ant at a time, into each of the other three nests. 
In every case the older ants remembered the odor of the younger 
ants, and received them amicably, while the younger ants, never 
having smelled the odor borne by the older ants, fought the visi- 
tors with plain intent to kill. This experiment showed that the 
brown ants had a power of memory extending to three vears. 
It is probable that ants recognize at any time during their lifetime 
an odor with which they have once become familiar. 

These experiments also indicate that the ants do not recognize 
one another by the contour, for their form had not changed dur- 
ing the period of separation. Had they means of conversation 
relating to the past, we must suppose that they would at their 
second meeting, have talked of old times instead of tearing each 
other. The only probable explanation of their behavior is that 
they were repelled by an unknown odor in some of these cases, 
and were pleased by a recognized odor in other cases. 

Workers of one of the species employed in my experiments 
are but an eighth of an inch in length, while the head is but a 
quarter of the total length, and the brain within the head is so 
small as to be invisible except with the aid of a lens. If a brain 
so small can record an impression of an odor and act on that 
impression years afterward, this fact indicates to us that but few 
particles of matter are required as a seat for the mental powers. 

We do not know whether the ants exercise reason and imagi- 
nation ; but they certainly have power of memory which is a 
foundation for all the higher psychic activities. 

Under the dominance of the sense of smell and the power of 
memory, every ant acts upon individual experience. But there 
are differences in the character of ants of the same variety and 
of the same external structure. Some have stronger local attach- 
ments than have others, and adhere more closely to an old home. 
Some are more assiduous in their care of the developing young. 
Some are distinguished by exceeding truculence, while others are 
surpassingly amiable. Some are sluggards, while others are 
markedly enterprising. 

weed] TREES IN WINTER 251 

But all are good housekeepers. They keep their nests clean, 
allotting different parts of the nest to different uses and burying 
offensive substances that cannot be removed. In all the animal 
kingdom the ants most nearly approach man in the diversity of 
their activities, and in an apparent application of intelligence to 
the practical problems of existence. 


State Normal School, Lowell, Mass. 

To one who has paid little or no attention to the subject it is 
surprising what distinctive characteristics the leafless twigs of 
our native trees and shrubs present. To a very great degree 
they are as easily recognized as are the leaves themselves. They 
furnish a natural and practical subject for nature-studies during 
the winter months. Such studies may well be begun just as the 
last leaves are falling, when the transition from the study of the 
leaf to the twig is natural. So far as possible twigs from the 
identical trees which have been studied as to leaves, should at 
first be taken. This is not always feasible so far as providing 
specimens for the whole school is concerned, for the trees may 
very likely be ones from which it is not desirable to remove many 
twigs. In such cases one or two of the twigs may be taken to 
hold before the pupils as illustrations, and the main supply be 
derived from the less valuable trees in the fields and woods. 

In general the supply of material for the study of twigs may be 
obtained in any one of three ways. The twigs may be gathered 
by the teacher herself, by one or more of the pupils delegated to 
the work, or by the class as a whole on a field excursion. The 
solution of this problem may well be left to the special circum- 
stances in each case. There is no reason why any one of the 
methods named should be exclusively employed. There are ad- 
vantages in all three : The teacher who fails to go into the fields 
and woods occasionally is scarcely likely to be successful in her 
nature-study work in the schoolroom. It is a great advantage 
to have a definite object in view in outdoor excursions, and a 
walk of an hour or two will generally furnish sufficient material 
to last several days. In every class above the third grade, at 

252 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6, nov. 1905 

least, there are likely to lie bright hoys or girls who would esteem 
it a privilege to gather material for use in school, and they should 
occasionally be given opportunities to do so. The interest of 
the field lessons will be greatly increased when the children can 
be taken to some woodsy by-road where they can gather twigs 
of certain trees and shrubs for their future study, and the later 
study in the schoolroom will take on an added interest from the 
memories of the trip. The wise teacher will be likely to utilize 
as many as possible of these various advantages and will not 
tie herself down to any one method of procedure. 

It is very desirable that each pupil be furnished for his own 
special use a twig of the tree being studied. Where the classes 
are small, having only twenty or twenty-five pupils in each, it 
is a comparatively simple matter to carry out this idea ; but even 
where classes are double this size it is not very difficult to carry 
it out. In any schoolroom where serious nature-study is done — 
and to my. mind no nature-study is serious which does not bring 
the pupil into intimate contact with the real thing — some place 
must be provided for the material to be studied. A table or wide 
shelf or even a window-sill, on the side of the room where the 
sun does not shine brightly through the window, should be set 
apart for the nature-study specimens, which will vary with the 
ever-changing seasons. The twigs may be kept to advantage in 
vases or jars containing water which will keep them in a natural 
condition for several weeks. Perhaps nothing is better for the 
ordinary schoolroom, which has no special facilities, than a dozen 
or more common glass tumblers of good thickness and as plain 
as it is possible to get them. These are inexpensive and serve 
very well as receptacles not only for the twigs but for flowers 
and leafy branches at other seasons of the year. 

Tasting. — Those who have been much with hunrers or other 
woodsmen of long experience must have noticed how often 
various trees and shrubs were determined by means of the sense 
of taste. In the case of many species the taste of the bark is one 
of the most certain characteristics and sometimes furnishes the 
easiest way to distinguish a given tree from others which re- 
semble it. For example, the sweet birch or black birch may at 
once be known among the birches by the sweetly aromatic taste 
of the bark, and the wild cherries may be easily distinguished 
from the birches, the twigs of which they resemble, by the in- 

weed] TREES IN WINTER 253 

tensely bitter taste of the bark. I see no objection to having the 
pupils utilize the sense of taste in this connection, providing" the 
teacher has been careful to warn them against tasting the poison 
ivy and the poison sumac and has led them to recognize these 
plants at sight. 

For young children this tasting of the twigs will be of great 
value in exercising the special sense of taste, and perhaps to a 
less degree it will have a similar value for older children. It 
certainly will give excellent opportunities for careful discrimi- 
nation and will greatly lengthen the list of objects for taste 
images such as that given on page 143 of Professor Halleck's 
" Education of the Central Nervous System," in his admirable 
chapter on " Special Sensory Training." 

It is very generallv stated that the woolliness on the scales of 
the buds of trees and shrubs is for the purpose of keeping the 
miniature leaves and blossoms warm through the winter. Of 
course it is easily realized that such a thin covering would prove 
utterly inadequate in keeping out a freezing temperature from the 
delicate buds. The botanists seem to be generally agreed that 
such coverings are for the protection of the bud, but that this 
protection is primarily brought about by preventing evaporation 
from the tender tissues beneath the bud scales. It has been shown 
that when the ground is frozen so that no watery sap can get 
into vegetable tissues the injury from evaporation of the tissues 
exposed to drying winds may be very severe. Consequently it 
is found that plants generally protect their tender developing 
parts in some way which will prevent undue loss of moisture 
through the winter months. This seems an adequate explanation 
of the woolly structure of many bud scales, of the wax-like cover- 
ing of others, and of the varnish coating of buds like those of the 

Teachers should be careful to select from the mass of conjec- 
tures which pupils will make when asked to suggest explanations 
for facts in nature only those which are founded upon actual 
conditions that may so far as possible be seen by the pupil. An 
analogy may easily be drawn in this case between the wilting of 
a branch cut off and thus separated from its normal supply of 
moisture and the conditions in the frozen ground. Should some 
bright pupil ask how it is with the leaves of the hepatica and the 
trailing arbutus which are exposed through the winter months, 

254 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, now 1905 

draw out from him the fact that these leaves so exposed are old 
ones which have very little moisture in them and which have 
practically finished their services to the plant the previous autumn, 
while the young developing leaves of the hepatica have their 
tender 'tissues protected from evaporation by a thick mass of 
velvety hairs. 

The value of this twig study depends very largely upon the 
extent to which the pupil is led to utilize it as a means of self- 
expression. The wise teacher will see that there is abundant 
opportunity for careful drawings that bring out the special char- 
acteristics of the various trees and shrubs. She will also give 
the pupils practice in accurate and rapid verbal and written de- 
scriptions of these twigs and in this way let them get something 
of the precision of the scientific method. She will also have them 
mount neatly and artistically upon sheets of white or colored 
card-board short lengths of the twigs, labelling - each with the 
name of the tree and the initials of the pupil who does the work. 
All this work will finally be incorporated into a booklet for each 

After the twigs of a number of the trees of the region have 
thus been studied by the pupil the time is ripe for a field excursion 
in which the particular point of view is that of the appearance 
and manner of growth of the trees with whose twigs the pupils 
have thus become familiar. This is an obvious application of the 
primarv law of apperception which must always be kept in mind 
if field excursions for school purposes are to have their greatest 
value. The pupils will be eager to find the trees they are in search 
of and when they have recognized them they will notice with 
interest the manner of growth of the tree, the character of the 
bark of the trunk and the general color effect of the trunk and 
branches. If during the autumn they have visited the same trees 
when the leaves were upon them, they will notice the striking 
differences between the leafy and the leafless branches. 

The winter season also is an excellent time to teach something 
of the economic uses of the various trees. It is at this season 
chiefly that wood-chopping and lumbering operations are taking 
place, and in many localities the actual processes may readily be 
seen by the pupils. The study of any tree should not be con- 
sidered completed until the various ways in which it is of service 
to man have been pointed out. 



Founder and Director of the First School Farm in New York City 

Approaching nth Avenue by way of 52a 1 , 53d, or 54th Streets, 
one not having visited this section for a year is amazed at the 
transformation which has taken place. A most perfect park (De 
Witt Clinton) for a tenement-house neighborhood has sprung up 
as if by magic. Although not fully completed, there is no doubt 
in the mind of the student of sociology that here is a model for 
the world of a park that will meet the needs from the babv to 
the grand-parent. Entering from 53d Street, to the right is a 
playground for girls, to the left a duplicate for boys ; to the west 
an open-air gymnasium with race track for men and boys. Still 
to the west is a beautiful building containing forty baths for both 
sexes. Still keeping on to the west and approaching a little tem- 
porary wooden gate, we are greeted by a bright-eyed bov or girl 
with a cheerful invitation to walk in and visit our farm. Noticing 
a blue ribbon on which is stamped, " Gate Committee," fastened 
to the jacket or dress by a button embellished by the picture of a 
potted plant, we feel that the speaker, although diminutive, has 
authority and we accept the proffered invitation. Entering the 
gate, we seem to have lost touch instantly with the boisterous 
glaring streets with their squalor and dirt and crowds. The cares 
of business or home drop from our shoulders as if by magic. Our 
guide walks a few steps with us to the roomy piazza surrounded 
by flower boxes and flower beds most artistically filled and ar- 
ranged. We are here met by another bright-eyed boy or girl 
with a badge marked " Piazza Committee " and our ears are 
greeted with the cheerful saluation, *' Will you visit our farm- 
house first. Kindly use the horse-shoe knocker." With a wee 
bit of timidity we raise this emblem of good luck and let it fall 
a little heavier than we intended. Instantly the door is opened 
by a boy or girl whose badge is marked " House Committee," and 
we are shown the mysteries of this charming bit of house-keeping. 
The long low-ceilinged room is divided by simple screens, made 
of clothes-horses covered with attractive cloth, which at will may 
divide as many rooms as mav be desired. This dav thev did dutv 



[1, 6, 

NOV. 1905 








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parsons] CHILDREN'S SCHOOL /JAM/ 257 

to partition off kitchen, front hall and parlor. Our guide ex- 
plained that they had had a busy day, cleaning and arranging the 
closets, scrubbing the floors and washing soiled clothes. The 
ironing table was being made ready for the snowy linen waving in 
the breeze and brilliant sunshine, from the clothes-line just high 
enough for such tiny housekeepers, or bleaching on the grass 
which they had planted with their own hands. The tea-kettle 
was singing a merry tune, for the little willing hosts or hostesses 
ser\e tea with sweet hospitality to guests every afternoon. Hav- 
ing entered our names in the guest-book, and viewed the beautiful 
I [udson and Jersey shores from the parlor windows, we are again 
passed from house committee thence to piazza committee and 
finally to garden committee, which latter furnishes us with a 
guide to explain the mysteries of the Farm. Down ' Broad- 
wav," as the center path has been named, amid groups of busy 
little farmers each tending a claim 4x8 feet containing a stalk of 
corn in the center of a row of beets, to the right and left of 
which grow carrots, peas, lettuce, radishes, and onions, here and 
there a teacher holds the attention of an interested group as he 
explains the wonders of growth, soil, etc. Another is having 
children crush a leaf of the corn, to show how much water it con- 
tains ; their amazement grows as they see the drops fall as from 
a wet cloth. Our little guide explains what hard work it has been 
to make the paths so straight and even, and how faithful they 
have had to be, under the guidance of their teacher, to make the 
flower beds look so well. The observation plots of grain, toma- 
toes, pumpkin, strawberries, potatoes, weeds, and the tool-house 
are all visited. Our tour of inspection over, we are escorted 
again to the shady piazza with the full intention of hurrying 
away, but the comfortable rustic chair beside the silver birch table 
and the appearance of a smiling little hostess bearing a tray con- 
taining a refreshing cup of tea, puts our intention to Might ; we 
sip our tea in this quiet, restful, busy little world; the fascinating 
scene holds us in its spell ; Wall Street, politics and strife for- 
gotten ; every moment is filled with quiet interest. 

A little figure comes down " Broadway," rake in one hand, a 
big bunch of radishes in the other, the left eye sightless from a 
Fourth of July accident, his hair seemingly having taken fright 
at the start as it grows all askew, a variety of clothing much too 
small adding: to the caricature meant for a boy. A couple of weeks 


THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6. nov. 1905 

before he had come to the house asking what he should do with 
the blank book he held in his hand. He could neither read nor 
write, had never been to school, and was nine years old. He was 
placed in the Children's Aid School, shorn of his unruly hair, 
clothed, fed ; and now with a winning smile on the unmarred side 
of his face he showed with great pride that he had learned to 
count and read figures up to fifty. Here and there boys and girls 
could be seen lying flat on the path near their plots that they might 
get a closer view of their beloved plants while writing in their 
diaries. At a signal from the teacher books and implements are 
put away, and a sufficient number of little people (one for each 


DeWitt Clinton Park in New Vork City— a rubbish heap in 1902. 

garden path) are formed in line, and at a whistle signal, 
they march rake over shoulder with a military air to the head of 
their section, at a second signal they turn about face to rake the 
paths, other little farmers following to gather up the piles of 
stones or rubbish. When this is finished, again they form in line 
and march to the pump where they wash their rakes and place 
them clean and shining in the tool-house. This ceremony of rak- 
ing seems to excite an esprit de corps, straightens backs and limbs, 
and in quiet happy order the garden is emptied for the night. 

The garden, begun in the rubbish heap in 1902, has been in- 
corporated in this beautiful new park ; and its westerly limit is 
graced bv a beautiful building 200 feet long containing demon- 


stration hall, a model housekeeping apartment, a storage room for 
garden implements, etc. Household industry and shopwork will 
he correlated with the garden. Materials for nature-study will 
be supplied to the schools, or can be viewed in natural sur- 

Four hundred and fifty individual plots are now (July, 1905) 
planted ; and upon the gathering in of the first crop, three hundred 
and sixty will be transferred to new owners for a second crop. 
Counting the housekeepers, the Farm will have given happiness 
and instruction to 1,000 children in a space 250x130 feet, so solv- 
ing the problem of intensive farming successfully done by many 
children in a small piece of ground in the heart of a crowded city. 

What makes this work so different from all other work of its 
kind? First its completeness in touching every side of social life. 
Work is not done for work's sake, but every day shows a com- 
pleted task accomplished, within the scope of the child's ability 
and understanding, and necessary to be done. Some of the 
lessons taught to visitors as well as children are brotherhood, 
cooperation, self-respect, honesty, the power of courtesy and 
justice, economy of time and material, simplicity, the dignity of 
labor, that the task properly performed will bring well-earned 
rest, while the task poorly done is never finished ; every side of 
social life is brought into play. 

But the sun is sinking to rest over the Jersey hills, the strains of 
music from the band on the warship lying at anchor just opposite 
on the bosom of the noble Hudson reach our ears, the little 
farmers have wended their way home, and on all sides are indica- 
tions that the day is melting into night. With reluctance we tear 
ourselves away, our intended fifteen minutes having stretched into 
hours never to be forgotten, joining the group of sincere and 
earnest instructors who, having removed the evidences of the day's 
work, file out the little wooden gate, simply closing it after them, 
leaving this beautiful garden nestling between the fine buildings to 
the right and left of it, with its toothsome vegetables and well 
raked paths to the care of the neighborhood — a trust which for 
three years has not been misplaced. 

Another unique feature of this garden is the noble hearts it has 
found in the officials in every city department through two admin- 
istrations. These men may look stern and unapproachable to the 
uninitiated, but the Children's School Farm has been the key to 


unlock the inner closets containing- a wealth of hidden treasure, 
that treasure of human sympathy that has made this whole work 

As we pass again through the crowded streets to the cars, a 
feeling of exhilaration takes the place of the depression within 
us on our arrival, for we have witnessed a practical object lesson 
of the possibilities of a properly conducted park, with its combina- 
tion of playgrounds, baths, gymnasium, and last but not least its 
School Farm, as a means for the training of children in manliness 
and womanliness and civic pride through the channels of recrea- 
tion, pleasure and instruction. 


We are accustomed to think of the modern form of " temper- 
ance phvsiologv " for elementary schools as an invention of people 
still actively interested in promulgating the gospel of temperance 
instruction for schools. A short time ago in a search for rare 
scientific school-books the writer found in an old book-shop in 
Xew York a copy of " Physiology for Children," by Jane Taylor, 
published in Xew York in 1839. It was evidently somewhat suc- 
cessful in spite of the fact that laws did not then require " tem- 
perance instruction," for five years after its first publication the 
twenty-eight thousand was printed. The twenty-second lesson, 
which occupies three of the ninety pages, instead of eighteen 
which would now be required, is certainly interesting ; and we 
reprint it exactly as -it stands in the original. It reminds us of 
some text-books still on the market and of many others common 
less than twenty years ago. 

M. A. Bigelow. 

"Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Body" 

"How does drinking ardent spirits affect the stomach? 

It deranges the stomach, and changes its natural form. 

How is this seen? 

If we examine the stomach of a person after death who lias been in the 
habit of drinking, we shall see the inside of the stomach feverish and in- 
flamed, and all the little vessels filled with sickly, black blood. 

Do ardent spirits burn the stomach, as they do the mouth and throat? 

Certainly, only much worse, as the hot fiery stuff is kept in the stomach. 
but soon leaves the mouth and throat. If the burning drinks should stop 

262 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6, nov. 1905 

as long in the month and throat, as they do in the stomach, the whole 
month would he in a blister. 

Do they blister and make a hard crust around the stomach? 

Always. The stomach of a drunkard is lined inside, with a hard crusty 
wall, which greatly prevents digestion and brings disease. 

When the stomach is diseased, are other parts of the body affected ? 

Yes, the head aches, the lungs and liver are disordered, and all the body 
must be more or less injured. 

What effect has drinking on the liver? 

It enlarges the liver. In some places the liver of fowls is considered a 
great delicacy. Here the poultry-raisers feed fowls on rum. (mixed with 
meal) to enlarge the liver. The liver of the drinking man soon becomes 
of a frightful, unnatural size. 

What is the natural color of the fluid in the liver? 

Bright yellow, but drinking changes it to a black, thick substance like 

How does drinking affect the brain ? 

It hardens it and shrinks up the arteries. 

Is the heart injured by ardent spirits? 

Drinking excites the heart to a very hurried, unnatural motion. This 
hastens on the natural wear of the system. 

Is the blood injured by drinking? 

Yes, it may be nearly destroyed, for ardent spirits deprive it of its 
bright red color, and thus take out its living principle. The blood of a 
drinker is much blacker than the blood of a temperate person. 

Is there any nourishment in alcohol, or ardent spirits? 

No, Alcohol is not digested in the stomach ; none of it makes chyle. 
But alcohol, burning as it was taken into the mouth, is found in the brain 
and in the blood and in other parts of the system." 


Under this title Professor Beal, of the Michigan Agricultural 
College, writes in the Popular Science Monthly an account of 
adaptations for protection of plants. His examples are interesting, 
but his interpretations often doubtful and they raise questions 
similar to those in the article " Protective Colors of Animals " in 
No. 4, July, of this magazine. Some examples are cited and dis- 
cussed below. 

' Plants retire beneath the surface of the ground and are pro- 
tected from animals." This refers to bulbs, tubers and rootstocks 
in winter. ' They are nearly sure to escape destruction by ani- 
mals/' As examples are named : Solomon's seal, dutchman's 
breeches, May apple, goldenrod, artichoke. These make us feel 
doubtful. What animals can be persuaded to eat the underground 


parts of the first four plants named, even if dug out and placed 
conveniently ; and as for artichokes and potatoes and other plants 
with edible underground parts, the ordinary domesticated pig 
has no difficulty in finding the parts " concealed " beneath the 
soil. In general, it is certain that the rodents are not fooled by 
such devices. At a certain experimental forest plantation in Con- 
necticut it is said that squirrels and other rodents dig up a large 
percentage of the planted nuts and also dig down and gnaw the 
tender roots. In Europe dogs and pigs are trained to hunt 

Similar examples are easy to recall, and we may seriously 
doubt whether rootstocks, tubers and similar underground struc- 
tures have any significance in relation to concealment from ani- 
mals. Were animals guided by sight alone, we might be more 
credulous ; but just as in the question of protective colors, we must 
not forget the highly developed sense of smell against which a 
few inches of soil offers little concealment for an object in which 
animals have special interest. If one must draw some conclusion 
as to the relation between the plant and the animals in such cases, 
it would be more reasonable to say that the rootstocks and tubers 
are concealed beneath the soil in order to preserve them for 
winter use of certain animals which have no difficulty in finding 
them when wanted. Of course this is an absurd suggestion ; but 
until we get more specific and -conclusive evidence, it is no more 
so than the idea that plants concentrated beneath ground are espe- 
cially protected from animals. Does any reader know of any 
plant which animals commonly eat which is demonstrably so 
protected ? 

The next method of protection is by water. : ' Mud turtles, cer- 
tain fishes, water snails, larva? of insects, eat aquatic plants, but 
most other animals are unable to reach them in such places." As 
examples are cited : pond lilies, arrow-head, pickerel-weed, cat- 
tail flag, bulrush and many others. Again one doubts and asks 
the question, What animals unable to reach these aquatic plants 
would eat them even if they were accessible? The reviewer has 
for many summers noticed many of these plants growing along 
the margin of a shallow stream where these plants were accessible 
to the ordinary domesticated herbivores, but even when other 
pasturage was extremely short the aquatic plants were rarely 
touched, even when young and tender. Of course such a plant 

264 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6, nov. 1905 

as wild rice or other grain-plant might be eaten, but what animal 
would eat bulrushes or flags even if they were placed on dry 
ground ? 

Another case of " protection by water " : ' Flowers of many 
species of plants as they project above the surface of the water 
are protected from most unwelcome insects." But what insects? 
Certainly only purely aquatic forms unable to fly; but what right 
have we to consider these " unwelcome " or affecting the flowers 
otherwise than might many others able to fly to the flower. To 
the student of animal life the whole idea of protection of flowers 
in this way appears to be entirely unsupported by reasonable 
interpretation of the known facts. 

" By climbing trees and bushes many vines get beyond the reach 
of cattle." But how about these same plants when they are 
young, tender and attractive to grazing animals? If climbing is 
a device for protecting from animals, surely it is a very imperfect 

"When scattered by bursting pods, the seeds are seldom found 
by animals. . . . The small size and inconspicuous colors make 
it certain that few of them will ever be found and destroyed 
by insects or mice. Plants of this kind are euphorbias or spurges, 
violets, peas, beans, witch hazel, castor-oil plants, balsams and 
many more." ( )n this point a student of animals must comment 
as follows: First, the author omits mention of birds, the great 
seed eaters. Anyone who has ever scattered broadcast small and 
inconspicuous grains, even on a grassy lawn, and then watched 
common domesticated fowls or sparrows search for them will 
doubt whether bursting pods are significant as scatterers of seed 
so as to " hide " it from animals. Again, the insects which would 
destroy seeds are probably those which would find them readily 
in the course of their roving about on the ground. The same 
is true of mice. With regard to the seeds which are scattered 
by bursting fruits, it remains to be investigated whether or not 
they are eaten by animals even when not scattered. At present 
we must remain unconvinced that scattering seeds is important 
in " hiding " them from animals. 

" Seeds mimic pebbles." As examples are mentioned the 
mottled castor-beans not easily found (by human eyes) when 
thrown on the ground. But other even more inconspicuous seeds 
are easily found by birds. It is not simply a cjuestion of deceiv- 


ing the human eve. Still another case can be cited: ( )n the coast 
of the Philippines a certain bush has beans resembling pebbles in 
size, form, color, hardness and with lines "suggesting stratifica- 
tion." " Undoubtedly this mimicy of pebbles has saved many a 
seed from destruction by fish, bird or reptile." Here again we 
must doubt until some one gives us more than imaginary basis 
for faith in this suggestion of mimicry in seeds. We must know 
first whether the seeds are effectively concealed from animals, and 
second, whether in each supposed case animals would actually 
eat the seeds if not mixed " concealed " in pebbles. What ani- 
mals, for example, might be expected to be so foolish as to eat 
the pebble-like seeds from the Philippines. 

The climax is the case of an iris of the far Western States. Its 
ripe seeds are said to rattle in the pods and imitate the rattle 
of the rattlesnake so closely that grazing animals invariably step 
back after hitting the pods, " and thus the green leaves of the 
plants are spared to work for future crop of seeds." Here is a 
difficulty in this case : The ripe seeds rattle only when mature, 
and hence during the long growing season there is no such " pro- 
tection " to the leaves. Also — we ask for information — do the 
leaves actually remain and "work " for a next year's crop of 
seed ? The whole case looks like a splendid flight of a naturalist's 

On the whole, then, the interesting suggestions that plants hide 
from animals do not well stand testing. Real evidence does not 
support most of the cases imagined. Perhaps there are adapta- 
tions for hiding plants from animals, but the evidence is decidedly 
rare, and certainly not convincing. 

This paper has been reviewed in considerable detail because it 
happens to represent a kind of teaching common in our elementary 
schools. We need more critical studies of all supposed relations 
of animals and plants. It is hoped that readers of this magazine 
will contribute notes on their own observations. 

Maurice A. Bigelow. 

266 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, nov. 1905 


[Editorial Note. — As a contribution to the discussion, which this inter- 
esting and important topic deserves, we print below some paragraphs which, 
by permission, we take from a letter by Marion H. Carter, the author of the 
hi ink referred to in the July issue.] 

The book-review containing my statement that " to-day it is almost 
beyond the bounds of human possibility that a child should discover an 
unknown fact in the sciences,'* distinctly stated that the guide is in- 
tended for children of the 4th, 5th and 6th grades, city schools. I used 
the word " children " to refer to ages in those grades and not to " high- 
school pupils," which Mr. Cockerell specifies in saying he does not 
see why they (the high-school pupils) should not be able to gather 
the observations, " acting always in a cooperative manner and under 
direction.'' I used the phrase in the common acceptation of com- 
mon language in connection with the average possibility of the aver- 
age child. And as such I trust it has been read by most readers, 
and that no one has supposed that I referred to the boy genius, or to 
a marvellous teacher acting on a miraculous opportunity. As the 
statement stands, it is, I believe, irrefutable under the law of prob- 

When my critic advances as his own idea of " opportunity " that 
there are at the present moment " hundreds of species of bees and 
wasps nesting in and about New York," I reply that I have lived 
eight years in New York and never within my recollection have I 
seen either a bee or a wasp flying about loose. Yet my opportunities, 
abilities, interests, desires and intentions are in the matter of bees 
and wasps assumably far beyond that of any twelve-year-old, except- 
ing always the boy genius interested in wasps and bees. 

It may be pertinent, and of interest to those for whom the infant- 
discovery fetish is still persistent to state that in nearly twenty years 
as a teacher of all grades (seven as head of the Science Department 
of the New York Training School where over a thousand pupils, 
already high school graduates, passed through my hands) I have 
never known one to make any original discovery; nor one who even 
seemed competent at the time and with the materials at hand to 
make a discovery. 

The sole exception in nearly three thousand former pupils was a 
boy of ten in a suburban school. He was called an " odd genius " 
in school, and he did discover by himself a great number of facts 

1 See discussion by T. D. A. Cockerell in this journal Vol. I, No. 4. July, 
page 163. 


(all without exception previously recorded) and in the full belief 
that he was adding to the store of human knowledge. I gave him 
books and references trying to lead him to master all the known 
facts about the plants and insects he was studying alone. With 
what result? His interest rapidly waned. Toward the end of the 
year he remarked that " there didn't seem to be any use trying to 
discover new things for everything was already discovered." 

It was a clear case of a genuine original interest drained away by 
the over-stimulation of ambition which a previous teacher had 
created; of a bright mind that properly led in the beginning to love 
knowledge for its own sake might have accomplished at twenty the 
immature and abortive desires of ten. 

Though this is an extreme case, I have seen the same in scores of 
other children (to a less degree) and young people whose teachers 
had trained them in the Agassiz method. 

I made my statement in its pedagogical application because experi- 
ence has shown me that if you mean to build solidly for the advance- 
ment of science you must build on what is already known; and the 
only people who have ever advanced it are the people who " know the 
literature." Those unrecognized unappreciated " geniuses," cold- 
shouldered by an envious world, who have to induce nice, rich, old 
ladies to build them private laboratories that they may give unheard 
of discoveries to a startled public usually end just there — with un- 
heard of discoveries. As vide Keely, of motor fame, and many others 
now living. 

It is a plain cold provable fact that the man who does not, or will 
not, or cannot find out what others have done on a subject before he 
goes plunging ahead on his own account — who does not " know his 
literature " down to bed rock — has hardly the ghost of a chance of 
making his standing in the scientific world of today. 

Of course if your aim is merely to produce a gilded science youth, 
a dilettante and a loiterer, say so and be done with it. But if you 
are training minds for the advancement of science then you must 
put them on the main road from the beginning. And I contend 
that a youth whose observation has been trained as part and parcel 
of the habit of verifying the work of others has at twenty a poten- 
tiality for ultimate success far and away beyond that of a youth who 
has been trained to depend on his own discoveries, even though some 
by a happy chance may be new. 

The sole value that can be urg^ed in behalf of the discover- for-vour- 
self method, which is the Agassiz method, is that it develops self- 
dependence and at a fearsome price. It is the method for the few 
who are able to survive it. not for the many: for the child of the 
visual mind type, not for the oral or motor. 

268 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, now 1905 

I remember some years ago meeting a pupil of Agassiz's (a man 
now noted) who said to me " I gave up teaching by the Agassiz 
method when I began my own work because it was too expensive for 
average men. The world hears of the brilliant ones who succeeded 
under Agassiz — they would have succeeded anywhere. It never heard 
of the scores of average men who fell by the way-side — the men who 
needed to feel ground under their feet, to know that they know as 
they go along. I have seen good fellows in my class give up in 
despair with Agassiz — they did well everywhere else." 

What, in the long run, is self-dependence worth that is bought at 
the price of arrogance on the one hand or despair on the other? 
What, in the long run, will it do for the advancement of science? 
Not enough to make the game worth the candle. 

But the touch-stone of the whole problem is this: Scientific knowl- 
edge is corroborable experience. There are many kinds of experi- 
ence, but science cuts out for her own that which is corroborable, 
and that element is the basis, the inalienable essence of a " scientific 
fact." If I say " I see a horse," it is supposable on the instant that 
you and that every other person with eyesight can see that horse 
by looking where I see him. But, if you or they look and do not 
see my horse, then my seeing is an hallucination. 

Hence it follows that your pedagogical procedure is laid out with 
almost mathematical precision : You must work for the deepest 
possible sense and feeling of corroboration if you mean to build a 
solid and advancing mind. Then, and then only, will you have 
created a self-dependence as a sense of knowing that I know on 
which every vital nature will build its own original contribution 
with assured touch when the time is ripe. 

I ought perhaps to add that in my early years I taught by the 
Agassiz method exclusively. One day I awoke to the fact that 
my poor and average pupils had dropped out of the running while the 
best bad but the flimsiest mental stuff in them. After that for years 
I experimented to find a method which should build for the ulti- 
mates, not for the hour, and " Nature-Study with Common Things " 
was the result — tried with a thousand pupils — in one small field. 


Special Method in Elementary Science. By Charles A. McMurry. 
New York: Macmillan. 1904. Pp. 275. 75 cents. 

This well known writer on methods has come forward in the 
present volume to help lighten the burden of the teacher of nature- 
studv or " elementarv science." Professor McMurrv, in common with 


not a few other interested observers of the nature-study movement, 
has been impressed apparently with the flabby, anemic, catch-as- 
catch-can affair which passes for nature-study in some schools, for 
he says, " the freedom and confidence with which teachers, high and 
low, recommend observational and experimental science, and the 
modesty and scarcity of those who succeed in such teaching, almost 
suggests the old fable of the belling of the cat." 

In the chapter on ' Method in Science Lessons ' the teacher will 
find valuable suggestions which should aid him very materially in 
revivifying and strengthening his nature-work. The coordination of 
nature-study with other subjects such as geography, history, manual 
training, etc., is advocated. One of the author's main objects is to 
select and arrange a suitable basis for bringing the child into con- 
tact with the practical problems of modern life. In his own words, 
" the materials for investigation spring better out of the contact with 
life's needs and necessities, than from the artificial conditions of the 

He attempts at the outset to minimize the confusion of the teacher 
placed amidst " the endless multitude and diversity of objects and 
forces," by citing him, as the rational source of material, to the re- 
latively few points in the child's environment " where his interest 
and activity are strongly concentrated." Thus, he shows how a few 
centers such as the home, the local town, the school, the surround- 
ing wild nature, and a few of the primary human occupations will 
supply all necessary data and material for nature-study or a simpli- 
fied course in science. In a succeeding chapter a number of valuable 
suggestions are offered for planning a course of study for the eight 
grades, based upon these natural centers of the child's environment, 
and several practical lessons are appended for illustrations. 

One greets with satisfaction the idea maintained throughout the 
book that " the course of study for the eight grades must reveal a 
rational, well-matured plan. ..." About a fourth of the volume. 
indeed, is given up to laying out such a course of study. Not only 
are specific materials suggested and discussed, but the author en- 
deavors so to arrange them that they will supplement the pupil's 
other studies. To the outline of the work for each grade is added 
a list of references so that the teacher may find adequate informa- 
tion about the material specified. This is still farther supplemented 
in the final chapter by a very full, classified list of books which are 
valuable aids in science teaching. 

Michael F. Guyer. 

University of Cincinnati. 

270 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [1, 6. now 1905 

First Book of Farming. By Charles L. Goodrich. New York: 
Doubleday, Page. 1905. Pp. 259, 86 Figs. $1.00. 
This is the golden age of agriculture from the intellectual, if not 
financial, point of view. Books on practical agriculture and books on 
the aesthetics of agriculture have quite revolutionized our attitude 
toward farming — " the business of getting a living from the soil " — 
and today as never before the very name of farmer is quite as con- 
sistent with our ideas of culture and education as those of lawyer, 
doctor and minister, which have long been accepted as indicating 
learning. No wonder then that the author of this book is proud that 
he is a farmer. On the title-page we read, " Charles L. Goodrich, 
Farmer"; and in small type following is mentioned the position at 
Hampton Institute which Professor Goodrich long held with great 
credit to himself and to the institution. 

The " First Book of Farming " aims to assist teachers, farmers and 
students in their search for the fundamental truths and principles of 
farming. Considering plants " the central and ill-important factor 
or agent," the author devotes Part I to the general principles under- 
lving plant culture. After a chapter containing a brief introduction 
to plants, the root is taken up as the most important part of the 
plant and then follow in logical order : soils, water, temperature, plant 
food in the soil, seeds and their planting, preparing the soil, leaves, 
stem and flowers. All these topics are treated in a very simple, direct 
style, and the numerous illustrations and suggested experiments 
make the way to a correct understanding of the leading principles 
of agriculture easy for any average intelligent reader. 

Part II deals with soil fertility as affected by farm practices, first 
explaining the nature of a fertile soil and then its relation to water, 
cultivation, manures and fertilizers, rotation of crops and drainage. 
Under all these topics the philosophy of the best practice and prac- 
tical directions are clearly presented. 

As will be seen from the above outlines, the book is limited to 
the plant side of farming, and there is no special reference to the 
useful and injurious animals of the farm. However, plants come be- 
fore animals, and these latter naturally belong in a " Second Book of 

The most inviting feature of this book is the simple and direct-to- 
the-point style. Instead of the complex narrative in which the lead- 
ing facts are largely hidden, everywhere in the book the problem 
and its answers stand prominent in concise sentences. Here we can 
get the concentrated facts minus the opinions and theories which 
only confuse the beginner. For the general reader there is no better 
book, to teachers of elementary agriculture and school gardening it 
will be valuable for suggestions, and for the pupils of upper gram- 


mar and first high-school years the book will be a strong competitor 
for the existing books intended for school use primarily. 

M. A. B. 

The Nature-Study Course. By John Dearness. Toronto : Copp, 
Clark Co. 1905. Pp. 206, ill. 60 cents. 

The full title of the little guide from the pen of the vice-principal 
of the normal school at London, Ontario, is " The Nature-Study 
Course, with Suggestions for Teaching." It is based on notes of 
lectures to teachers-in-training. 

The first thirty-three pages are concerned with the aim and method 
of nature-study, including topics such as : nature-study and science, 
object lessons, value and aims, modes of expression, correlations, 
selection of topics, and arranging courses of study. This part of the 
book is of general interest and will well repay reading by all who 
are seriously interested in the educational problems of nature-study. 

The greater part of the book is filled with suggestions for teaching 
the course adopted for the public schools of Ontario and Manitoba. 
This part of the book contains an abundance of information, notes 
on methods, references and altogether it constitutes a very practical 
series of lessons for teachers-in-training. One feature not common 
in nature-study guides is a series of very practical lessons on the 
stars and constellations. We have drifted too far away from the 
old-time popular astronomy and this suggestion for a turn backward 
will be welcomed by many. 

M. A. B. 

Cornell Nature-Study Leaflets. Albany: Lyon Co. 1904. Pp. 607, 
382 figs. $1.25. 

This is a selection, with revision, from the Teachers' Leaflets, 
Home Nature-Study Lessons, Junior Naturalist Monthly and other 
publications issued from the College of Agriculture of Cornell Uni- 
versity in the years 1896 to 1904. Altogether there are eighty leaflets 
in the collection. Forty-nine of these are " designed to aid the 
teacher with subject-matter, to indicate the point of view, and to 
suggest a method of presentation " ; and the others are children's 
leaflets, " designed to open the eyes of the young." Comment on these 
world-famous leaflets is unnecessary here, and this notice is placed 
under book-reviews in order to call attention to the fact that the 
leaflets which have for some time been out of print are again 
available. M. A. B. 

272 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, now 1905 

School Gardens for California Schools. By B. M. Davis. State 
Normal School at Chico, Calif. 1905. Pp. 79, paper. 50 cents. 

This is a manual for teachers. An introduction of ten pages deals 
with history of school-gardens and educational value. Recognizing 
that to grow plants requires an intelligent knowledge of the needs 
of a plant, the relations to soil, fertilizers, temperature and plant enemies 
are next presented. Then follow condensed notes on plant propaga- 
tion, preparation of soil, cultivation, irrigation, tools, garden plans, 
planting calendars, time required, teacher's plan-book, pupils' records, 
and many other little points which beginners with school-gardens 
want. The suggestions on correlation are good. The. final pages 
contain well-selected lists of books and bulletins for schools and refer- 
ences on the common insects of California. While the pamphlet is 
directly valuable for teachers on the Pacific Coast, its usefulness is 
by no means limited to that region. 

M. A. B. 



30K Mellen St., Cambridge, Mass. 


Agriculture in the schools. Exper. Sta. Record. Abstract in Science. 
22 : 505-6. O. 20, '05. 

Butler, M. L. A new kind of garden school. Garden Mag. 2:132-4. 

0. '05. 

McClure, D. E. Phases of modern education. II. Education of country 
children for the farm. Education. 26:65-70. O. '05. 



Long, W. J. The question of animal reason. Harper. 11 1 : 588-94. S. 


Must "protective coloration" go? Country Cal. 1:336. Ag. '05. 
(Criticism of Burroughs' article in Atlantic for June.) 

Ward, H. B. The relation of animals to disease. Science. 22 : 193-203. 
Ag. 18. '05. 

Baker, C. F. Eleas and disease. Am. Nat. 39 : 507-8. July, '05. 

Crafts, H. A. Breeding beneficial insects. Harper. 111:778-82. O. '05. 

Howard, L. 0. Breeding beneficial insects. Science. 22 : 467-8. O. 13, 
'05. (Correction of article in Harper for October.) 


Lyon, D. E. Honey-bees that do not sting. C'try Life in Amer. 8: 520- 
2. S. "05. 

McCook, H. C. Agricultural ants. Harper. 111:292-97. July, '05. 

Needham, H. B. War on the most dangerous of wild animals. Country 
Cal. S. '05. 
Other Invertebrates 

Shannon, H. J. Life along the seashore. St. Nich. 32 : 936-8. Ag. 
'05. (Crabs, clams, etc.) 
Lower Vertebrates 

Armstrong, W. N. The terrapin of the Chesapeake. Southern Work- 
man. 34 : 396-400. Jl. '05. 

Brownell, L. W. A heron colony in the north. Country Cal. 1 : 360-2. 
Ag. '05. 

Dutcher, W. The tree sparrow. Audubon Educ. Leaflet No. 16. Bird- 
Lore. 7:253-6. S. '05. The yellow-billed cuckoo. Leaflet No. 15. 7: 
219-22. Jl. '05 • 

Finley, W. L. Photographing a flicker family. St. Nich. 32 : 802-5. 
Jl. '05. Warbler Ways. 32 : 916-19. Ag. '05. 

Fiske, G. W., Jr. Olive-sided flycatcher. Bird-Lore. 7 : 195-6- Jl. '05. 

Forbush, E. H. The decrease of certain birds and its cause, with sug- 
gestions for bird protection. Mass. St. Board of Agric. 52d Report. Pp. 
429-543. (Capital paper on economic relations of birds.) How to attract 
the winter birds about our homes. Bird-Lore. 7:233-6. S. '05. 

Huntington, D. W. The grouse of the desert. Ind. 59 : 859-62. O. 12, 


Sharp, D. L. The moulting of the birds. Country Cal. 1 : 347-9. Ag. 


Hawthorne, J. The biggest game of all. (Hunting elephants.) Cosmo. 
39 : 229-38. Jl. '05. 

Johnson, W. A. Elk — the last of the big-game herds. C'try Life in 
Amer. 8:506-11. S. '05. 

Lillie, G. W. Restoring bison to the western plains. Cosmo. 39 : 651-4. 
O. '05. 

Needham, H. B. War on the most dangerous of wild animals. Country 
Cal. S. '05. 

Whitby, J. E. Four-footed policemen. Cosmo. 39:515-18. S. '05. 
(Use of dogs on police force in Belgium.) 

Whitney, C. The trail of the tiger. Outing. 47 : S7~7 2 - O. '05. 

Holder, C. F. Strange plants of the hottest place in the United States. 
Country Cal. 1 : 350-1. Ag. '05. (Cacti, etc.) 

Reed, H. S. A brief history of ecological work in botany. Plant World. 
7 : 163-70. Jl. '05. 

Stevens, F. L. The science of plant pathology. Pop. Sci. Mo. 67 : 
399-08. S. 05. 

274 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, nov. 1905 

Wild Flower Preservation Society. Announcement. Plant World. 

8 : 154- Je. '05. 

Squires, W. A. The rise and fall of the tumbleweeds. Araer. Botanist. 

9 :q-ii. Jl. '05. 
Trees and Forestry 

Berry, E. J. The ancestors of the big trees. Pop. Sci. Mo. 67 : 465-74. 
S. '05. 

Chapman, A. A day with a forest ranger. Outlook. 81 : 489-95. O. 28, 


Editorials. Forest reserves in Idaho. Forest reserves in Utah. Out- 
look. 81 : 344. O. 14, '05. New regulations for forest reserves. 81 : 103. 
S. 16, '05. Preservation of White Mountain forests. 81 : 9-10. S. 2, '05. 

Foster, E. W. Our friends, the trees. St. Nich. 32:812-5. Jl. '05. 
(Illustrations of tree, leaf, bark, fruit of common fruit and nut-bearing 

McAdam, T. The culture of evergreens. Garden Mag. 2:10-11. Ag. 


Neilson, A. Forestry in the public schools. For. and Irr. 11:435-7. 

S. '05. 

Rogers, J. E. How to know the tree families in one vacation. C'try 
Life in Amer. 8:350-1. Jl. '05. 
Flowerless Plants 

Arthur, J. C. Mushrooms and toadstools. Country Cal. S. '05. 

Atkinson, G. F. Outlines for the observation of some of the more com- 
mon fungi. Plant World. 8 : 215-22. S. '05. 

Ferguson, J. The funny fungus family. St. Nich. 32 : 840-3. Jl. '05. 


Bache, R. What the plant bureau is doing for the farmer. Outing. 46 : 
713-20. S. '05. 

Craig, W. N. Hardy bulbs for fall planting. Garden Mag. 2:117-21. 
O. '05. 

Egan, W. C. Hardy perennials for fall planting. Garden Mag. 2: 114-5. 
O. '05. 

Fletcher, S. W. How to improve the texture of the soil. C'try Life in 
Amer. 8 : 532-3. S. '05. 

Fullerton, E. L. Root crops for the home garden. C'try Life in Amer. 
8:332-5. Jl. '05. 

Hall, A. D. Recent developments in agricultural science. Science. 22 : 
449-464. O. 13, '05. 

Hicks, H. and others. Fall planting of trees, shrubs, fruits and vines. 
Garden Mag. 2: 106-13. O. '05. 

Kinney, A. S. Outline of a course in plant culture. Plant World. 8 : 
234-8. S. '05. 

Loring, B. Spinach and other greens. Garden Mag. 1 : 270-2. Jl. '05. 

McKee, S. S. A hundred thousand bulbs for school children. Garden 
Mag. 2:80-82. S. '05. 

Pendleton, W. E. Bulbs for window gardens. Garden Mag. 2 : 135. 
O. '05. 


Scott, J. T. How to have flowers earlier next spring. Garden Mag. 2: 
58-60. S. '05. 


[Editorial Note. — Readers are requested to send brief notes, signed 
with name or initials, for this department. Or please call attention to 
new articles deserving brief abstracts.] 

Drumming of the Grouse. How and why the ruffed grouse drums 
has long been a mystery to naturalists. The most ancient and most 
generally accepted theory is that the drumming results from the bird 
pounding on a log. But this has long been doubted because the birds 
may drum standing on sodden and mossy logs, on rocks, or on the 
ground, and moreover the best observers have stated that the birds 
stand so erect that the wings do not touch the object on which the 
bird stands. 

Professor Hodge has been raising grouse in captivity and has suc- 
ceeded in taming them so that he has been able to observe the drum- 
ming birds at close range and to take dozens of snap-shot photo- 
graphs. He proves beyond the shadow of a doubt that the drum- 
ming is made by striking the wings against the feather cushions of the 
sides. Moreover, the fact that a young male drummed first and 
afterwards only when the hens were removed, proved it to be a mate 
call. The bird had no opportunity to learn from older birds and 
therefore the reaction is inherited, not learned by imitation. This 
and many other interesting points, with photographs, are given in 
The Country Calendar for November. 

Butterflies at Rest. Since I wrote the article " Do birds eat butter- 
flies " (No. 5, September) I have been watching butterflies at rest. 
I find Pieris resting on large leaves in conspicuous positions. The 
white contrasting with the green, they are very easy to see and should 
be seen by the birds, one would think. Are they perhaps not eaten 
much? Of course the position, while exposed, is one in which the 
bird could not well perch to take the insect without alarming it; and 
it would perhaps be difficult to take it when the bird is on the wing. 
Also, I find Pyrgus resting on plants, looking cmite conspicuous. — at 
least to me. 

These remarks are made with the idea that perhaps The Review 
might collect all observations, however trivial, on the subject of the 
relation of birds and butterflies and some day edit the result for the 
readers. Something valuable might be accomplished thus. 


276 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW [i, 6, nov. 1905 

Birds Eating Butterflies. In regard to the matter of birds eating 
butterflies mentioned in the September issue it might be well to put 
my experience on record. In 1898 I spent two weeks at a country 
place upon the veranda of which a phoebe-bird had built her nest in 
plain view. At the time of my visit there were four fledgelings in the 
nest and these the mother bird fed principally on butterflies. This is 
not a mere matter of recollection for I wrote down the occurrence at 
the time. What made the incident especially striking was the fact 
that the old bird did not quite kill the butterflies nor remove their 
wings and as a result we were often treated to the sight of a young 
bird holding a butterfly whose wings were still waving desperately. 
After the butterflies had ceased to struggle, the young birds often 
sat for some time with a butterfly's wing projecting from each side of 
its bill. The butterflies were the common yellow and white ones so 
common over grass fields, cabbage patches and along roadsides. If 
one were to try to decide whether this is a common occurrence, I 
think it would be well to watch only certain birds such as the fly- 
catchers and their kin. To me it seems likely that strictly insectivo- 
rous birds may capture a large number of butterflies each season. 


Vitality of Seeds. Twenty-five years ago Professor Beal, of Mich- 
igan Agricultural College, placed seeds of twenty-three kinds of plants 
in moist sand in uncorked bottles planted, mouth downward, twenty 
inches deep in a sandy hillside. Some seeds of each kind were tested 
quinquennially. All acorns were dead in two years. Eight kinds 
failed to germinate at the end of five years and thereafter. Eleven 
germinated after twenty-five years. Among them were black mus- 
tard, shepherd's purse, evening primrose, curled dock and common 
purslane. — Botanical Gazette. 

Cock-spur Thorn. Dr. Leavitt, writing in the October Plant 
World, states that the great majority of the thorns of Crataegus Crus- 
galli point downward or curve downward. His interpretation of the 
usefulness of these peculiar modified branches is that they are de- 
fences against animals — ox and deer families — which now or once fed 
upon the leaves. The downward-pointing thorns are supposed to be 
especially valuable because these animals commonly seize branches 
from beneath. This explanation seems almost too perfect to be true. 
No doubt the trees are well defended by the thorns as arranged, but 
some biologists will doubt whether the relation between the plants and 
the animals is intimate enough to be of great moment in preserving 
the thorn-tree in the struggle for existence in the past. An explana- 
tion which appeals to many is that the thorns arose originally as a 


mutation, that is, a sudden variation, and without any regard to their 
possible use in defence. This latter on this view is secondary and 
incidental and the species might have been preserved, as have many 
others, without such defences. This is cpiite a different thing from 
regarding the thorns as of great importance in the struggle for exist- 

Gypsy Moth Parasites. The law regulating the importation of new 
species of animals has been temporarily suspended by the Secretary of 
Agriculture in the case of specimens for study and experiments by the 
Superintendent for Suppressing the Gypsy and Brown Tail Moths. 
Another attempt will be made to find a parasite able to control these 
exceedingly noxious insects. 


What Kills the Birds. E. H. Forbush. Ornithologist of the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Agriculture, writes in a special report that 
the principal natural enemies of birds are cats, foxes, crows, English 
sparrows, hawks, jays, owls, weasels, skunks, snakes, pheasants, 
minks, orioles, chipmunks, raccoons and the elements. 

The detructiveness of the cat is noted not only by the greatest num- 
ber of observers, but, with remarkable unanimity; nearly all who re- 
port on the natural enemies of birds place the cat first among de- 
structive animals. Cats in good hunting grounds average at least fifty 
birds, each, a year. Cats are also more destructive than other 
animals, because so much more abundant. A friend who was raising 
pheasants was obliged to kill over two hundred cats in a few years. 
Game birds suffer much from the cat, but the smaller birds suffer 
more. Cats are far more destructive to birds than foxes are, for cats 
climb trees and take the young out of the nests. They easily catch 
young birds which are just learning to fly. They frequently catch the 
adult birds on the ground when they are feeding, or when they are 
drinking or bathing. 

The most harmful characteristic of the cat is its tendency to revert 
to a wild state. If a dog loses its master and can not find its home, 
it seeks to form the acquaintance of a new master ; but the cat is 
quite as likely to take to the woods and run wild. It then becomes 
a terror to all living things which it can master. Whoever turns out 
or abandons a cat or a kitten in the country has much to answer for. 

Proofs of the destructiveness of cats are not wanting. They were 
introduced on Sable Island, off the coast of Xova Scotia, about 1880. 
They ran wild, and, multiplying rapidly, exterminated the rabbits 
which had been in possession of the island for half a century. 

On Aldabra island, about two hundred miles northwest of Mada- 
gascar, cats are common. The}' have decimated the birds, and have ex- 

278 THE NATURE-STUDY REVIEW 1% 6, now 1905 

terminated a flightless rail, an interesting bird peculiar to this group 
of islands. Cats are also numerous on Glorioso island, and, as a con- 
sequence, birds are even less common on this island than Aldabra. 

Fifty-eight reports received by this Board name the fox as one of 
the most injurious enemies of birds, thus placing it next to the cat in 

Many observers have found that the foxes kill many ground birds, 
such as grouse and quail, when there is snow in winter. It is well 
known that foxes will follow a man's track, and several students of 
birds have noted that foxes follow them and take the eggs and 
nestlings from nests which they stopped to examine. 


New Law Protecting Birds. A New York law taking effect in June, 
1905, forbids unnaturalized foreigners to' carry firearms and dangerous 
weapons. Under this law the slaughter of song and insectivorous birds, 
which has been carried to such an alarming extent by Italians, Poles and 
other foreigners, may be almost wholly stopped, if good citizens will make 
the proper reports to the civil authorities. 

Hartford School-Gardens. The boys and girls who had gardens during 
the past year at the School of Horticulture, Hartford, Conn., held an 
Agricultural Fair. One interesting feature was a spading and hoeing con- 
test, and prizes were awarded to those who best handled the tools and 
accomplished the required amount of work in the best manner and shortest 
time. Prizes were awarded also for the best kept gardens and the best 
arranged display of produce. 

Rural Education. The New York Legislature of last winter voted 
$10,000 for lectures on this subject at the Farmers' Institutes to be held 
this winter. 

Dr. E. F. Bigelow, of St. Nicholgifa is giving during this winter a series 
of lectures to teachers' associations in California. 

Protecting Song Birds. The laws against killing song birds are being 
enforced within a radius of fifty miles of New York City. During Octo- 
ber and November many arrests, mostly of Italians, were made by agents 
of the New York Zoological Society and the League of American Sports- 

Automatic Guns. The New York Association for Protection of Fish 
and Game has unanimously passed (Oct. 13) a resolution and petition to 
the legislature protesting against the introduction of the slaughtering 
machines known as automatic shot-guns. A new law in the Province of 
Alberta prohibits all machine guns for hunting birds. 

American Bison Society. This association has been organized for pro- 
tection and increase of bison. Dr. Hornaday, Director of the New York 
Zoological Park, is president. 


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